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Unit 3 Exercises大学英语


Exercises

Vocabulary (Page 82)
I. 1. Fill in the gaps with words or phrases chosen from the box. Change the form where necessary.

1)The rich and the powerful separated themselves from the consequences of industrial growth by moving away from the factory areas to the more tranquil and less polluted countryside.

有钱有势的人为避开工业发展的影响, 从 工业区搬到安静又污染较少的乡下居住。

2) As people identify their own problems and begin to analyze the conditions that contribute to the problems, they can develop strategies that are appropriate for their own culture, time and place.

人们找到他们自身的问题后, 开始分析造成 这种问题的原因, 这样他们才能得到适合他 们自身文化, 时代和地域的战略。

3) The number of visitors from parts of Scotland not including the Edinburgh area was, in fact, relatively small (19%), and exceeded the number of overseas visitors(16%) by /with a small margin.

爱丁堡以外苏格兰来的游客数量(19%), 实 际上比从海外来的游客数量(16%)略多。

4) The early Spaniards established a chain of missions to civilize the local population along the San Antonio River.

早期的西班牙人组成传教团, 沿着圣安 东尼奥河传播文化。

5) The controversy surrounding the effects of modern farming methods on the rural landscape has created bitter conflict between farming and environmental interests in recent years.

最近几年, 围绕着农村中现代耕作方法 对农村地貌的影响的争论引起了农业和 环境之间的矛盾。

6) It was common practice then that when the store owners wanted to go on vacation they simply closed up.

当商店老板想度假时,他们就会关门停 业。这种做法当时很常见。

7) New Delhi, built by the British early last century, calls up memories of a different era with its wide avenues, beautiful gardens and grand buildings.

上个世纪由英国人建造的新德里城总是让人 回忆起那个时代的宽阔的林荫道, 美丽的花园 和宏伟的大楼。

8) To make a birthday card, you can simply cut out some funny or pretty pictures from magazines, paste them onto a piece of card and then write your message inside.

你只要从杂志上剪下有趣或漂亮的图片, 然后把它们粘在卡片上, 最后写上字就做 成了生日卡片。

9) She picked up the receiver and, without so much as asking the caller to hold on, went off to tell Jack that he was wanted on the phone.

她拿起听筒, 没有说声别挂, 就离开告诉 杰克说有人找他。

10) To relax himself for a little while, he rose from the computer desk, walked across the room towards the window and stretched both arms upwards and sideways.

为了放松一下, 他从电脑桌前站起来, 穿过房 间走到窗户前, 做了手臂上举和平举的动作。

11) The demonstrators barricaded the streets with burning tyres and threw stones at the police who were trying to scatter them with water cannon.

游行者用燃烧的轮胎设置路障, 并向用高压水 炮驱散他们的警察投掷石块。

12) The next generation Walkman will have a pair of small loudspeakers fitted inside, which you can easily hook up to your computer?s sound card.

下一代随身听会有一对内置的扬声器, 你可 以很容易地接在你电脑的声卡上。

13) Approximately half a million people die in traffic accidents every year and it is almost always possible to trace the cause of a traffic accident back to some form of human error.

每年大约有五十万人死于交通事故, 而这 些交通事故几乎追溯到某种人为因素。

14) This chart is designed to show at a glance how many rooms have been rented out and how many are still available.

制定这张图表是为了显示有多少房间已租出 去了, 有多少房间还空着。

15) Bathed in glorious sunshine, the

boundless stretch of corn fields
looked an impressive sight.

沐浴在明媚的阳光下, 一望无际的玉米地呈现 出一派令人难忘的景色。

2. Use the verb in brackets to form an appropriate phrasal verb you have learned and replace with it the italicized part in each of the following sentences:
1) The shock of an accident or a physical injury may sometimes cause immediate inability to think clearly---even when the injury is not to the head. (bring) cause: bring about

2) In his autobiography, Mr. Hanson recalled his second career, taken up at the age of sixty, as the happiest time of his life when his creativity was exercised to the full. (look)
recalled: looked back

too the full: to the greatest degree

3) The heavy rain stopped the supply of electricity to large parts of the South and caused the polluted rivers to flood, which later contaminated the entire region. (cut)

stopped the supply of: cut off
contaminate: make impure by mixing in impure, dirty, or poisonous matter

4) If the TV has to find sufficient room in a limited space, it?s a good idea to choose a model that has a front-facing speaker, such as Ferguson or Hitachi. (fit) find sufficient room: fit into

5) Both sides are trying to weaken the other by obstinately sticking to their own positions in the negotiations. (wear)
weaken: wear (the other) down

obstinate: refusing to change one?s opinion or behavior, in spite of argument or persuasion

6) The secret of a successful school consists in effective co-operation between professional leadership, the government and the local authority. (lie)
consists in: lies in

7) Many suburban residents in the United States erect an invisible electronic fence around their premises to prevent their pets from running away. (put) erect: put up

8) The initials VAT represent Value Added Tax (增值税), which is a type of tax paid by the person who buys the goods or services. (stand) represent: stand for

3. Rewrite each sentence with the word or phrase in brackets, keeping the same meaning. The first part has been written for you.

1) Researchers at the Department of Clinical Medicine in Oxford have found a certain gene which they think is likely to make people suffer from asthma. (vulnerable) A certain gene which is likely to make people vulnerable to asthma has been found by researchers at the Department of Clinical Medicine in Oxford.

2) Their bedroom is pretty small. To make it look larger, they had to construct into wall a wardrobe with mirrored doors. (build in)
A wardrobe with mirrored doors had to be built in so as to make their small bedroom look larger .

3)The space shuttle Challenger blowing up in January 1986 --- killing all seven crew --- is highlighted in the NBC show?s opening shots(片头). (feature)

The NBC show?s opening shots feature the space shuttle Challenger blowing up in January 1986—killing all seven crew .

4) Increasing your intake of fruit and vegetables --- both low in calories and rich in Vitamin C --- has the benefit of keeping colds away from you. (hold…at bay) Colds can be held at bay by increasing your intake of fruit and vegetables which are both low in calories and rich in Vitamin C .
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5)Imported oil has absorbed 40% of the country?s foreign exchange. As a result, energy difficulties have held back the growth of its economy. (barrier) Energy difficulties are a major barrier to economic growth due to imported oil absorbing 40% of the country?s foreign exchange/ because imported oil has absorbed 40% ….

4. Complete the following, using the words or phrases in brackets. Make additions or changes where necessary.
1)Jacob looked back on his summer holidays spent on the Island of Hawaii with its beautiful landscape and tranquil atmosphere as a rare escape from the madness of urban life . (urban, tranquil, look back on)

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2) I was puzzled by the word “e-mail” when I came across it for the first time years ago. “What is an e-mail? What on earth does the letter ?e? here stand for ?” I asked myself. Later, I got to know that e-mail is a system for communicating messages by electronic rather than physical means. (electronic, puzzle, stand for)

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3) Mr. Smith has, over the years, established his name as a successful used-car dealer in the minds of local people. He places regular though small advertisements in newspapers featuring affordable second-hand cars, vans and trucks. At the back of premises he owns a used-car lot which faces a deserted street. (feature, premises, advertisement)

II. Collocation
1) We used to shout his name outside his

house until he came out and chased us away.
2) She smiled at the guests in a friendly way

and started to usher them inside / in.
3) He had to push his way forward / through to get off the train as there were so many people on board.

4) The wind that had been pushing him, now began to drag him back, making everything seem heavy.

5) I have to pay a visit to the doctor, so I can give you a ride and drop you off at the nearest subway station.
6) I bought the books and took them home, only to find some pages missing. Nevertheless I found them interesting and still thought they were a bargain.

7) It is on such schemes that they intend to

bring the level of unemployment back down
to at least the 1990 low point or even lower.

8) Hong Kong is a free port where people
bring goods from all over the world in and then ship them out to other lands without tax being charged.

III. Usage (Double negative)
1) Internet is not such an unusual word as it used to be. 2) Most men do not look unattractive in them. 3) Wealthy as she is, she is not unconcerned by her sudden unemployment. 4) This claim is not unrealistic in view of a sharp decrease in the city’s violent crimes. 5) His poor health is not unrelated to his unhealthy way of life.

Structure 1.
1) I never thought about asking him what was intended by that remark. I thought he was just joking.

It never occurred to me to ask him what was intended by that remark. I thought he was just joking.

2) I suddenly came into my mind that the names of their children --- Rose, Lily and Daisy --- were the names of flowers. It occurred to me that the names of their children --- Rose, Lily and Daisy --- were the names of flowers.

3) When he heard her say so, he came up with the idea that for convenience he also could contact the local travel agency and ask them to take care of everything.

When he heard her say so, it occurred to him that for convenience he also could contact the local travel agency and ask them to take care of everything.

4) Have you never thought that the problems in the Middle East are complicated and difficult to solve?
Has it never occurred to you that the problems in the Middle East are complicated and difficult to solve?

Structure 2.
1) They have to agree to work extra hours for no extra pay, or they are very likely to be dismissed.

If they don’t agree to work extra hours for no extra pay, chances are that they will be dismissed.

2) Research is being carried out on the disease and progress is being made at present. It is likely that there will be a cure within the next ten years. Research is being carried out on the disease and progress is being made at present. Chances are that there will be a cure within the next ten years.

3) If you are eating lots of fatty food, you’ll probably put on several pounds in a matter of weeks.
If you are eating lots of fatty food, chances are that you’ll put on several pounds in a matter of weeks.

4) He left his office an hour ago but hasn’t got home yet. It’s likely he’s got stuck in a traffic jam. He left his office an hour ago but hasn’t got home yet. Chances are that he’s got stuck in a traffic jam.

Cloze A
1. Statistics 3. era 5. on the latch 7. barriers 9. electronic 11. puzzle 2. rural 4. stood for 6. vulnerable 8. at bay 10. reflection 12. civilized

Cloze B
1. worse/scarier 3. Yes/True 5. from 7. every 9. say 11. chances 13. when 15. Don’t 2. tougher/harder 4. barricading 6. not 8. However 10. back / at bay 12. Therefore 14. leave 16. head / brains

Translation
Translate the following passage into English, using the words and phrases given below.

在美国每隔15秒钟就有人举报一起入室行 窃案。 A burglary is reported every 15 seconds in the United States. 统计数据显示去年窃贼光顾了两百多万户 人家。

Statistics show burglars entered more
than 2 million homes last year.

人们实际上几乎无法将蓄意行窃的窃贼拒之 门外, Actually it is almost impossible to keep a determined burglar out. 所能做的只是设法阻拦他片刻, 从而使其暴 露在巡警或附近溜达的人们面前。 All you can do is (to) discourage him for a few minutes, thus exposing him to police patrols or those wandering around.

常识告诉我们,光照是犯罪行为的障碍物。

Common sense tells us that lighting is
a barrier to criminal activity. 家门口必须安装一盏灯,并在晚间开着。 A light must be fixed in the doorway and switched on at night.

不管你是否相信,有些 人,尤其是最晚进家 的孩子,晚上进屋后不把门锁上。 Believe it or not, some people, particularly children who happen to be the last to come in, leave their doors on the latch at night. 空心门,即便是锁上了,也易遭贼侵入。 Doors of hollow core, even when locked, are vulnerable to break-ins.

因此最好选择实心门或铁门,因为窃贼很难 将他们撬开。 Thus doors of solid core or steel are much preferred as they make it difficult for the burglar to pry open. 如果你有意购买报警装置,别 忘了索要报警 器的标志,并把他们张贴在窗户和门上。 If you decide to buy an alarm device, be sure to ask for its signs and put them up on both windows and doors.

最后,提醒一句,外出旅游时,一定要请一 位信得过的邻居,在你回来之前帮你收好每 日的报纸和邮件。 Finally, a word of warning — when you travel, make sure that you have a trusted neighbor collect and keep all the deliveries of newspapers and mail until you return.

这是因为放在门阶上或邮箱里成堆的报纸邮 件如同广告一样使大家都知道你家里没人。
This is because a collection of newspapers and mail on the front doorstep or in your mailbox is an advertisement that no one is home.


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