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高中英语语法复习之之动词的时态和语态


高考英语语法复习之动词的时态和语态
A.动词的时态
时态是一种动词形式,它是“时”和“体”的组合。 “时”有现在、过去、将来、过去将来之分; “体” 有一般、进行、完成、完成进行之别。动词的动作可发生于四种不同的时间,表现四种不同的“体” ,每 一种“时+体”就构成一种时态。所以英语动词共有(4×4)十六种时态,高中英语要求掌握的只有八种: 一般现在时,一般过

去时,一般将来时,现在进行时,过去进行时,现在完成时,过去完成时,过去将来 时。另外现在完成进行时,过去完成进行时和将来完成时也比较常用。

B.基本的时态
一、 一般现在时
1.概念:经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。 2.时间状语: Always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month?), once a week(day, year, month?), on Sundays, 3.基本结构:动词 原形 (如主语为第三人称单数,动词上要改为第三人称单数形式) 4.否定形式: 主语+am/is/are +not+其他; 此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词, 则在其前加 don't, 如主语 为第三人称单数,则用 doesn't,同时还原行为动词。 5.一般疑问句:把 be 动词放于句首;用助动词 do 提问,如主语为第三人称单数,则用 does,同时, 还原行为动词。 6.例句:. It seldom snows here.

二、 一般过去时
1.概念:过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。 2.时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week, last(year, night, month?), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc. 3.基本结构:be 动词;行为动词的过去式 4.否定形式:主语+was/were +not+其他;在行为动词前加 didn't,同时还原行为动词。 5.一般疑问句:was 或 were 放于句首;用助动词 do 的过去式 did 提问,同时还原行为动词。 6.例句:She often came to help us in those days.

三、 现在进行时
1.概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

2.时间状语:Now, at this time, days, etc. look. listen 3.基本结构:主语+be +doing +其他 4.否定形式:主语+be +not +doing+其他 5.一般疑问句:把 be 动词放于句首。 6.例句: How are you feeling today?

四、 过去进行时
1.概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。 2.时间状语: at this time yesterday, at that time 或以 when 引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语等。 3.基本结构 主语+was/were +doing +其他 4.否定形式:主语+was/were + not +doing+其他 5.一般疑问句:把 was 或 were 放于句首。(第一个字母大写) 6.例句:At that time she was working in a PLA unit. When he came in, I was reading a newspaper.

五、 现在完成时
1.概念:过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的 动作或状态。 2.时间状语:yet,already,just,never,ever,so far,by now,since+时间点,for+时间段,recently, lately, in the past few years, etc. 3.基本结构:主语+have/has +p.p(过去分词)+其他 4.否定形式:主语+have/has + not +p.p(过去分词)+其他 5.一般疑问句:have 或 has 6.例句:I've written an article.

六、 过去完成时
1.概念:以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为, 即“过去的过去” 。 2.时间状语:Before, by the end of last year (term, month?), etc. 3.基本结构:主语+had + p.p(过去分词)+其他 4.否定形式:主语+had + not +p.p(过去分词)+其他 5.一般疑问句:had 放于句首。 6.例句:As soon as we got to the station, the train had left.

基本结构:主语+had+p.p(过去分词)+其他 ①肯定句:主语+ had+p.p(过去分词)+其他 ②否定句:主语+ had+ not+p.p(过去分词)+其他 ③一般疑问句:Had+主语+p.p(过去分词)+其他 ④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

七、 一般将来时
1.概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。 2.时间状语:Tomorrow, next day(week, month, year?),soon, in a few minutes, by?,the day after tomorrow, etc. 3.基本结构:主语+am/is/are +going to + do+其他;主语+will/shall + do+其他 4.否定形式:主语+am/is/are not going to do ;主语+will/shall not do+其他 5.一般疑问句:be 放于句首;will/shall 提到句首。 6.例句:They are going to have a competition with us in studies.

八、过去将来时
1.概念:一般过去将来时表示从过去的某一时间来看将来要发生的动作或存在的状态。过去将来时常 用于宾语从句和间接引语中。 一般过去将来时的出发点是过去,即从过去某一时刻看以后要发生的动作 或状态。 2.基本结构:主语+be(was,were)going to+动词原形+其它 主语+would(should would)+动词原形+其它 3.否定句: 主语+be(was,we)或:主语+would(should 或 could)not+动词原形 +其它 4.疑问句: Be(Was,Were)+主语+going to+动词原形+其它 Would(Should could)+主语+动词原形+其它

直接引语变间接引语
一、人称 人称变化可以遵循如下顺口溜“一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新” 。 “一随主”是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句 中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化,如: She said. “My brother wants to go with me.” →She said her brother wanted to go with her. “二随宾”是指直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称,或被第二人“你”所修

饰,从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语,也可以用第一人称,如: He said to Kate,"How is your sister now?" →He asked Kate how her sister was then. “第三人称不更新”是指直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称 所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化,如: Mr. Smith said, “Jack is a good worker.”→Mr. Smith said Jack was a good worker. 二、时态 直接引语在改为间接引语时,时态需要做相应的调整。其基本法则和我们刚刚学过的宾语从句的时态 变化一致,也就是说从句时态要和主句时态一致。如果从句是过去时,主句要向后退一格时态,变成一种 过去时。 1. She said. “I have lost a pen.” →She said she had lost a pen. (现在完成 变 过去完成) 2. She said. “We hope so.” →She said they hoped so. (一般现在 变一般过去) 3. She said,“He will go to see his friend。 ” →She said he would go to see his friend. (一般将来 → 过去将来) 但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。 ①直接引语是客观真理。如: “The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth”, the teacher → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。 ②直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如: Jack said, “John, where were you going when I met you in the street?” →Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street. ③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如: Xiao Wang said, “I was born on April 20, 1980.” →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980. ④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如: He said, “I get up at six every morning.” →He said he gets up at six every morning. ⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to,had better,used to)和已经是 过去时的形式时, (例:could, should, would, might)不再变。如: Peter said, “You had better come have today.” →Peter said I had better go there that day. told me.

三、其它 直接引语变间接引语,具有指代性的词也需要变化,一些具体变化如下: 指示代词 表示时间的词 this ---that now --- then these --- those today --- that day

this week(month, etc.) --- that week (month, etc.) yesterday --- the day before last week(month) --- the week(month) before three days(a year)ago --- three days(a year)before tomorrow --- the next (following ) day next week(month)---the next(following)week(month) 表地点的词 动词 四、句型: ①直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由 that 引导的宾语从句。如: She said, “Our bus will arrive in five minutes.” →She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes. ②直接引语如果是反意疑问句,选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为由 whether 或 if 引导的宾 语 从句.如: He said, “Can you swim, John?” →He asked John if he could swim. “You have finished the homework, haven‘t you?” my mother asked. → My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework. “Do you go to school by bus or by bike?” → He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike. ③直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必 须用陈述句语序) 。 She asked me, “When do they have their dinner?” → She asked me when they had their dinner. ④直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为“tell(ask, order, beg 等)sb.(not) to do sth.”句型。 如: “Don’t make any noise,” she said to the children. here --- there bring --- take come --- go

→ She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. “Bring me a cup of tea, please,” said she. → She asked him to bring her a cup of tea. ⑤直接引语如果是以“Let‘s”开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用“suggest +动名词(或从 句) 。 ”如: He said, “ Let’s go to the film.” → He suggested going to the film. → He suggested that they should go to see the film.

C.一般过去时和现在完成时的用法区别
1.一般过去时所表示的一个或一段过去时间是可以具体确定的,与其他时间没有牵连。它所表示的 事情纯属过去与现在情况没有联系。现在完成时表示的事情发生在不能具体指出的现在以前的过去产某个 或某段时间。它所表示的事情与现在情况有关系,是过去事情在现在产生的结果或对现在的影响。 2.一般过去时常用的状语有 yesterday, last night, two days (months, weeks) ago, at that time 等;现在完 成时常用的状语有 already, just (刚刚), yet, never, before 等;表示从过去延续到现在并包括现在在内的一段 时间状语有: today, now, lately, recently, in the last / past few days / years (在过去的这几天/年里)。 since then, up to now, so far (至今)等。 3.比较下面几组句子,体会两种时态的不同: He served in the army from 1952 to 1954. (这是过去的一件事) He has served in the army for 5 years. (现在他仍在军中服役,他是个军人) He wrote many plays when he was at college. 他上大学的时候,写了许多剧本。 (写剧本是他过去的事) I saw Hero last year. 去年我看了《英雄》这部电影。 (看《英雄》的时间是去年,与现在时间无关) I have seen Hero before. 我以前看过《英雄》这部电影。 (强调现在还知道这部电影的内容。以前看过, 但“以前”是表示一个与现在有联系的过去时间,而不是一个确定的与现在无关的过去时间。 )

D.一般过去时和过去完成时的用法区别
1.一般过去时是对现在说话时刻而言的,过去完成时则是对过去某一时刻而言。两种时态建立的时 间参照点不同,对过去完成时来说,这一个时间参照点十分重要,它是过去完成概念赖以建立的基础,也 是和一般过去时相区别的重要标准。 2.过去完成时的时间状语常用 by 和 before 引导的短语表示, 如 by that time, by the end of…, before 2000, by the time +句子等。

E.过去完成时与现在完成时的用法区别
1. 两种时态都常与一段时间和状语连用, 但现在完成时表示的是延续到现在或同现在有关的动作 (句 中不可有表示过去特定时间的状语) ,而过去完成时表示的是在过去某时之前已经完成或延续到过去某时 的劝作(句中有表示过去特定时间的状语) 。 2.比较下面的说法 She had been ill for a week before she came back. 她在回来之前就生病一个星期了。 (回来发生在过去某一时间,发病发生在过去的过去) She has been ill for a week. 她生病一个星期了。 (现在仍在生病)

F.动词时态的一些典型用法
1.在 if, unless, even if 引导的条件状语从句中,时态主将从现 在 when, before, until (till), as soon as, the moment, once 引导的时间状语从句中,在 no matter what /who / which / when / where / how 或 whatever, whoever, whichever, whenever, wherever, however 引导的让步状语 从句中,如果主句是将来时(往往出现 will / shall / can / must )或主句是祈使句,从句用一般现在时表示 一般将来时。如: ① I’ll go with you as soon as I finish my work. ② The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she arrives. ③ — Can I join your club, Dad ?— You can when you get a bit older. 2.would 与 used to ① would 与 used to 都可用来表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作,常常可以换用。如: When we were boys we used to / would go swimming every summer. 小时候,每天夏天我们都要去游泳。 He used to . would spend every penny he earned on books. 过去他通常把挣来的钱全花在买书了。 ② would 之后要接表示动作的动词,不接表示认识或状态的动词,而 used to 则无此限制。如: I used to like football when I was at middle school. ③ would 表示反复发生的动作。如果某一动作没有反复性,就不能用 would, 只能用 used to。如: And from that day on, as soon as the table was cleared and the dishes were gone, Mother would disappear into he sewing room to practice. 从那天起,只要碗盘撤掉、饭桌清理干净,妈妈就马上躲进做针线活的房间练习起来。 (具有反复性) I used to live in Beijing. 我过去住在北京。 (没有反复性) ④ used to 表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作或状态, 现在已经结束 (含有较强的 “今非昔比” 的意思) ,

would 则只表示说话者对过去一种回想心情,有可能再发生。如: People used to believe that the earth was flat. 过去,人们总以为地球是扁平的。 (现在已不再这样认为) He would go to the park as soon as he was free.过去他一有空就去公园。 (现在有可能再去) 3.be +动词不定式 ① 表示按计划或安排要做的事。例如: When are you to leave for two days to New York ?你什么时候去纽约? She is to get married next month. 她下个月结婚。 这种结构也可用于过去。was / were to do sth. 表示曾经计划要做某事,但不表明计划是否被执行,或 表示“命运(即使中注定要发生的事) ” ,而非计划;was / were to have done sth. 表示未曾实现的计划。 We were to have told you, but you were not in. 我们本来想告诉你的,但是你不在家。 ② 表示“指令” ,相当于 should, ought to, must, have to。例如: You are to report to the police. 你应该报警。 What is to be done ? 应该怎么办呢? This medicine is to be taken three times a day. 这种药一天要服三次。 The books in this room are not to be taken outside. (The books in this room mustn’t be taken outside.) 这个室内的书籍不得带出室外。 ③ 表示“想,打算” ,相当于 intend, want。例如: If we are to be there before ten, we’ll have to go now. 如果我们想在十点前到,我们现在就得走。 ④ 用于第一人称疑问句,表示征求对方意见。 Am I to go on with the work ? 要我继续这项工作吗? What are we to do next ? 我们下一步该怎么办? ⑤ 在与 be 连用的结构中,see, find, congratulate 的不定式被动式有特殊的用法。 The news is to be found in the evening paper. 这条消息可以在晚报上见到。 He is nowhere to be seen. 在哪里也见不到他。 You are to be congratulated. 应当向您表示祝贺。 4.瞬间动词又叫非延续性动词,还叫终止性动词。瞬间动词可以有现在完成时态,但不可以接一段 时间, 若要接一段时间, 须要做一些相应的变换。 瞬间动词在完成时态中的否定式可以接一段时间。 × He has come to Beijing since last year. √ He has lived in Beijing since last year. × He has joined the army for 3 years.

√ He has served in the army for 3 years. √ He joined the army 3 years ago. √ He has been a soldier for 3 years. √ It is 3 years since he joined the army. √ He has joined the army. 他已参军了。 常见的瞬间动词有:come, go, get to / reach / arrive at, leave, buy, sell, open, close, get up, join /take part in, begin /start, return / give, borrow / lend, become / turn, bring /take, give, die, finish /end, receive /hear from, marry, break, lose, jump 等。 5.语境中的过去时,往往表示“刚才,刚刚”之意,暗示现在已“不再这样” 。如: ① — Come on in, Peter. I want to show you something. — Oh, how nice of you ! I never thought you were going to bring me a gift. ② Your phone number again ? I didn’t quite catch it. ③ — Nancy is not coming tonight. — But she promised ! 6.表示愿望、打算一类的词,如:hope, expect, mean, intend, want, think, suppose, want 等,其过去 完成时表示过去未增实现的愿望或意图。如: I had hoped to see more of ShangHai. 我本希望在上海多看看。 (但未能如愿) I had meant to help you, but I was too busy at the moment. 我本想去帮你的,但当时确实太忙了。 I had thought you would come tomorrow. 我愿以来你明天才来呢。 7.某些固定句式中的动词时态是固定的、约定俗成的。 ① This / It is the first / second…time + that 从句。that 从句一般用现在完成时,如果把前边的 is 改 为 was,则 that 从句用过去完成时。如: This is the first time I have come here. It was the third time (that) he had made the same mistake. ② It is / has been + 一段时间 + since 从句。since 从句中用过去完成时。如: It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time. ③ be about to do…when…意为“即将??(这时)突然??” 。如: I was about to go out when the telephone rang. ④ be (was /were) + doing… when… 意为“正在干??(这时)突然??” 。如 They were reading when Tom shouted in pain. ⑤ Hardly had…done…when… ; No sooner had…done…than…

when 和 than 从句里用一般过去时,表示“刚刚??就??” 。如: Hardly (No sooner) had I got home when (than) the rain poured down. 我刚到家大雨就倾盆而下。 ⑥ It + be + 一段时间 + before 从句 这个句式分两种情况:如果主句用将来时,则从句用一般现在时表将来时,意为多长时间以后即将发 生某事;如果主句用过去时,从句也用过去时,意为多长时间后发生了某事。如: It won’t be long before he succeeds. ( = He will succeed soom.) It was ten years before they met again. ( = They met again ten years later. ) 8.高考对于进行体的常考点 ① 一个长动作作为背景,被一个短动作打断,长动作往往用进行体,短动作用一般体。如: My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. The students were writing busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she had left in the office. Tom slipped into the house when no one was looking. As she was reading the newspaper, Granny fell asleep. The reporter said that the UFO was traveling east to west when he saw it. ② 表示动作的未完性、暂时性。如: — Have you moved into the new house ?— Not yet. The rooms are being painted. I don’t really work here; I am just helping out until the new secretary arrives. ③ 表示计划、安排要做的事。如: I’ve won a holiday for two days to Florida. I am taking my mum. — What were you doing when Tony phoned you ? — I had just finished my work and was starting to take a shower. ④ 表示现在或当时发展中的或正在进行的情况。如: I don’t think Jim saw me; he was just starting into space. I first met Lisa 3 years ago. She was working at a radio shop at the time. — Is this raincoat yours ? — No, mine is hanging there behind the door. — Oh, I’m terribly sorry, I wasn’t noticing.

— Hey, look where you are going !

B.主动和被动
一、注意短语动词和含有情态动词的被动语态 That old man was often laughed at. 那位老人常受人嘲笑。

The doctor has been sent for. 已经派人请大夫去了。 Time must be made good use of. 时间一定要充分利用。 The plan will be given up. 那计划就要被放弃了。 Bad habits have been done away with. 坏习惯已经改掉了。 (在被动结构中,切不可丢掉后面的介词或副词,关于这类及物性质的短语动词请看专题五) He must be prevented from going. 必须阻止他去。 The plan ought to be put into practice as soon as possible. 计划必须尽早执行。 (谓语结构是:情态动词+be +过去分词) 二、get + 过去分词可以表示被动,此结构比较口语化,如: She got married last week. 她上周结婚了。 The patient got treated once a week. 那位病菌人一周得到一次治疗。 He fell off the car and got killed. 他从车上摔下来,摔死了。 三、主动形式表被动意义 1. 系动词 look, sound, feel, smell, taste, appear, seem, go, prove, turn, stay, become, fall, get, grow, keep + 形容词/名词构成系表结构。如: The steel feels cold. His plan proved (to be) practical. It has gone bad. 2.表示开始、结束、运动的动词。如 begin, finish, start, open, close, stop, end, shut, run, move 等。 Work began at 7 o’clock this morning. The shop closes at 6 p.m. every day. 3.表示主语的某种属性特征的动词。如 read, write, act, iron, cut draw, drive, sell, wash, clean, wear, open, cook, lock, shut, dry, eat, drink。这类动词一般不单独使用,常用一个修饰语。如: This coat dries easily. 这种外衣容易干。 Nylon cleans easily. 尼龙容易洗干净。 The door won’t lock. 这门锁不上。 Food can keep fresh in a fridge. 食物在冰箱里能保鲜。 Your speech reads well. 你的演说讲得好。 This material has worn thin. 这个材料已经磨薄了。 His book does not sell. 他的书没有销路。

Your pen writes smoothly. 你的笔好写。 The plan worked out wonderfully. 这计划制定得很好。 The recorder won’t play. 这录音机不转。 This knife cuts well. 这把刀子很快。 The cloth washes well. 这布很耐洗。 4.少数动词用于进行时,其主动形式表示被动含义。如 print, cook, fry, hang, build, make。 如: The books are printing. 这本书正在排印中。 The neat is cooking. 肉在煮。 5.介词 in, on, under 等+名词构成介词短语表被动意义 表示方位的介词与含动作意义的名词合用,含被动之义,其意义相当于该名词相应的被动形式,名词 前一般不用冠词。 常见的有:under control (受控制),under treatment (在治疗中),under repair (在修理中),under discussion (在讨论中),under construction (在施工中),beyond belief (令人难以置信),beyond one’s reach (鞭长莫及), beyond one’s control (无法控制), beyond our hope (我们始料不及), for sale (出售), for rent (出 租),in print (在印刷中),in sight (在视野范围内),on sale (出售),on show (展出),on trial (受审),out of control (控制不了),out of sight (超出视线之外),out of one’s reach (够不着),out of fashion (不流行)。如: The building is under construction (is being constructed). The rumor is beyond belief ( = can’t be believed ). His honest character is above all praise. ( = His honest character cannot be praised enough.) That house is for sale. ( = That house is to be sold.) The book is not yet in print ( = is not yet printed ). 6.不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语: fit, have, wish, cost, agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to 等。如: This key just fits the lock. Your story agrees with what had already been heard.


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