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动词的时态和语态教案


动词的时态和语态
一. 教学目标:从宏观角度把握动词的时态和语态的用法 二. 教学重点,难点:1.动词时态的构成,用法及中考考点。 2.被动语态的用法 3.被动语态的特殊用法 三. 教学辅助工具:图画,练习题 四. 教学步骤: 1. Greeting: Say hello to the student. 2. Warm-up: Sing an English song

about some verbs. 3. Revision: The classify of Verb. 4. Leading-in: Ask students“when do they get up everyday”and “When do they go to school” in Chinese. Then,Tell them what is Simple Present tense. According to this kind of way, we can learn the other tenses. 5. Teaching content: 动词的时态 从分类的角度 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 现在进行时 现在完成时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去将来时

从中考考点的角度 一 般 现 在 时 一 从构成的角度: 肯定式 : 主语 + 动词原形 + …. They speak English and French . 主语 + 动词三单: She studies in a school near here. 否定句 : 主语 +助动词 do/does+not+动词原形 He doesn’t feel very well. 一般疑问句 : Do/does+主语+动词原形 Do you speak English? 回答: Yes,主语+do/does No,主语+don’t/doesn’t 实义动词 have 当”有”讲时,疑问句有以下变化形式: Have you a penfriend?

Do you have a penfriend ? Have you got a penfriend? 特殊疑问句 : 特殊疑问词 (where,when,how,why)+do/does+ 主语 + 动词原形 ( 不用 yes,no 回 答)Where does ZhouNan study? 选择疑问句:Do you like this book or that one? 二从用法的角度: 1. 表 示 经 常 性 , 习 惯 性 的 动 作 或 经 常 存 在 的 状 态 , 常 与 always,often,usually,everyday,sometime 等连用(通常用于 be 后,行为动词前) e.g.)Lei Feng is always ready to help other. I am always/usually go to school at 7 o’clock. 2. 表示普遍性的真理与规律 The moon goes round the esrth.月亮绕着地球转. Light travels faster than sound. 3. 表示习惯与能力 Do you drive a car? 你会开车吗? Mr Green teaches English. 4. 表 示 按 规 定 , 计 划 或 安 排 预 计 要 发 生 的 动 作 或 存 在 状 态 ( 主 要 用 于 come,go,leave,begin,start,arrive,return 等瞬间动词) Could you tell me what time the plan leaves? Do you know what time the plan arrives in Moscow? 5. 在时间,条件状语从句中表示将来动作 When you climb higher, you’ll find nothing grows there at all. Tom won’t feel well till the game is over. 6. 一般现在时表将来 表最近的将来,说话人说话时动作并未发生,但即将开始 (I’m off now .)或 强调未来的事实和早已规定的事. ( Tomrrow is Sunday.) 特殊用法角度: 1. 表示说话时刻,这一刻往往很短暂. What time is it now ? My watch says ten to seven. 2. 有些表示心理状态和感情,感觉的动词常用于一般现在时 I feel better now. It doesn’t matter this time . Does it hurn here? 3 用于下列句型中 There goes the bell. Why don’t you go by bus? Why don’t/they/we +动词原形 Why doesn’t he +动词原形 Why not have a drink of tea? Here comes Jim.. 一 般 过 去 时

一. 从构成的角度: 肯定式:主语+动词的过去式 I wanted to watch animals in the zoo. They took his son to the cinema. 否定式:主语+didn’t+动词原形 I didn’t have his telephone number. 一般疑问句:特殊疑问词+did+主语 What sport did she play yesterday? 一般过去时没有人称及数的变化 二. 从基本用法的角度: 1. 表示过去某时发生的动作或存在的状态.(常与其连用的时间状语有 :yesterday ,the day before yesterday ,a moment ago ,just now ,in May, in 1999,last night/week/month/year ,once ,one day ,before… at the age of 18,when she was five… 等) e.g.)He was a soldier two years ago. They had a baby last month. 2. 表示过去经常或反复发生的动作或行为(never ,often ,always) e.g.)They didn’t pass the ball often enough. He always took off his shoes and threw on the floor. 3. 根据时态一致,在宾语从句中用一般过去时代替一般现在时 e.g.)She asked weather they needed some more tea.(瞬问的动作是过去,”需要”指现在) He said that there wasn’t time to go to the city century. 过去了 现在 4. 用于 since 从句,(主句的谓语动词为现在完成时,其后 since 从句为一般过去式) He has worked there since it opened in 1989. It has been two days since I came back. 5. 由于 when,while,before,after,whenever 等引导的表示过去时间的状语从句常用过去时. e.g.)The boy began to go to school when he was five. They lived there before they came to China. 6. 有些情况和事件,发生的时间不很清楚,但实际已发生,应当用过去时态. Look at the bags.They came. Five people died in the traffic accident. 特殊用法的角度 1. 在时间,条件状语从句中表示过去将来的动作. If we won the match,we would be top. 2. 一般过去时形式上为过去时,实指现在 I didn’t know you were there.(刚才不知,现在知道了.)

一般将来时 一:从构成的角度:

肯定形式:主语+will+动词原形/ 主语+ Am/is /are +going to 动词原形 否定形式:都是在 will/am/is /are 这些助动词后加 not 即可。 一般疑问的形式: 把助动词 will/am/is /are 提前。 二:从基本用法的角度: 1) 表示在将来某一时间要发生的动作或状态,常与表示将来的时间状 语连用,如:tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next Tuesday, in five minutes, some day, in the future, next year. (eg.)Will you be free tonight? We will know the result tomorrow. I’m sure I won’t lose my way. They will get married next May Day. 2) 其他表示将来时的结构 1〉 be going to(表示说话者明确的打算、安排、决定或确信会发生的事,多用 于口语); 2〉be to do(表示安排好了要在将来做的事); 3〉be about to do(表示就要发生的事,句中不能用表示动作发生时间的状语) 4〉一般现在时表将来(限于某些动词,如 leave, finish) 5〉现在进行时表示将来时(限于某些动词,表示按计划安排要发生的事,如: take, have ,leave) He’s leaving school in on year’s time.他一年后就要毕业了

现在进行时 一:从构成的角度: 肯定形式:主语+be+动词的 ing 形式 否定形式:在 be 动词后加 not 即可。 一般疑问形式:只需将助动词 be 提前。 二:从基本用法的角度: 1) 此刻正在进行或发生的动作。常伴随的时间状语如:look,listen,now, at the moment 等 What are you thinking about now? She is having a talk with Lin Tao upstairs. 2) 这一时段时间正在发生的动作或变化, 虽然这个动作此时此刻不 一 定正在 进行。 I am sorry I can’t go. I am writing a report. We are preparing for the English exam. 3) 其他用法 表示经常性的动作,和 always, constantly, forever 这类副词连用,表示厌烦,赞 美等情绪。He is always losing his keys. 表示按计划安排最近即将发生的动作, 常用位置转移的动词如: come, go, leave,

start, arrive 等。She is taking her exam next Monday. 用在时间或条件状语从句中表示将来正在进行的动作。 You can do some reading while you are waiting for the train. If she’s still waiting, tell her to go home.

现在完成时 一:从构成的角度: 结构:主语+have /has+动词的过去分词 否定形式:在助动词 have /has 后加 not. 一般疑问形式:将助动词提前即可。 二:从基本用法角度: 1. 表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在产生的影响或结果,与现在时间相联 系。不能和确定的时间状语连用,但和不确定的连用, 如:just, yet, already, ever, never, recently , lately, still, before 等。 The car has arrived. He’s been ill. He still hasn’t finished his work. Have you seen Alice recently? 2. 表示动作状态从过去某时开始,持续到现在可能还要持续下去,也可能刚刚结束, 这是通常和 since 或 for 引导的时间状语连用。 I have lived here for more than thirty years. He hasn’t cleaned his room for months. He has been ill for a long time. 注意: (1)现在完成时表示动作持续发生时还可以用以下表示包括现在时间在 内的时间状语:up to now, in the past few years, so far, these days, this year. Up to now, the work has been easy. So far he has done very well at school. The rain has stopped now. (2)非持续动词不能同表示一段时间的状语连用,不能同 for 引导的短语或 since 引导的短语和从句连用。如果句中有表示一段时间的状语,则必须改用延续 性动词。 常用的动词及其转换如下: buy——have die——be dead borrow——keep leave——be away begin——be on join/become——be in the+组织名称 wake——awake (3)Has been to& has gone to 前者表示曾经来过某地;后者表示去往某地,即不在现场。

动词的语态 一 定义的角度 英语语态是动词的一种形式,用语表示主语和谓语之间的关系。 二. 分类的角度:主动语态 被动语态 主动语态表示主语的动作是执行者。 被动语态表示是动作的承受者或动作的目标。 三.构成的角度 一般时态 进行时态 am is are was made were shall were shall have been made will Should Have been made would Can May be made must being made had been made have being made has been been 完成时态

现 在

am is are was

made

过 去

将 来

be made will Should

过 去 将 来

be made Would

情 态 动 词

Can May be made must

三 中考考点角度 被动语态的基本用法 英语的被动语态常用于以下场合 1 强调或突出动作的承受者. Fish from the east and west coasts is sold to many other coutries. 东西部海岸的鱼被销售给许多其它国家. 2 不知道或无需说出动作的执行者. Bread is made from wheat.. 面包是用麦子做的. 3. 出于礼貌或语气委婉等不愿说出动作的执行者是谁 This matter will be looked into in the future. 这件事将来是要查明的。 特殊用法的角度

一. 英语中 及物动词的被动语态是表示被动意义的主要方法,但还有一些其它也表示被动 意义的结构。 1 有些及物动词转化来的不及物动词,如 read write clean wash iron burn easily smoothly ……这些动词的主语一般是表物的词, 而且这些物往往 有某种内在的特点。 The cloth washes well. 这种不料好洗。 《注》有些动词如 cook do 等 常用主动结构的进行时表被动含义。 如 The cakes are baking. 蛋糕正在烘烤。 2 动词 need require want deserve be worth 后接 ing 的主动结构表被动含义。 如 This film is really worth seeing . 这部电影的确值得看。 3 有些系动词如 feel smell taste sound 等加上形容词 也可以主动语态表被动。 如 How sweet these flower smell! 这些花问上去多香啊! 4 有些介词短语,如 sent for heard of carry out in talk about 如 Has the doctor been sent for﹖ 去请大夫了吗? 5 带有情态动词的被动语态 如..This word can be used as a noun . 这个单词可以用作名词。 6 带不定式的被动语态 The child asked to be brought along . 孩子要求被带走。 二. 不能用于被动语态的动词 1.不及物动词 不及物动词短语 She swims very well Your speech came across very well,everyone liked it . 2.等表示状态的动词 The family have car This village lacked kof electronic appliance 3.反身代词和被动语态 You should take care of yourself I have cut myself

动词时态和语态专项练习 1.The teacher told us in class that the sun______in the east. A. rose B. will rise C.would rise D.rises 2. If it _____ tomorrow,I’llgo by car. A.rian B.will rain C.rains D.would rain 3.We _____ the Great Wall three days ago. A.don’t go to B.weren’t go to C.didn’t went to D.didn’t go to 4.How often _____you _____to the park when you were in Tianjin? A.do;go B.did;go C.will;go D.have;go 5.---Lucy has gone to London to see her grandmother. --- Really? When_____she come back? A.does B.has C.did D.will 6.Look!Some boys_____on the playground. A.playing B.are playing C.play D.plays 7.Mr.Green _____ in China since five years ago. A.lived B.has lived C.lives D.is going to live 8.---Where is you father? ---___________. A.He has been to American. B.He has gone to England/ C.He is going to Australia. D.He would visit my grandparents. 9.How long _____he _____English? A.has;taught B.did;taught C.does;teaches D.is;taught 10.I _____never_____such a nice song before that day. A.has;heard B.have;heard C.had;heard D.will;hear 11.They finished the work earlier than they______. A.has expected B.had expected C.expected D.would expect 12.Mother told me that she_____a new bag for me. A.would buy B.will buy C.has bought D.bought 13.These pictures_____when we took a trip to Kenting National Park. A. took B.will take C.were taken D.will be taken 14.TV and radio programmes _____ the other side of the world with the help of the satellites. A.can send to B.can send on C.can be sent to D.can be sent on 15.They ______all their money,so they have to walk home. A.spend B.had spend C.have spent D. will spend 16.Tom often goes swimming on Sunday,_______? A.isn’t he B.is he C. does he D. doesn’t he 17.He said he would go shoping if it ______. A.isn’t rain B.doesn’t rain C.wasn’t rain D.didn’t rain 18.---What_____you_____? ---My story-book. A.do;look for B.are;looking for C.was;looking for D.did;look for


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