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高考定语从句及练习(十一)


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第十一章

定语从句

定语从句是在句中起形容词作用的句子,通常修饰它前面的名词或代词。 高考重点要求: 1、 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句区别和结构特点。 2、 关系代词 who, which, that, whose,whom 引导定语从句时的使用特点。 3、 关系副词 when, where, why 引导定语从句时的使用特点。 4、 as 引导定语从句的使用。

第一节

知识点概述

定语从句在句中起定语作用,修饰某一名词或代词。定语从句所修饰的词叫先行词, 定语从句放在先行词后面。引导定语从句的关系代词,指人的有 who、whom、that、whose, 指物的有 which、that、whose。 定语从句分为两类:限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句是主句中 的先行词不可缺少的定语, 不可用逗号分开。 非限制性定语从句只对主句中的先行词作附加 说明,关系不密切,主句与从句之间用逗号分开,不能用 that 连接。例如: I have a sister who works in a bank. 限制性定语从句(我有一个在银行工作的姐姐。 ) I have a sister, who works in a bank. 非限制性定语从句(我有一个姐姐,在银行工作。 ) 关系代词 whose 在定语从句中作定语.例如: Edison is a great inventor(whose)fame is world-wide. 关系代词 that 和 which 都可以指物,但先行词为不定代词以及先行词被序数词或最高 级形容词修饰时用 that。 引导定语从句的关系副词有 when、where、why。例如: The day (when)I helped the old man out was a very happy one for me. The reason(why)the gamblers lose in the end is that they are dishonest. 关系副词的先行词总是表示时间、地点或理由的名词。 As 引导的定语从句 (1)as 用作关系代词和关系副词引导限制性定语从句,并在从句中作定语、 表语或状语, 构成 the same?as,such?as 等结构。例如: I like the same book as you do. I want to do it in the same way as you did. (2)as 引导非限制性定语从句.as 在定语从句中作主语,表语或宾语,这个定语从句说明 整个句子,它可以放在主句之前。例如: As is known to all, he is the best student in our class.

第二节 实战演练
一 、 复 习 时 需 注 意 的 要 点

1、关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致. 2、 关系代词 whom, which, that 在限制性定语从句中作动词宾语或介词宾语,而该介词又位于 从句末尾时,经常省略,但 as 一般不省略. 3、关系代词 which 在非限制性定语从句中不能放在句首,as 既能在句首也能在句中. 4、that 在定语从句中可以指人或物,在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语.但不能放在介词后面 作介词宾语。 例如:The letter that I received was from my father. 5、先行词是不定代词:all, few, little, much, something, nothing, anything 等,只能用 that。 例如:That’s all (that)I want to say. 6、先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,只能用 that。 例如:This is the most exciting film (that) I have ever seen. 7、先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the last 修饰时,只能用 that。 例如:He is the only person that attended the meeting. 8、 先行词表示地点时,有时用 where,有时用 that, which 来引导定语从句.这时要根据从句的谓 语动词是及物还是不及物,是及物的就用 that(which),否则用 where。 例如:This is the factory where we worked last year. This is the factory that (which)we visited.

二 、 历 届 高 考 试 题 分 析 例 1、If a shop has chairs ____ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop. A. that B. which C. when D. where 答案为 D 【解析】 关系副词 where 连接定语从句,其中 where= in/ on which。 例 2、We will be shown around the city: schools, museums, and some other places, ________ other visitors seldom go. A. what B. which C. where D. when 答案为 C。 【解析】 这是一个定语从句,先行词是 places,表示地点,非限定性定语从句中缺少状 语,因此用 where 来引导定语从句,故要填 where。这句话的意思是我们被带领着参观了 这座城市的学校、博物馆和其他一些游人很少去的地方。 例 3、Alec asked the policeman _______ he worked to contact him whenever there was an accident. A. with him B. who C. with whom D. whom 答案为 C。 【解析】 这是一个定语从句,the policeman 是先行词。work 是不及物动词, “work with sb.”意为“与某人共事” ,所以定语从句应为 with whom he worked。这句话的意思是无论 何时发生事故时,Alec 要求与他一起工作的警察与他联系。 例 4、Is this the reason _______at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A. he explained B. what he explained

C. how he explained D. why he explained 答案为 A。 【解析】 the reason 后接定语从句。因为先行词 the reason 作 explained 的宾语,用 that 或 which 引导定语从句在从句中作宾语时省略。 这句话的意思是这就是他在会议上对他为 什么在工作上粗心大意的理由所作的解释吗? 例 5、The film brought the hours back to me _____ I was taken good care of in that far-away village. A. until B. that C. when D. where 答案为 C。 【解析】 when 引导定语从句(the hours 的定语),修饰先行词 the hours,when 在从句中作 状语。这句话的意思是这部电影使我回忆起我在那偏远的村庄得到无微不至的照顾的时 光。 例 6、Have you seen the film “Titanic”, ________leading actor is world-famous? A. its B. it's C. whose D. which 答案选 C。 【解析】 这是一个定语从句,因为先行词 the film “Titanic”和 leading actors 是所属关 系,所以要填写 whose。 例 7、Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, ________ was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose 答案为 B。 【解析】 这是一个非限制性定语从句。根据句意可知之中的是花瓶的价格。在定语从句 中表示“谁的” ,可以这样表达,如:I live in the room whose windows face south(名词前没 有冠词,用 whose)=I live in the room the windows of which face south(如果名词前有冠词就 用 of which)。 例 8、Carol said the work would be done by October, ________personally I doubt very much. A. it B. that C. when D. which 答案选 D。 【解析】 在这个非限制性定语从句中,关系代词 which 代替 Carol 所说的话。这句话的 意思是“Carol 说工作将在十月完成,我个人对此表示怀疑。 ” 例 9、 It was an exciting moment for these football fans this year, _____ for the first time in years their team won World Cup. A. that B. while C. which D. when 答案为 D。 【解析】 从从句的意思: “这是他们多年来第一次赢得世界杯, ”可推知,从句是对表示 时间的先行词加以说明,先行词是主句中表示时间的名词 an exciting moment this year,而 非整个句子,故选 D。 例 10、John said he’d been working in the office for an hour, _____ was true. A. he B. this C. which D. who

答案为 C。 【解析】 该非限制性定语从句缺少主语,A、B 两项不能用作关系代词,D 项只能指代 人,而该从句需要关系代词指代主句所说的事实用 which。

第三节 巩固练习
Direction: Beneath each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer that completes the sentence. 1. The English play _____ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great success. A. for which A. Which A. took street? A. this…who…who C. that…that…who days. A. of which others envy him. A. who A. Something A.making A.of which A. where A. the real name frequently. A. who quickly. A. which A. Anyone B. where B. One C. there C. Those who D. what D. No matter who 14. ______break the law will be punished. B. as C. about which D. with whom 13. A fast food restaurant is the place _____, just as the name suggests, eating is performed B. that B. All B.makes B.which of B. which C. what C. Both C.make C.of them C. when D. which D. Everything D.made D.of that D. that D. whose real name 7. It is easy to do the repair. _____ you need is a hammer and some nails. 8. The person we spoke to ____ no answer at first. 9. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year , 80% _____ are sold abroad . 10. There were dirty marks on her trousers _____ she had wiped her hands. 11. George Orwell, _____ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political novels and essays. B. what his real name C. his real name 12. American women usually identify their best friend as someone _____ they can talk B. during which C. from which D. for which 6. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, _____ of course, made the B. which…that…that D. it…who…that B. at which B. When B. had been taken C. in which C. What D. on which D. As 2. _____ is often the case, we have worked out the production plan. 3. Everything he ____ away from him before he returned to his hometown. C. had had been taken D. had taken 4. Was _____ Bill _____ played basketball very well _____ helped the blind man across the

5. The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months, _____ the sailing time was 226

15. Will you please show me the girl ______name is Lee. A. her A. it A. in that we live C. where we live in 18. Hay ______too much moisture will spoil. A. contains A. where are found bats C. where bats are found A. how A. which was stolen C. to have been stolen 22. The man ______had little information. A. I spoke of A. for which A. of which A. the way right away. A. which A. all what good habits. A. that are A. that A. which A. which A. them A. some if them B. as they are B. from which B. where B. in which B. who B. which of some C. as are C. from where C. on which C. by which C. whom C. of which few D. that they are D. which D. in that D. about which D. which D. few of whose 29. Supermarkets ______people buy nearly everything continue to appear in China . 30. The train ______she was traveling was late . 31. Most of the classmates wanted to know the way ______he learns new course. 32. The room was full of students , ten of ______are from foreign countries. 33. He has many habits, ______ are harmful. B. who’s B. that C. of whom C. all D. whose D. all which 27. This is ______ I want to say . 28. The students should be encouraged to read such books ______ good for them informing B. of who I spoke B. which B. which B. the way in that C. I spoke of whom C. why C. such as C. the way which D. whom I spoke D. about which D. as D. the way of which 23. The reason ______ he gives for not coming is that his mother won’t let him. 24. This steel pipe has the same diameter _____ that plastic one has. 25. I don’t like ______ you speak to you parents. 26. The boy ______leg was broken when he fell off the bike was sent to the nearest hospital B. what B. that containing C. that contains D. which to contain 19. Caves and hollow trees are not the only places ______. B. where bats are found in D. in which bats to find C. why B. that was stolen D. Having been stolen D. when B. who’s B. that C. whose C. what B. on which we live D. we live in D. which D. which 16. It was raining again , ______is very bad for our drops. 17. The world ______is made up of matter.

20. Now we can fly to Tokyo .There was a time ______ we had to take a boat. 21. This is the very car ______ yesterday.

34. The furniture _____ I ordered was sent to the wrong address. A. in which A. many of them were C. many of whom were A. which A. where A. which A. who of a mile in width. A. what A. the details of which A. the Indians made of C. for the Indians to make of A. where A. in which A. that bought it. A. which…that …. that C. which…it… where A. which qualifications. A. once…who C. that … few of which A. in which B. by which B. where….most of who D. which…few of whom C. with which D. on which B. where B. that…which…where D. where…it…that C. that D. what B. which B. by which B. when B. where B. which details C. that C. the details D. whose D. the details of that 41. They have started an investigation, _______are being kept secret. 42. I was stuck by the limited use _______ their natural resources. B. which the Indians made D. for the Indians making of C. in that C. from which C. where D. with which D. with which D. who B. that B. by which B. that B. which B. where C. when B. many of them D. many whom were C. when C. in which C. who C. that D. in which D. with which D. as D. as D. which 35. Thirty people were sent to the hospital after accident, _____ children.

36. This is the school _____ my little brother studied years ago. 37. Nearby were two boats _____ they had come to the island. 38. What’s that _____ was flashed in the sky just now? 39. Who is the man _____was standing at the door ? 40. Although violent , tornadoes are small storms ______paths aren’t usually more than a quarter

43. The architect’s task is to design buildings ______ are functional and beautiful. 44. The speed ______ light travels is said to be the maximum in the universe. 45. Why do you blame me for everything _____ goes wrong. 46. Ann bought a dress ______ didn’t fit her, so she took ______ back to the shop ______ she

47. Yesterday we visited the City Museum, ______ I’d never been to before. 48. A lot of people applied for the job _______ was advertised, ______had the necessary

49. We can see now in a very general way the method ______the computer works. 50. Are these glasses ______? A. which you wish will be repaired C. the one you wish to repair B. the ones you wish to have repaired D. that you wish to be repaired



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