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Unit 3 Reading Text A


UNIT 3 READING TEXT A

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
Global Warming
Greenhouse Gases Gases that stop heat from escaping from the atmosphere and

cause the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. Computer Climate Models Computer models are one of the most useful tools for studying climate. While the answers they give climate scientists are far from perfect, they are often better than any others. Climate is an interlocking system that includes far more than just the atmosphere. It is affected by the oceans, the icecaps, the land surface, living things, the sun, and so on. Moreover, climate change is a process that happens over many time-scales; some measured in years, and some measured in tens of thousands of years. Because the climate system is so huge and complex, its workings are hard to picture and understand.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
Global Warming
A computer model can represent the climate system conceptually, using the laws of physics to simulate how climate might change over time. Most of us have seen TV pictures showing the track a hurricane might take as it hits land. Those are computer models of weather. Climate models are similar in principal, except that they look at the entire globe and try to represent the larger-scale air circulation patterns (e.g., trade winds) that govern climate. Such models are called General Circulation Models (GCMs). Computer climate models provide scientists with a useful method of estimating how the climate system may change in the future.

UNIT3 READING TEXT A
Fill in the blanks without referring to the original text. Then check your answers against the original. After that, read the passage aloud until you can say it from memory.

Global warming has been proven and disproven using computer climate models. Believers_____ global in show that in the next century warming use them to ______ there will be a __________ rise in the earth’s significant temperature, and an increase in the height of sea levels. suggest that the models are Global warming skeptics ________ on fact, and that they can not be not entirely based _______ ________. trusted

Unit 3 Reading Text A

Reading Through

New Words

Structure & Main Idea

Intensive Reading

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
New Words environmental issue define emit atmosphere exist viewpoint significant lightly skeptic phenomenon valid data disprove climate argument analysis dramatically shield trap coastline widespread outbreak alarm polar disappear predict misrepresent occur skew

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
Phrases & Expressions for or against base ...on / upon act as in danger of attribute to Proper Names carbon dioxide ice cap

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
Structure & Main Idea Part Ⅰ: Para. 1~2
Main idea: Global warming has been the subject of a lot of debates.

Part Ⅱ: Para. 3~10
Main idea: There are two different viewpoints about global warming.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
Intensive Reading: Para. 1~2
Global Warming
1. Since global warming appeared during the last decade as a serious environmental issue, it has been the subject of a lot of debates. Global warming is defined as the warming of the earth by greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere naturally or by mankind. But there are many questions about global warming, from its causes to its full effects. 2. Many people even question whether or not global warming exists. And if global warming does exist, people question why it exists. But there is one fact that no one has questioned— the surface temperature of the earth has increased 0.45-0.6 degrees Celsius in the past century.
Chinese

UNIT3 READING TEXT A
issue n. 问题,争议;发行,(书刊的)期、号支付 份内的费用;维持偿付能力

e.g. -Parliament will debate the nationalization issue next week. 议会将在下周辩论国有化议题。 1、我们之间毫无争议。
- There was no issue at all between us.

2、他买了最近的一期杂志。 - He bought the latest issue of the magazine.

question,problem,argue

UNIT3 READING TEXT A
Global warming is defined as the warming of the earth by greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere naturally or by mankind.

译文:全球变暖是指由于自然或人为原因向大气排放温 室气体而导致地球变暖。 解释:emitted into the atmosphere naturally or by mankind 是动词的过去分词短语,作后臵定语,修饰greenhouse gases, 可改写为一个定语从句,即which/that are emitted into the ...

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
define v. 解释,给……下定义;使明确, 使清楚 e.g. – Definitions should not be more difficult to understand than the words they define.词语的定义不应比所解释的
词语更难理解.

1、 词典解释词义。
- A dictionary defines words.

2、请听我详细说明你的职责。 - Please listen while I define your duties.

definition

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
atmosphere n. 大气层,空气;气氛

e.g. –The plants drink in moisture from the atmosphere. 植物从大气中吸取水分。 1、 这个房间空气闷热。
- The room has a stuffy atmosphere.

2、在乡间有一种和平宁静的气氛,与大城市的气 氛截然不同。 - There is an atmosphere of peace and calm in the country quite different from that of a big city.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
Many people even question whether or not global warming exists. 译文:许多人甚至怀疑是否存在全球变暖。 解释:本句中whether or not 引导宾语从句,作谓语动词 question 的宾语。 e.g. I still don’t know whether or not he’s planning to come. 我还不知道他是否要来。

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
exist v. 存在;生存

e.g. –The Roman Empire existed for several centuries. 罗马帝国存在了几百年。 1、这样的人是没有的。
- No such person exists.

2、没有一个人是生活在真空中的。 - No one exists in a vacuum.

existence,existent

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
But there is one fact that no one has questioned— the surface temperature of the earth has increased 0.45 - 0.6 degrees Celsius in the past century. 译文:但是有这样一个事实,没人怀疑过——在过去的 这个世纪,地表温度已上升了0.45— 0.6 摄氏度。 解释: that no one has questioned 是定语从句,修饰先行 词one fact, that 在从句中做q u e s t i o n 的宾语,可省略。 破折号之后的部分是同位语从句,进一步补充说明 fact 的具体内容。

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
3. Is the increased temperature something we need to worry about?
Well, there are two different viewpoints. The believers in global warming think that the increased temperature proves that global warming exits and that it’s a significant problem that should not be taken lightly. 4. Skeptics of global warming believe that the increased temperature is a natural phenomenon, and that if global warming does exist, it’s not something to be worried about. What makes this debate so interesting is that there are valid scientific data to prove either side.

Chinese

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
viewpoint n. (=point of view) 观点,看法;角度

e.g. –I look at this problem from a different viewpoint. 我从不同的观点来看这个问题。 1、年轻人容易提出新的观点。
- The young men easily offer a fresh viewpoint.

2、从孩子的角度看,这非常有趣。 - From viewpoint of a child, it is very interesting. opinion,idea,thought,view,notion

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
The believers in global warming think that the increased temperature proves that global warming exists, and that it’s a significant problem that should not be taken lightly. 译文:相信全球变暖的人认为,气温的上升证明存在全 球变暖,这是一个关系重大而且不可轻视的问题。 解释:本句谓语think 带有两个由that 引导的并列宾语从 句 : that the increased temperature... 和 that it’s a significant problem...。两个宾语从句又各自带有 that 引 导的从句, 第一个从句中的that global warming exists 做 proves的宾语;在第二个宾语从句中,that should not be taken lightly 是由that 引导的定语从句, 修饰problem, 并 在定语从句中做主语, 不可省略。

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
significant a. 重要的,意义重大的,相当数量的, 值得注意的; e.g. –Few people realized the discovery was significant. 很少有人认识到这一发现的重要性。

1、我认为我们能节省大量的时间。
- I think we can save a significant amount of time.

2、小人物有时可以起非常重要的作用。 - A little man may be a very significant man.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
phenomenon n. 现象;奇迹,奇才(复数为phenomena 或phenomenons) e.g. –Magnetism is a natural phenomenon. 磁力是一种自然现象。 1、就业问题是城市的常见现象。 - The employment problem tends to be a city phenomenon. 2、她的新作是出版界的奇迹。 - Her new book is a publishing phenomenon.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
What makes this debate so interesting is that there are valid scientific data to prove either side. 译文:使这场争论变得有趣的是,双方都拥有确凿的科 学数据来证明各自的观点。 解释: 本句的主语是由 what 引导的主语从句。从句作 主语时, 谓语动词常用单数形式。表语部分是由that 引 导的表语从句。

5. Global3warming has been proven UNIT READING TEXTand A disproven using computer climate models. Believers in global warming use them to show that in the next century there will be a significant rise in the earth’s temperature, and an increase in the height of sea levels. Global warming skeptics suggest that the models are not entirely based on fact, and that they can not be trusted. 6. There are many arguments for and against the existence of global warming. According to the believers in global warming, surface analysis has shown that the temperature of the earth has increased dramatically over the past century because of the emission of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, act as a shield and trap heat inside the atmosphere. 7. The fear is that the earth’s temperature will continue to increase. An increase in the planet’s temperature may eventually cause the ice caps to melt and the sea levels to rise. The world’s coastlines will be washed away. There will also be widespread outbreaks of disease for both humans and wildlife. The idea that serious disasters like these could happen from global warming is cause Chinese

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
disprove vt. 证明……不能成立;反驳

e.g. –In his latest book, he writes that the theory has been disproved. 他在最近写的书里说那种理论已证明不确. 1、这项控告证明是错误的。
- The charge is disproved. 2、这些数字反驳了史密斯的观点。 - These figures disproved Smith’s argument.

UNIT3 READING TEXT A
climate n. 气候;具有某种气候之区域

e.g. –Britain has a temperate climate. 英国气候温和。

1、非洲的气候对她不相宜。
- The climate of Africa did not agree with her. 2、气候较干爽的地区会对她的健康有益。 - A drier climate would be good for her health.

UNIT3 READING TEXT A
base ...on / upon 把……建立在某种基础上,以……为 根据 e.g. –Base on Yunfu, orient to the world and aim at the future. ―立足云浮,面向世界,走向未来”。

1、 科学家把他们的结论建立在事实的基础上。
- The scientists based their conclusions on facts. 2、我的希望是以我们昨天所得到的消息为根据。 - I base my hopes on the news we had yesterday.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
argument n. 理由,论据;争论,争执 e.g. –I accepted his argument that taxation should be increased. 我接受了他提出的应该增税的论点。

1、但是,这种观点是站不住脚的。
- This argument, however, does not hold water. 2、 双方的争论被新闻界夸大了。 - The argument among the two parties was blown up by the press.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
for or against 支持或反对 e.g. –Are you for or against the proposal? 你是赞成这个建议还是反对这个建议?

1、你支持还是反对这项计划?
- Are you for or against the plan? 2、舆论支持还是反对此项建议? - Was public opinion for or against the proposal?

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
analysis n. 分析, 分解(复数为analyses) e.g. –I was very much pleased by your analysis of the situation.我非常满意你对形势的分析。

1、这是专家对市场趋势所作的分析。
- This is the expert analysis of market trends. 2、书的每一章就是一幅名画的分析介绍。 - Each chapter of the book is an analysis of a well- known painting.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
act as 担当,扮演 e.g. –The dean of the school act as marshal of graduation ceremony. 学校的教务长担任毕业典礼的司仪。

1、这个人在宾馆当经理。
- The man acts as a manager in the hotel. 2、他在剧中扮演老人。 - He acts as an old man in the play.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
widespread a. 分布(或散布)广的;普通的,广泛的 e.g. –The forests are widespread in our country. 我们的国家森林分布很广。

1、这是一种流行病。
- It is a widespread disease. 2、暴风雨造成了大面积的破坏。 - The storm caused widespread damage.

UNIT3 READING TEXT A
The idea that serious disasters like these could happen from global warming is cause for alarm.

译文:这种因全球变暖可能会引发像上述所列的严重灾 难的观点引起了恐慌。 解释: that 引导的从句作idea 的同位语, 对idea 进行进一 步的详细说明。 e.g. We expressed the hope that they would come and visit China again. 我们表示希望他们再来访问中国。

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
alarm n. 惊恐,忧虑;警钟,闹铃 e.g. –The news of the radiation leak caused widespread public alarm. 辐射泄露的消息引起了公众的普遍 恐慌。

1、他听到了消息并不吃惊。
- He didn’t take alarm at the news. 2、他们听到了火警警报。 - They heard the fire alarm.

8. Skeptics of global warming believe that global warming is not an environmental problem. They think that the recent increase in the earth’s temperature is no cause for alarm. And they believe that earth’s coastlines and polar ice caps are not in danger of disappearing. 9. Skeptics believe that the climate models used to prove global warming and to predict its effects are misrepresented. They point out that according to the models, the last century should have been much worse than it actually was. 10.Temperature increases occurred before the widespread emission of carbon dioxide in the middle of the 20th century. Temperature increases are also attributed to the fact that most of the observations are taken in cities or airports where temperatures may be skewed higher.

Chinese

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
in danger of 有……危险的,可能遭受的 e.g. –The house is now in danger of collapse. 这座房子有倒塌的危险。

1、这座桥有倒塌的危险。
- The bridge is in danger of collapse. 2、他可能失业。 - He is in danger of losing his job.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
disappear vi. 消失,失踪;灭绝,不存在

e.g. – The sun disappeared behind a cloud. 太阳消失在一 片云后面。 1、狗消失在夜色中。
- The dog disappeared into the night. 2、那种生物在冰期已灭绝了。 - That species disappeared in the Ice Age.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
predict v. 预言,预报 e.g. –The fortune-teller predicted that I would marry a doctor. 算命先生预言我会同一位医生结婚。

1、他预言这孩子前程似锦。
- He predicted a brilliant future for the child. 2、气象台预报明天下雪。 - The weather station predicts snow for tomorrow.

predictive,predictable

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
Temperature increases are also attributed to the fact that most of the observations are taken in cities or airports where temperatures may be skewed higher. 译文:温度升高还归结于这样一个事实:大部分的观察 都在城市或机场进行,而在这些地方所测的温度可能偏 高。 解释: that 引导同位语从句。where 引导定语从句,修饰 in cities or airports。 e.g. Do you know the city where the 28th Olympic Games will be held? 你知道第28 届奥运会的主办城市吗?

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
occur v. 出现,存在;发生 e.g. –Earthquakes occur frequently in this area. 这一地区经常发生地震。

1、大多数的江河湖海中都有鱼。
- Fish occur in most waters. 2、我们希望别再发生这样的事。 - We hope this won’t occur again.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
attribute to 把……归因于;认为……属于

e.g. –He attributed his failure to bad luck. 他把他的失败 归因于倒霉。 1、他把他的成功归因于艰苦努力。
- He attributed his success to hard work. 2、这个喜剧据说为莎士比亚所作。 - This comedy has been attributed to Shakespeare.

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
Intensive Reading: Para. 1~2
译文

全球变暖现象出现十年以来,作为一个严肃的 环境问题,它已成为众多争论的主题。全球变暖是 指由于自然或人为原因向大气排放温室气体而导致 地球变暖。但是关于全球变暖,从原因到所有的结 果,还存在许多疑问。 许多人甚至怀疑是否存在全球变暖。如果确实 存在,人们会问全球为什么会变暖呢?但是有这样 一个事实,没人怀疑过 —— 在过去的这个世纪,地 表温度已上升了0.45— 0.6 摄氏度。

UNIT 3 READING TEXT A
Intensive Reading: Para. 3~4
译文

气温的上升是我们需要担忧的事吗?这个存在 两种截然不同的观点。相信全球变暖的人认为,气 温的上升证明存在全球变暖,这是一个关系重大而 且不可轻视的问题。 怀疑全球变暖的人认为,气温上升是一种自然 现象,即使存在全球变暖,也没有什么可担