Unit 5 First aid
贵州省思南中学 许义怀 编辑
First aid is a ____________________ temporary form of help given to someone who suddenly _______ or
__________ before a falls ill gets injured doctor can be found. Often the illness _____ or ______ is not_______, but there injury serious are other times when giving ________________will save ______ . lives first aid quickly
What situation can you think of that needs first aid?
a snake bite
a sprained ankle
a broken arm
A snake has bitten him on his leg.
She has cut her arm with some broken glass and is bleeding badly.
He has badly sprained his ankle
She is choking on a piece of food.
She has broken her arm.
He has a bleeding nose (a nosebleed).
Are you familiar with the following numbers?
110 119 120
Police department Fire department Medical emergency(急救) centre
Lay the victim down and keep him/her still. Do not wash the venom off the skin (it will help identify the type of snake). Do not move the victim. Call medical help.
To treat a bleeding, you should put a bandage on the wound and apply pressure to reduce the bleeding.
A. True B. False
The best way to treat a sprained ankle is to: A. Put some ice pack on the ankle to reduce the swelling . Put a firm bandage around the foot and ankle. B. Put a heating pad(垫子)around your ankle. C. Keep on walking and jumping.
To treat a choke, you should make him /her spit by patting him/her on the back.
To treat a broken arm, you:
A. move the broken bone in no time.
B. keep the arm still using a sling to support the broken arm
If you get a nosebleed, get the person to sit down, tilt his/her head forward slightly. Don’t let your head back to stop the bleeding. (It may lead the blood into
the throat and easily cause choking.)
1 Look at the picture . What is on the cupboard?
The girl has pulled boiling water onto herself.
What has happened to the little girl? She will get/have bad burns.
2 What kind of first aid would you perform in this situation? Make a list of your ideas. Cool the area of skin; wash it under the cold running water. Cover the wound with bandage/clean cloth. See a doctor if necessary.
3 Now quickly read about “First Aid for Burns” taken from a book called First Aid for the Family. See whether you ideas were correct.
FIRST AID FOR BURNS
Part 1: The functions of the skin
Part 2: Causes of burns Part 3: Types of burns First aid for burns
Part 4: Characteristics of burns Part 5: First aid treatment
Part1: The functions of the skin
1.Protect us against diseases, poisons and the sun’s harmful rays. （保护…免受…之苦）
2.Keep us warm or cool.
3.Prevent us from losing water.（阻 止…免受…之苦）
4.Give us sense of touch.（触觉）
Part2:What gets the skin burned? ○ hot liquids ○ mild weather ○ electricity ○ chemicals ○ steam ○ the sun
○ spring (温泉)
Part3-4:types and characteristics of burns first degree burns
Mild sunburn and burns caused by touching a hot pan or iron
second degree burns
Severe sunburnt and burns caused by hot liquid
third degree burns
Electric shocks ,burning clothes or Severe petrol fires
Tissue under them often can be seen.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Part 5 Treatment Take off clothing and jewelry near ________ the burns. Cool ______ the burns with cool water. Place cool, clean wet cloths on ______ the burns. Dry ______ the burned area gently. Cover the burned area with a dry ______ clean bandage. Keep ______ the burned area higher than ______ the heart, if possible. Get to ______ the victim ____the doctor or hospital, if possible.
1 In which order are these topics covered in the text? Number them from 1 to 5.
3 the three types of burns 5 what to do if someone gets burned 1 the functions of the skin 4 the symptoms of burns 2 how we get burns
2 Read the text again and then label these pictures first, second and third degree burns.
second degree burn
first degree burn
third degree burn
3 Answer the questions
1. Why should you put cold water on a burn? Because the cold water stops the burning process, stops the pain and reduces the swelling. 2. Why doesn’t a third degree burn hurt? Because in the third degree burn the nerves have been damaged. If there are no nerves, there is no pain.
3. Why do you think clothes and jewellery near burns should be removed? Because bacteria from the clothes and jewellery could infect the burns. 4. If someone has a third degree burn, why might you see tissue? Because all the layers of the skin have been burnt showing the tissue underneath.
4 Read the first aid treatments for these burns. If the treatment is right, write R in the brackets. If it is wrong, write W in the brackets and explain why. Then give the correct treatment.
1 Wrong: Sam should not have broken the blisters because the burns could become infected. He should have poured cool water, not icy water on the burn.
2 Right. 3 Wrong: Mr Casey was right to take his wife’s blouse off but he should not have picked bits of blouse off the burn. The correct first aid treatment for a third degree burn is to remove clothing and jewellery near the burn but not if the clothing is stuck to the burn. He should not have put butter on the burn because it would have stopped the heat from escaping. 4 Right.
1. First aid is a temporary form of help given to someone who suddenly falls ill or gets injured before a doctor can be found.
1) Ellen has got a temporary job. 艾伦找到一份临时工作。
2) first aid 急救 give/offer/do first aid First aid is of great help in our daily life. 急救在我们的日常生活中帮助很大。
短语联想 give/offer aid 援助 come to sb’s aid 帮助某人 cut off aid （突然）终止援助 a hearing aid 助听器 teaching aids 教具 medical aid 医疗救护 with the aid of 借助于,通过……的帮助 in aid of 为了帮助
3） fall ill 生病，病倒，其中fall 为连系动词 fall + adj. fall asleep 睡着了 ____________ fall silent 静下来 _____________ fell ill His son suddenly ____ ___ last week. 他儿子上周突然生病了。 She has _____ ___ for a week. been ill 她已经病了一个星期。
? hurt ? injure ? wound
肉体，精神上的伤害（一般用语），疼痛 ?意外或事故而受伤 ?指外伤（刀、枪、剑伤）
?He got _________ in the fighting. wounded ?He was badly _______ in a car accident. injured
?Her words ________ me deeply. hurt injured ?I _________ my back when I fell. hurt ?My feet _______ .
2 bleed-blood-bloody (v.) (n.) (adj.)
他在流鼻血。 His nose was bleeding. bleeding at the nose = He was __________________ .
bloody = He has a _______ nose.
?bleed sb. white
?bleed to death ?lose blood
?flesh and blood
?new/ fresh blood ?新人
3. choke vi. & vt. 窒息; 阻塞 She choked with emotion.
她激动得说不出话来。 The smoke almost choked me.
The hall was filled with choking clouds of smoke. 大厅里充满了使人窒息的烟雾。
4. You have three layers of skin which act as a barrier against diseases, poisons and the sun’s harmful rays. 1）There are several layers of meaning. 有几层不同的含意。 2）barrier 屏障，障碍物，隔阂 You need to show the ticket at the barrier. 你需要在检票处出示(你的）票。 the language barrier 语言的隔阂 3）Small quantities of poison were detected in the dead man's stomach. 在死者胃中找到了少量的毒药。
5 sense (n. & v.)
sense of touch sense of sight
sense of hearing sense of smell
sense of taste the sixth sense!
? 幽默感 ? 责任感 ? 方向感
humour duty direction
?The man has ___________________ . (无常识) no common sense
made no sense ?What he said ____________________ .(没道理) ?sense (v.) 感觉到
?Although she didn’t say anything, _____________________________________ . I sensed that she didn’t like the idea
sense of touch 触觉 sense of sight 视觉 sense of hearing 听觉 sense of taste 味觉 sense of smell 嗅觉 sense of humor 幽默感 sense of beauty 美感 sense of direction 方向感
sense of honor 荣誉感 sense of values 价值观 sense of justice 正义感 sense of hunger 饥饿感 sense of responsibility 责任感 the sixth sense 第六感 make sense 有道理;讲得通 make no sense 没有意义, 讲不通
common sense 常识
6 Burns are called first, second or third degree burns, depending on which layers of the skin are burned.
depending on which layers of the skin are burned 为现在分词短语作状语。
Charles Darnay left France, preferring to
give up his fortune.
depend on 相信，依赖，依靠，取决于
You can’t depend on John-he nearly always arrives late. The country depends heavily on its tourist trade. The amount you pay depends on where you live.
It all depends on whether she like the boss or not.
He is the mildest man you could wish to meet. mild weather a mild climate mild, gentle, soft mild The punishment is very ______ . mild The weather is ______ . soft I like a _____ pillow. gentle He was a person of _____ birth. (身世良好) gentle/soft/ mild He spoke in a ________________ voice.
8 electric shock 触电；电休克
【巧记提示】 electric(电的)+shock(冲击；休 克) 【经典例句】 The electric shock deprived him of his life. 触电夺走了他的生命。 【考点聚焦】 同根词：electrical adj. 用电的； 与电有关的；electricity n.电流；电； electronic adj. 电子的
其他与electric相关的搭配 electric cord 电线 electric fan电扇 electric light 电灯 electric current 电流 electric train 电动火车 electric stove 电炉 electric power 电力
9 Take off other clothing and jewellery near the burn. 1）take off (1) 脱下，脱掉 Take your coat off. (2) 休假，歇……(天)假 Take a few days off, Michael. (3) 开始有成就，开始成名 It was at this point that her acting career really took off.
(4) 升空，起飞 The plane took off so smoothly that the passengers could hardly feel it. 2） jewellery 和jewel 的辨析 两者均有“ 珍宝首饰” 之意， jewellery 为集体名词， 不可数；jewel 为 可数名词
① She appeared at the party wearing some of her finest________. A. jewels B. jewelleries C. jewel D. jewellerys ② I want to buy ____ as a birthday gift for my daughter. A. some jewel B. a piece of jewel C. a jewellery D. a piece of jewellery
10. squeeze out 榨出， 挤出 他们被年轻人挤出了就业市场。
They have been squeezed out of the job market by young people. squeeze money from sb 向某人勒索钱财 squeeze money out of sb
那个年轻人经常向那个小学生勒索钱财。 The young man often squeezes money from/out of the pupil.
11. over and over again over and over
again and again
over and again 多 次 many times from time to time
time and again
now and then now and again
time and time again
他被年轻人挤出了人才市场(squeeze out of) He was squeezed out of the job market by young people. 我一次又一次地警告过你不要再做那么傻 的事。 (over and over again) I’ve warned you over and over again not to do such silly things.
12. Hold the bandage in place with tape. 用胶布把绷带固定。 in place在适当的地方。如： ?The librarian put the returned books in place. 图书馆员把还回的图书放到原处。 ?You’d better put things back in place. 你最好把你的东西放回原位。
?give place to 为……取代；让位于 ?in place of 代替 ?out of place 在错误的位置；在不适当的 位置 ?take place 发生；举行 ?take the place of 代替，替代
Food is essential to life. 食物对生命是必不可少的。 He had brown skin. 他的皮肤是棕色的。 I put the dishes in the cupboard. 我把菜放在碗橱里。 It was a complex problem. 这是一个复杂的问题。 He left for a variety of reasons. 他由于种种原因而离开了。 Water is a liquid. 水是液体。
In the accident, the workers received a heavy dose of radiation. 在这次事故中，工人受到大剂量的辐射。 I have to buy a more economical stove. 我得买一个更节省燃料的火炉。 The hills swell gradually up from the plain. 山丘逐渐由平原膨胀起来。 The wind of early spring is sharp as scissor blade. 二月春风似剪刀 He is unbearable when he's in a bad temper. 他发脾气时让人无法忍受。
Leave a basin of water outside in freezing weather. 把一盆水放在冰冷的天气中。 The wound was bound up by bandage. 伤口用绷带包扎着。 It is vital that we move quickly. 我们必须快速离开。 Fever is a symptom of many illnesses. 发烧是许多疾病的症兆。 I felt a pull at my sleeve and turned round. 我觉得有人扯我的袖子，便转过身来。
The water in the kettle had all boiled away. 壶里的水完全烧乾了。 The rain is really pouring down. 雨下得真大。 Damp wood doesn't burn well. 潮湿的木头不好烧。 She wears a white blouse today. 今天她穿了一件白色衬衫。 He fell downstairs and broke his wrist. 他从楼梯跌下，摔伤了手腕。
Learning about Language
words and expressions
1 Complete the table with the correct verbs, nouns or adjectives. Verb
blood/bleeding bloody/bleeding sprain sprained poisonous
Verb vary organize
Adjective various organic choked watery
2 Complete the sentences with new words or phrases from the unit. 1. first aid; falls ill 2. skin; barrier; rays 3. complex; sense 4. tissue; liquid 5. vital 6. symptoms; swollen
3 1. 3. 5. 7. 9.
Complete the passage using the words or phrases provided in their proper forms.
ankle; temporary; squeezed out; blisters; bandage; 2. unbearable; 4. cupboard; 6. over and over again; 8. scissors; 10. in place
Discovering useful structures
为了避免重复，省略句中的一个或 几个成分，这种语法现象称为“省 略”。
1、省略主语 祈使句中主语通常省略；其 它省略主语多限于少数现成的说法。 (1) (I) Thank you for your help.
(2) (I) See you tomorrow.
(3) (It) Doesn’t matter. (4) (I) Beg your pardon.
2、省略主谓或主谓语的一部分 (1) (There is) No smoking .
(2) (Is there) Anything wrong ?
(3) (Will you) Have a smoke ?
(4) What/How (do you think) about a cup of tea ? (5) Why (do you) not say hello to him ?
3、省略作宾语的不定式短语，只保留to，但 如果不定式to后是be或完成时态，则须保留 be或have: (1)–Are you going there? --Yes, I’d like to (go there). (2) He didn’t give me the chance, though he had promised to (give me the chance). (3) –Are you an engineer? --No, but I want to be. (4) –He hasn’t finished the task yet. --Well, he ought to have.
(1) –Are you thirsty? --Yes, I am (thirsty).
(2) His brother isn’t lazy, nor is his sister (lazy). 5、同时省略几个成分 (1) Let’s meet at the same place as (we met) yesterday. (2) –-Have you finished your work ?
---(I have) Not (finished my work) yet.
主从复合句中的省略 1、主句中有一些成分被省略 (1) ( I’m ) Sorry to hear that you are ill. (2) ( It’s a ) Pity that he missed such a good chance. 2、not， so常用来替代从句。 (1) –Is he coming back tonight? --I think so. (2) –She must be busy now? --If so, she can’t go with us. (3) –Is she feeling better ? --I’m afraid not.
(4) –Do you think he will attend the meeting? --I guess not.
? so常用于替代肯定形式的从句， 而not常用来替代否定形式的从句。 常见的动词有：think、imagine、 guess、say、hope、fear等。 ? 这种用法常见的有：How so? Why so?
3、连词的that省略 (1) 宾语从句中常省略连词that，但也有不能 省略的情况。 (2) 在定语从句中，that在从句中作宾语时可 省略. 4、在某些状语从句中，从句的主语与主句 的主语一致时，可省去“主语+be”部分 (1) When (he was) still a boy of 10, he had to work day and night. (2) She tried her best though (she was) rather poor in health. (3) If (you are) asked you may come in. (4) If (it is) necessary I’ll explain to you again.
两个并列句中，后一个分句常省略与前一 分句中相同的部分。 (1) My father is a doctor and my mother (is) a nurse. (2) I study at college and my sister (studies) at high school. (3) When summer comes, the day is getting longer and longer, and the night (is getting) shorter and shorter.
1、不定式符号to的省略 (1)并列的不定式可省去后面的 to. I told him to sit down and wait for a moment. (2) help 当“帮助”讲时，后面的宾语或宾补 的不定式符号to可带可不带. I will help (to) do it for you. I will help you (to) do it. （3）介词but前若有动词do,后面的不定式不 带 to. The boy did nothing but play.
(4) 某些使役动词（let, make, have）及感官动 词（see, watch, hear, notice, observe, feel, look at, listen to等）后面作宾语补足语的不 定式一定要省去 to, 但在被动语态中须将to 复原。 I saw the boy fall off the tree. The boy was seen to fall off the tree. The boss made us work 12 hours a day. We were made to work 12 hours a day.
(5) 主语从句中有动词do,后面作表语的不定 式的 to可带可不带。 All we can do now is (to) wait. What we can do now is (to) wait. (6) find 当“发现”讲时，后面作宾语补足语的 不定式符号to可带可不带。 We found him (to) work very hard at the experiment. 但如果是不定式 to be，则不能省略。 She found him to be dishonest.
2、连词if在部分虚拟条件句中可省略， 但后面的语序有变化。 (1) Had they time, they would certainly come and help us. (2) Were I you, I would do the work better.
(3）Should there be a flood, what should we do?
The sooner (you do it), the better (it will be).
(1) (I) Beg your pardon. (2) (It) Sounds like a good idea. (1) (Is) Anybody here? (2) (Is there) Anything I can do for you? A: Where has Mr. Smith gone? B: Sorry, I don’t know (where he has gone.)
省略主语 省略谓语或谓 语的一部分 省略宾语
(1) (Are you) Hungry? (2) (I want) Orange juice, please.
A: Would you like to come
to the party?
B: I’d love to (come the party.)
1 Can you find at least three sentences
with ellipsis from the Warming Up and the Reading? Write down the sentences you found below.
the illness or injury is not serious, but there are other times when (the illness or injury is serious and ) giving first aid quickly can save lives.
are called first (degree burns), second (degree burns) or third degree burns …
affect both the top (layer of the skin) and the second layer of the skin.
2 In groups, look at these pairs of
sentences. Discuss the difference between A and B in each pair. Also discuss which is the better sentence and why.
The difference between sentence A and B:
There are lots of repeated words and phrases in sentence A. ● Sentence B is better than Sentence A because it doesn’t have unnecessary repetition in it, and it is easier to understand and it sounds much less awkward than sentence A.
3 Rewrite these sentences by taking out the unnecessary parts.
1. The burn that she got from the iron was red and ( was)very painful. it 2. A boy was on the left side of the sick woman, and a girl was on the right (____ the sick______). side of woman
3. She has a daughter who is)in hospital. (
4. He went to the doctor because he had to (go to the doctor . ) 5. Did she pass the first aid test that she did yesterday or didn’t not pass? she ( ) 6. She could not decided whether to send him to hospital or not to send him to hospital.
7. When your nose is bleeding, you should
bend forward so that the blood runs out of your nose and the blood doesn’t run not down your throat.
8. Only some of the students have done a
first aid course but most of the students
haven’t done a first aid course.
These sentences are correct.
However, one or more words have
been left out. Can you tell your partner which words are missing ?
1 The temple surrounded by a wall
belongs to the local government. The temple (which is) surrounded by a wall belongs to the local government.
2) The first book I read this term was more interesting than the second. The first book (that) I read this term was more interesting than the second (book that I read this term).
3 To her teacher’s surprise, she did
better in her first aid exam than
To her teacher’s surprise, she did better in her first aid exam than (she was) expected (to do). 在than, as引导的比较 状语从句中的省略
4 I don’t think they have returned from
the hospital, but they might have. I don’t think they have returned from the hospital, but they might have
(returned from the hospital). 在并列中，后面分句中与前面分
5 He wanted to help the accident victim
but his friend didn’t.
He wanted to help the accident victim but his friend didn’t (want to help the accident victim).
6 You can borrow my first aid notes if
you want to.
You can borrow my first aid notes
if you want to (borrow my first aid
7 Sounds like a good idea. (It) sounds like a good idea. 8 Anything I can do for you? (Is there) anything I can do for you?
Using structures on page 71 Answer key for Exercise 1 1. It’s still bleeding and very painful. 2. Yes, I’d love you to . 3. Yes, I’ll do it now. 4. Yes, let’s do that.
5. No, I don’t think so.
Answer key for Exercise 2
1. I beg your pardon? 2. I haven’t seen you for ages. 3. I’m sorry to hear that. 4. Are you coming swimming? 5. Have you found her telephone number yet?
6. Would you like some more tea?/ Do
you want some more tea? 7. It doesn’t matter. 8. It’s a pity that you couldn’t come. 9. That/ It sounds fine to me. 10. What terrible weather it is!
Suggested answers to Exercise 3 JENNY: I’ve heard there’s a ghost in this castle that comes out in the middle of the day.
RALPH: Really? Are you sure?
JENNY: Well, this one’s a queen. She was very young and her husband, the king, was very old. He saw her dancing with a young man of the court.
RALPH: Dancing with a young man! Oh dear! JENNY: Well, the king didn’t like it so he had her killed. RALPH: Had her killed! So cruel!
JENNY: They say that it’s her ghost running to the king to ask him to forgive her.
RALPH: Have you seen it? JENNY: No, never, but I’ve met people who say they have.
RALPH: Well, I don’t believe in ghosts but it’s good story to frighten people who do!
Reading and discussing
Heroic Teenager Receives Award
What do you think the article is about by reading the headline and the first paragraph?
The story is about a young man who sets us a good example because he could save one’s life using his knowledge of first aid.
Answer the following questions.
1 Who is the heroic teenager?
A 17-year-old teenager, John Janson.
2 What is the award? He was honored at the Lifesaver Awards. 3 Where and when was he awarded? In Rivertown last night. 4 Why does he receive the award? For carrying out first aid on a neighbor after a knife attack.
5. What happened to Anne?
She had been stabbed repeatedly with a knife and was bleeding heavily. Her hands had almost been cut off. 6. What saved Ms Slade’s life?
John’s quick action and knowledge of first aid saved her life.
7. How did John think of what he had done?
He was proud of what he did but he thought he was just doing what he’d been taught.
1 Read the article and then put these events in the order . 4 __ The attacker ran away. 2 __ Anne was attacked and started to scream. __ John performed first aid on Anne 6 1 __ John was studying in his house. __ The ambulance arrived. 7 __ John ran outside with his father. 3 __ John found Anne in her garden 5 with terrible knife wounds.
2 What first aid did John perform on
treated John _________ Ms Slade’s injuries with ____________; tea towels applied pressure and then he ________________ to the wounds to __________________. slow the bleeding
3 What adjectives would you use to describe John’s actions? Give at least three. brave confident fearless heroic courageous quick-thinking
4 In groups, discuss these questions.
1 Do you think John was silly or brave to get involved in the situation? Give your reasons.
Some possibilities: John was silly: he could have been attacked also, it was none of his business, the woman might have had AIDS.
John was brave: he could have been attacked too, but he didn’t think about his own safety. All he thought about was how to help the victim.
2. Would you have done the same as John? Give your reasons. 3. Do you think it is worthwhile to take a course in first aid? Give your reasons.
1. John was presented with his award at a ceremony which recognized the bravery of ten people who had saved the life of another. be presented with sth=be given with sth which 引导一个定语从句 who引导一个定语从句
2. They discovered that Anne Slade, mother of three, had been stabbed repeatedly with a knife.
repeatedly 是由动词repeat的过去分 词加-ly构成。类似的词汇有：
excitedly 兴奋地 contentedly 满足地 worriedly 焦急地 unexpectedly 出乎意料地
3. It was John’s quick action and knowledge of first aid that saved Ms Slade’s life. It is/was … that… 强调句 It was his words that hurt her. It was her that his words hurt . It was yesterday that I met him .
4. put one’s hands on 找到 I know their address is here somewhere, but I can’t put my hands on it (找到它) right now.
Whatever he puts his hands on (他无论 着手做什么), he does it extraordinarily well.
5. John used these to treat the most severe injuries to Ms Slade’s hand. 1) treat 处理 ；治疗 He was treated for severe sunburn.
2) treat 对待，把… 看作，请客
The stepmother treated Cinderella(灰姑 娘) very badly. Please treat everything I said as a joke. I’ll treat you all to dinner.
6. It shows that a knowledge of first aid can make a real difference. make a (some, no, etc) difference 有（一些，没有什么）区别 ? It makes no difference to you whether I like it or not, because you never listen to me. ? It doesn’t make any difference to me where you come from.
The marriage ceremony took place in the church 婚礼在教堂举行。 His bravery is admirable. 他的勇气令人钦佩。 A number of questions came up at the meeting. 会议上提出了许多问题。 The water pressure may need adjusting. 水压可能需要调整。 An ambulance dashed to the scene of the accident. 救护车风驰电掣赶往事故现场。 This rule cannot be applied to every case. 这项规则不是所有情况都使用。
Listening, speaking and writing
1 The first aid teacher is testing her students’ knowledge of first aid. Before you listen, read the words below and guess the topics the teacher will ask questions about. Then listen to the tape and circle the words you hear.
clothes on fire bleeding snake bites bruising
broken bones choking nosebleed sprained ankle
2 Look at these pictures. Listen to the tape again and number them in the correct order.
3 Listen to each part of the tape. In
pairs discuss what you have heard and fill in the chart so that you know the treatment that should be given for each situation.
Part Situation Treatment 1
1 squeeze her nose a nosebleed 2 sit down and let her bend forward slightly 1 stop him running round someone’s clothes on 2 tell him to drop to the ground and cover him fire with a thick cloth
Part Situation Treatment 2
3 roll him on the ground someone’s till the fire is out clothes on fire 4 treat him for burns
1 bend him forward 2 give him four quick hard slaps between his shoulder blades
Part Situation Treatment 1 sit him down 4 a sprained 2 put ice on the ankle ankle 3 put foot up on a chair
4 bandage up his ankle tightly
A FIRST AID QUIZ The first aid teacher (T) is testing her students’ knowledge of first aid. Listen to her questions and her students’ answers. T = teacher S = Sarah P =Peter R = Rachel J =Jim G = Gary
T: We’ve looked at several first aid treatments. Now let’s see just what you can remember. OK. Let’s say Lucy has a nosebleed. What should she do … Sarah? S: Sit down and bend forward slightly. Squeeze her nose just below the bridge until the bleeding stops.
T: Why should she lean forward? P: So she gets the blood all over the floor instead of on her clothes. (everyone laughs) T: Very funny, Peter. Rachel? R: So the blood runs out of her nose and not down her throat. If you swallow blood you might be sick. (everyone groans) T: That’s right.
T: OK, next situation. What should you do if someone’s clothes are on fire? Jim?
J: Stop him from running around, as
that makes clothes burn faster. Tell
him to drop to the floor and cover him
up tightly with some thick cloth.
T: And then what? J: Roll him along the ground until the fire goes out. Then treat him for burns. T: Good. Part 3 T: OK, what about this one? What if your friend has got a piece of food caught in his throat and he’s choking? Gary？
G: Nothing. But if he can’t cough, I’d bend him forwards and give him four quick hard slaps between his shoulder blades with my hand. T: Yes, that should do the trick. Part 4 T: Now Peter, what if Ben badly sprained his ankle playing football?
P: I’d get him to sit down and put some
ice on his ankle to reduce the swelling. Then I’d tell him to put his foot up on a chair. Then I’d bandage his ankle up tightly. T: Great. Now let’s talk about snake bites. What if a snake bites you?
P: Bite it back! (everyone laughs)
T: Thank you, Peter. (said with
amused tolerance) Now the first
thing to remember is … (fading out)
4 In pairs, give your partner first aid instructions for each situation using the pictures above. Then write down your first aid instructions using the following expressions.
Now listen carefully.
Follow these instructions. Watch out for … Look out for … and …
Don’t … because … Be careful (not) to … Make sure that … Mind you do / don’t … Take care to … Cover … with … If it is … go to the hospital. Never …
First aid instructions:
1 the nosebleed
Now listen carefully and do what I say. Sit her down and make sure that she is bending forward slightly. Let the blood run out of her nose and not down her throat. Take care to squeeze her nose just below the bridge to stop the bleeding. Wait until the bleeding stops.
2 someone’s clothes on fire Be sure to follow these instructions carefully. Never let the person run around. Tell him to drop to the floor. Then cover the person with a thick blanket to put out the fire. Watch out that the flames do not start up again. Finally roll him along the ground，until the fire goes out. If the burns are serious, send him to the hospital as soon as possible.
3 choking To help the person who is choking ,you may follow these instructions. Try to make the person cough. Make sure that he is bending forwards. Then give him five quick, hard slaps between the shoulder blades with your hand. If the choking does not cease, take him to hospital immediately.
4 an ankle sprain Be sure you listen carefully. Sit the boy down. Don’t let him put his weight on his injured ankle. Tell him to put his foot up on a chair. Make sure to put some ice on his ankle to bring down the swelling. Then tie up the ankle with bandage tightly.
Write down what you have learned about first aid.
In this unit, we have learnt that first aid is a temporary form of help given to someone who suddenly falls ill or gets injured before a doctor can be found. We have also learnt that it is the medical help which we give to somebody immediately after an accident. We do not have to be a doctor to give somebody first aid. But we have to know what to do.
From this unit you have also learned ●useful verbs: bleed, choke, poison, swell, squeeze, pour, treat, apply… ● useful nouns: aid, injury, ankle, skin, organ, barrier, poison, ray, variety… ● useful adjectives: temporary, essential, complex, mild, watery, vital … ● useful expressions: fall ill, a variety of, squeeze out, over and over again… ● a new grammar item: Ellipsis .
Using structures on page 70 Answer key for Exercise 1
Down 1 blouse 2 basin 3 ray 6 sleeve
2 bravery 9 pressure 7 bandage 10 apply 8 choke
Answer key for Exercise 2 poured, over,
poured, on, squeezed, out,
put, on, tied, around
Suggest answers to Exercise 3
1 you need to practise it over and over again until it’s perfect. 2 a number of them to choose from
3 as soon as I can put my hands on one. 4 I’ll hold it in place for you while you stick it on the wall. 5 A knowledge of first aid can make a real difference.
Suggest answers to Exercise 4
1 Her symptoms showed that she had
second degree burns on her wrist.
2 You can slow bleeding by applying pressure to the injury.
3 Kate showed great bravery when she tried to stop the man stabbing the woman.
4 Show me that bruise on your throat; it looks rather serious. 5 Martin had called the ambulance service a number of times before they arrived.