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# 高考完型填空技巧

at the wrong gauge (计量表) and had put in 15 48 , which came to just over \$20. That is an easy mistake as both gauges run fast. (2009 安徽卷) 48. A. litres B. kilograms C. pounds D. kilometres 【解析】根据语境，本题应填汽油的度量单位；而根据常识，汽油的度量单 位为 litre(升)，是容量单位，故选 A。kilogram 为重量单位；pound 可为重量单 位或货币单位(英镑)；kilometre 为长度单位。又如： But we ran so much that, afterwards, we had trouble 45 . (2004 北京卷) A. speaking B. moving C. sleeping D. breathing 【解析】跑得太多，其结果当然是上气不接下气，即呼吸困难了，我们一般 都会有这样的生活经历，所以答案是 D。 逻 辑 推 理 考查考生根据文意和所掌握的知识和经验进行简单的逻辑推理来确定选项 的能力。例如： “Did I do something 38 ? Don’t you love me any more, Mom?” were just a few of the questions he threw at me as I laughingly asked him what was wrong. (2008 全国卷 II) 38. A. wrong B. funny C. strange D. smart 【解析】 由上文可知， 母亲以前给儿子送午餐时， 都要在上面附上一张纸条， 可这次儿子却没有得到午餐字条，所以他认为自己做错了什么，以为妈妈不爱他 了。故选 A。 词 语 辨 析 考查考生在特定语境中区别近义词的能力。 几个选项的词性相同、 意义相近， 要求我们在特定的语境中区分它们之间的差别。例如： James shook his money box again. Nothing! He carefully counted the coins that lay on the bed. \$24. 52 was all that he had. The bicycle he wanted was at least \$90! How on earth was he going to get the rest of the money? He knew that his friends all had bicycles. It was 39 to hang around with people when you were the only one without wheels. He thought about what he could do. There was no (point) asking his parents, for he knew they had no money to 41 . (2009 北京卷) 39. A. brave B. hard C. smart D. unfair 41. A. split B. spend C. spare D. save 【解析】第 39 题考查形容词词义辨析。根据上句“朋友都有自行车”可以推 断，下句是要表达如果你是唯一没有自行车的人，跟朋友相处就变得困难了，四 个选项中只有 B 项符合题意。第 41 题考查动词词义辨析。split “分裂、分离、劈 开”；spend “花费、消耗”；spare “节约、节省、提供给某人”；save “储蓄、保留”。 四个选项中只有 C 项符合文意。又如： I want to thank you for teaching me a very valuable lesson in life by the great example you set. When we were eating at that café in Bondi and a person who had 38 his hamburger didn’t have enough money to pay for it, without any hesitation, you went over and put the extra \$2 into his hand. (2009 安徽卷) 38. A. ordered B. booked C. offered D. bought 【解析】本题考查动词词义辨析。在饭店吃饭，一般是先点菜、后付钱。四 个选项中，order 和 book 较难区分，二者有如下区别：book 的宾语是表示票、 座位、房间等的词；而 order 的宾语是表示货物、饭菜、衣服等的词。故选 A。

ormer 以前的） teachers. You may write an informal letter by hand， but you should （ ___3___ a formal letter. 1. A. send dropped B. are written C. write D. are

2. A. Informal 3. A. copy share

B. Formal B. type

D. Relative D.

「解析」1. 选 B.该句缺少谓语动词，而写信应用被动语态。该句意为“正式 书信是写给商业部门、学校……”。D 虽用了被动，但搭配不当。drop sb a line 为“给人写信（短信）”。 2. 选 A.前面说的是正式书信，这里说的是写给亲戚、好友或以前的老师的， 较随便，即非正式书信。 3. 选 B.通过 but 可知，此处说的是非正式书信与正式书信的写作方式的不 同，非正式书信可以手写，但正式书信要正规得多，得打字。 2.巧用因果关系线索解题 即根据上下文的因果关系进行推断，从而得出所需答案。如： It was a strange noise that made the man ___1___ his car soon after he left a village ___2___ London. He got out of his car and ___3___ the wheels（车轮） carefully， but as he found nothing ___4___ he continued his way. 1. A. start 2. A. to 3. A. repaired 4. A. wrong B. stop B. for B. examined B. danger C. slow C. from C. cleaned D. looked D. speed D. of

C. interesting D. matter

「解析」1. 选 B.他在去伦敦的路上，一阵奇怪的声音驱使他把车停了下来。 这可从 He got out of his car…推测出来。 2. 选 B.leave…for…是个固定短语，意为“离开……到……”。 3. 选 B.在听到奇怪的声音后，他停下车来仔细检查轮胎（看看出现了什么 问题） 。 4. 选 A.从下句“他又继续赶路了”可知，“因为他没有发现毛病”。nothing wrong 意为“没有毛病”。 3.巧用具体示例线索解题 即根据文章中所提供的具体实例进行分析， 将与具体示例有关的信息进行优 选，将与具体示例无关的信息进行排除，从而便可得出所需答案。如： Every student must wear their ___1___ when they are at school. There are

___2___ items of uniforms： suits， dresses， shorts， skirts and T-shirts. There are also Wasley schoolbags， caps and socks. 1. A. long hair 2. A. much B. thick glasses B. three C. sports shoes C. many D. school uniforms D. a lot

「解析」1. 选 D.本段谈论的是在校生穿校服的事情，而不是穿运动鞋，蓄 长发、戴墨镜并不是学校所提倡的。 2. 选 C.suits， dresses， shorts， skirts and T-shirts 等是服装的个例，前面 只有填“校服”才与之相配。 4.巧用同义反义线索解题 Though he is serious in appearance， he never fails to be interesting. Often he is clever， sometimes even ______ and gay… A. worried B. bright C. discouraging D. friendly

「解析」从 Often he is clever 来看，此处话题谈论的是“他的智慧/聪明”，而 even 一词也暗示此处应填 bright，因 bright 与 clever 为同义词，均为“聪明”。 As it turned out， my little publication went on to become Student， a national magazine for young people in the U.K. My wife and I have two children， and I‘d like to think we are bringing them up in the same way Dad ______ me. A. controlled B. comforted C. reminded D. raised

「解析」句中的 in the same way 告诉我们，空格处所填动词应与前面的动 词 bring up（培养，养育）同义，比较四个选项，答案显然是 D 项。 5.巧用逻辑顺序线索解题 即根据文章所提供的内容，同时结合一定的生活常识，对所推断的内容进行 逻辑推理和逻辑顺序。如： I went to Wasley College with Winnic today. Wasley is a large， old ___1___. It has three branch campuses（分校） Clunes， Glen Waverly and Elasterwick. It has ： a primary school， a ___2___ school and a senior school. So there are twelve grades of ___3___ studying there. 1. A. school D. hospital 2. A. night B. junior C. high B. factory C. movie

D. spare-time 3. A. workers teachers 「解析」1. 选 A.从下句话 It has three branch campuses 来看，Wasley 是一所 学校。 2. 选 B.从空缺处所在的位置来看， 界于 primary 和 senior 之间的学校当然属 于 junior.这就是说是顺序推测出来的。 3. 选 C.既然是在此学习，他们当然是 students 了。 6. 巧用语篇标志线索解题 语篇一般指比单个句子长的语言单位，如句群、段落、篇章等。语篇与语篇 之间往往有表明其内在联系的词语，这些词语可称为语篇标志。如：表示结果层 次的语篇标志语有 firstly， secondly， thirdly， finally 等；表示逻辑关系的有 thus， therefore， so 等；表示改变话题的有 by the way 等；表示时间关系的有 before， so far， yet， now， later 等。在做完形填空题时，如果能充分利用这 些语篇标志语，就可以迅速理清文章的脉络，弄清上下文的关系。如： B. boys C. students D.

First of all， I respected his devotion to teaching…______， I admired the fact that he would talk to students outside the classroom or talk…Finally， I was attracted by his lively sense of humor. （全国卷） A. Later B. Secondly C. However D. Therefore

「解析」 B.考生如果注意到了文章上下文中的语篇标志词语 first of all 和 选 finally，再比较四个选项，显然只有选 secondly 最恰当。 7. 巧用结构对比线索解题 在做完形填空题时，有时会遇到两个结构十分相似的句子，此时同学们应认 真比较其结构特点，或根据其相似性推断空格处所填之词，或根据文章的上下文 语境判断两个（或几个）相似结构之间的逻辑关系。如： I realized strength and courage aren‘t always measured in medals and victories， but in the struggles we overcome（战胜） The strongest people are not always the 。 people who win， ______ the people who don’t give up when they lose. A. or B. nor C. and D. but

「解析」句中的 the people who win 与 the people who don‘t give up when they lose 是两个表达十分相似的结构，比较其中的 win 和 lose 可知，前后两个 结构属对比关系，估计应填 but，再结合句中的 not，并联想 not…but…句式， 可以推知，此题最佳答案应选 D. The correct water supply forecast is based more on the water from the ______ than from the below. （辽宁卷） A. clouds B. sky C. air D. above

「解析」more from…than from… 是一个明显用于对比的结构，根据后面的 the below 可知，前面应是 the above，即答案选 D. 8. 巧用语境暗示线索解题 有的空格根据所在句的句意或附近上下文的语境我们无法作出正确的选择， 要想作出正确判断，同学们应特别注意空格前后所出现的相关词语，尤其注意找 出其中重复出现的暗示性词语。如： Four students from Burlington College of Higher Education are in the bell tower of the ______ have made up their minds to ring the bells nonstop for two weeks as a protest （抗议） against heavy trucks which run day and night through the narrow High Street. （全国卷） A. college B. village C. town D. church

「解析」选 B.若仅从本句来看，似乎四个选项都不错，但要想确定其中的 最佳答案，考生应注意到文章后半部分的 But to my surprise， the room wasn‘t empty at all！ It had furniture， curtains， a TV， and seven paintings on the walls. 这一句。

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