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10. 虚拟语气:if条件句


10.虚拟语气:if条件句

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?什么是虚拟语气? ?具体用法:if句型;用于从句;其他 ?练习

英语动词一般可带有三种不同的语气 (mood):陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。

不同的语气用动词不同的形式(有的还借助 句法形式)来表示。

一、陈述语气 (

The Indicative Mood)

用来陈述事实,有肯定、否定、疑问或感叹等形式。如: 1. My father and I drove over to the village to see Mr Wu. 2. People don't hibernate. 3. What a strange-looking person (he is)! 4. Are you joking?

二、祈使语气 (The Imperative Mood)
用来表示请求、命令或劝告等。 如: 1.Sit down, please. 2.Don't say it in Chinese. Say it in English, please. 3.Let me have a try. 4.Let him go.

三、虚拟语气 (The Subjunctive Mood)
表示说的话不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而是 一种愿望、建议或与事实相反的假设等。一般常用于正 式的书面语中。 该语法主要用于if条件状语从句。也可用于主语从句、 表语从句、宾语从句等。 通常有三种情况: ①与过去事实相反。 (过去虚拟) ②与现在事实相反。 (现在虚拟) ③与将来事实可能相反。(将来虚拟) “后退一步法” ①与过去事实相反,在从句中用过 去完成时形式表示。 ②与现在事实相反,用一般过去 时形式表示。 ③与将来事实可能相反,用过去将来时 形式表示。

?

一、虚拟语气在条件句中

虚拟条件句 与现在 事实相 反的假 设 If+主语+动词的过去式 (动词be用were)

主句

主语+should,would, might,could+动词 原形

与过去 相反的 假设

If+主语+had +过去分词

主语+should, would, might, could +have done

与将来 相反的 假设

1、If+主语+动词过去式 主语+should, would 2、If+主语+were to+ 动词原形 3、If+主语+should +动词原形 might, could+动词 原形

?1.与现在事实相反 ?如果我是你,我就丌去做这件事。 ?If I were you,I wouldn't do it. ?你要是赶快,你是会搭上车的。(可你是这样慢吞吞 的。) ?If you hurried,you would catch the bus.

?要是他在这儿,一切都没问题了。
?If he were here,everything would be all right.

?2.与过去事实相反

?如果你早点儿起来,你就会赶上火车了。
?If you had got up earlier,you would have caught the train. ?如果我那时在那儿,我就帮助她了。 ?If I had been there,I would have helped her. ?我要丌是听了你的劝告,就会犯大错误。 ?If I hadn't taken your advice,I would have made a big mistake.

?3.与将来事实相反
?如果明天下雨,我们就待在家里。(最近天气好,下 雨的可能性丌大。)

?If it rained tomorrow,we should stay at home.
?如果他来,我就能跟他谈谈。 ?If he should come,I could have a talk with him. ?要是我来做这件事,我会用另一种方法。 ?If I were to do it,I would do it in a different way.

If虚拟句的倒装
if省略句

虚拟条件句中的 if 从句部分如果含有 were/should/had, 可

将 if 省略,再把 were/should/had 提到从句句首,变为倒装句式。
如:

万一下雨,我们将不得不推迟比 赛。
In case of rain, In case it rains,

If it should rain,

Should it rain,

we will have to put off the sports meet.

如果条件状语中有were, had, should时, 可 以倒装成:Were / Should / Had +主+其他
如果我是你,我会再试一次。 If I were you, I would try it again.

Were I you, …

如果他昨天在那儿的话,他就会看那部电影了。 If he had been there yesterday, he would have seen the film.

Had he been there yesterday, … Should it snow tomorrow, …

如果明天下雪,我们就不出去了。 If it should snow tomorrow, we wouldn’t go out.

?如:Were it not for the expense, I would go abroad now.(√)

? ?

Weren't it for the expense, I would go abroad now.(×)
了。

要不是因为费用问题,我现在就出国

?4.省略if的虚拟条件从句

?如果条件状语从句的谓语动词有were,had或should, 可以把if省去,而把were,had或should移到主语前 面,以倒装形式表示虚拟条件。例如: ?Were I you,I would do the same.
?如果我是你,我也会这样做。(=If I were you)

?Had you come yesterday,you would have met him.
?如果你昨天来,你就见到他了。(=If you had come yesterday)

?万一发生洪水,我们怎么办? ?Should there be a flood,what should we do?(=If there should be a flood) ?他若是来,我就可能跟他去。 ?Were he to come,I might go with him.(= If he were to come)

? 5.错综时间条件句 ? 当条件从句表示的动作和主句表示的动作发生的时间丌一致的 时候(如一个发生在过去,一个发生在现在),动词的形式要根 据它所表示的时间来调整。例如: ? 如果他当时听了我的话,现在就丌会遇到麻烦了。 ? If he had listened to me,he would not be in trouble now. ? 如果过去天气好一些,现在庄稼还会长得更好。 ? If the weather had been more favorable,the crops would be growing still better. ? 假如他昨天告诉我了,我现在就会知道该怎么办了。 ? If he had told me yesterday,I should know what to do now.

含蓄条件句
含蓄条件句是指句中没有明显的虚拟条件句,而是利用其
他手段来暗示虚拟条件句。这类隐含式的虚拟条件句往往都可 以转化为由 if 引导的条件句。 (1)由介词或介词短语暗示虚拟结构。常见的介词或介词短 语有:without (没有), but for (要不是)等。如: 要是没有电,人类今天的生活将会不一样。

Without electricity ( =If there were no electricity), human lif would quite different today. 要不是那个会议,昨晚我就去参加你的聚会了。

But for the meeting ( = If it hadn't been for the meeting), I would have gone to your party last night.

(2)由并列连词或副词暗示虚拟结构。常见的并列连词或副 词有:but, or, otherwise (要不然)等。如:

要不是我妈妈阻止,我肯定和朋友去美国了。

I would have gone to America with my friend, but I wa stopped by my mother. 今早他要是早点起床,他肯定能赶上第一趟班车。

He didn't get up earlier this morning; otherwise, he would h caught the first bus.

1.I was ill that day. 0therwise, I ___________________ (take ) part in the sports would have taken meet. might have given 2.I _______________ (give) you more help, but I was too busy. 3.Without electricity, it would behard for us to ______ live. 4.But for water, it ________ (be) impossible to would be live in the desert.

1.____the exam, he would have attended a college.

A. If he passed C. Were he passed

B. Had he passed D. If he should pass

2.___five minutes earlier, you could have seen them off.

A. If you should arrive B. If you arrive C. Had you arrived D. Should you arrive

Thanks for your attention!


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