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成人高考英语语法归纳及练习


成人高考英语语法归纳及练习 名词分为专有名词和普通名词两大类。 普通名词又分为个体名词和集体名词。 在句子中 可数名词要么前边加冠词,要么用其复数形式。名词的复数通常加 s,但以 s,x,ch,sh 结 尾的词 es;以“辅音字母+y”结尾的词把“y”变成“i” ,再加 es.不规则名词的复数有其 特殊形式。物质名词和抽象名词为不可数名词。名词有主格(作主语) 、宾格(作宾语)和 属格(表示所属关系) 。冠词分为不定冠词和定冠词,它们有其基本用法和特殊用法。数词 分为基数词、序数词和分数词,数词与名词在实际运用中要呼应。 第一节 名 词 的 数 一、可数名词 1. 可数名词有单复数之分。在句中,名词的单数形式前边要有冠词或表示单数的限定 词,否则就要用其复数形式。名词的复数形式通常是在单数形式后加词尾 s、es,或将 y 改 为 i 再加 es.但如果名词前边有表示单数的冠词或表示单数的限定词,就不能用其复数形式 2. 有少数名词的复数形式是不规则的, child→children, man→men, woman→women, foot→feet, tooth→teeth, goose→geese, mouse→mice, ox→oxen 3. 英语里还有些名词的单复数变化较为特殊,需特别注意 analysis→analyses, bacterium→bacteria, basis→bases, crisis→crises, criterion→ criteria, datum→data, formula→formulae(或 formulas) fungus→fungi, phenomenon , →phenomena,syllabus→syllabi, thesis→theses 4. 有些名词的单复数是一样的: aircraft, spacecraft, Chinese, deer, fish, Japanese, means, eries, species 等。 5. 如果前边有表示复数的限定词时名词用其复数形式 6. 在形容词最高级中,表示范围的 of 后要用名词复数形式 7. 有些集体名词在形式上是单数如 people (人民, 人们) police , (警察) cattle , (牲畜) , staff(全体人员,全体职员) ,但它们表达复数的含意。如果这些词做主语,其谓语须用复 数形式。 8. hair 和 fruit 一般情况下用单数, 表示总体。 但如果我们要表示若干根头发或几种水果 时,就要用这两个词的复数形式 eg: He bought apples, oranges and other fruits. ( “fruits”在此处意为“多种水果” ) 另外还要注意:police 和 cattle 的谓语形式总是用复数形式。 9. 名词做定语时,不能用作复数 二、不可数名词 1. 不可数名词为物质名词和抽象名词,如 information, proverty, advice, anger, applause, baggage, cake, chalk, chocolate, cloth(布) bread, damage(损害) , , equipment, fruit, furniture, gold, information, ink, jewellery, luggage, mail(邮 件) money, news, paper, protection, soap, sugar, weaponry, machinery, scenery, , personnel, work 等 注:不可数名词可以与表示量的可数名词连用,借以表示“可数”的概念,我们可以加 a(n) piece [sheet(张) suit(套) tube(管) packet(包) item(条,则) bar , , , , , (条) basket(篮子) glass(杯) , , ,bunch(束) pair(双,对) bowl(碗) portion , , , (份) herd(群) series(系列) shower(阵) etc. ] , , , ,如:a piece of advice(一条建 议) /a basket of fruit (一篮水果) /an item of information (一则信息) kind of protection /a (一种保护)等。 2. 有些抽象名词的意思可以转变成为具体名词,这时要用其复数形式 The insurance company paid $10000 in damages for the accident. ( “damage”本来为不可

数名词“损害” ,变复数后意思是“损失赔偿费”) 。 单复数含义不同的名词还有:communication(通讯)——communications(通讯系统, 通讯工具) cloth ; (布) ——clothes (衣服) content 内容) ; ( ——contents (目录) convenience ; (便利) ——conveniences 便利设备) humanity ( ; (人类) ——humanities 人文科学) necessity ( ; (需要)——necessities(必需品) ;pain(疼痛)——pains(辛劳) ;ruin(毁灭)——ruins (废墟,遗迹) ;sand(沙子)——sands(沙地,沙滩) ;wood(木材)——woods(树林) ; work(工作)——works(工厂,著作) 。 另外, 有些名词通常只用复数形式, fundamentals 基本原则) goods 货物) means 如: ( , ( , (方法) rapids(急流) , ,shorts(短裤) sweets(欢乐) valuables (贵重物品) , , 。 三、同步练习(Correct errors, if any,in the following sentences: ) 1. The scholars met once a year to exchange esperiences. 2. Foreign ship are not allowed to fish in our territoral water. 3. I went to the doctor for an advice about my health. 4.The letter contained an important information. 5.In the afternoon I did some baby-sittings,for it is a fun looking after children. 6.The congregation was not numerous that night,but they seemed to be listening attentively to my lecture. 7.Poultries are dear in the city. 8.The board of director is shaking heads at the chairman's speech. 9.The merchandises have arrived undamaged. 四、答案 1. The scholars met once a year to exchange esperience. 2. Foreign ship are not allowed to fish in our territoral waters. 3. I went to the doctor for an advice about my health. 4.The letter contained an important piece of information. 5.In the afternoon I did some baby-sittings,for it is fun looking after children. 6.The congregation were not numerous that night,but they seemed to be listening attentively to my lecture. 7.Poultry are dear in the city. 8.The board of directors are shaking heads at the chairman's speech. 9.The merchandise have arrived undamaged. ? 名 词 所 有 格 第二节 名词所有格 名词有三个格:主格、宾格和所属格。这里我们只讲属格,属格表示所有关系,它有两 种不同的形式。 一、一是在名词尾加's (如 my brother's toy 我弟弟的玩具,the hostes's living room 女主人的起居室) ,如果原 名词已经有复数词尾? s, 或? es, 只加'(如: soldiers' training ground 士兵的训练场, teachers' reading ? eoom 教师阅览室) 注意, 。 如果名词虽然是复数, 但不是以? s 结尾, 则仍加's (the children's mother 孩子的妈妈) 1) It is widely believed that the pull of gravity on a falling raindrop changes round shape into a teardrop shape. [A] of the drop [B] the drop's [C] drop of [D] drops their 2) The winner [A] photograph was of [B] an old barn (仓库) window covered with

[C] a [D] delicate, lacy frost(带花边的霜) 。 二、另外一种属格是由介词 of 加名词构成名词短语 3) At [A] birth, the [B] head of a bady is extremely large in [C] relation to a [D] rest of the body. 三、例题解析 1) B 为正确答案。 “It”是形式主语。 “that…”引导的是主从句。主从句的谓语是 “changes…into…”把……变成……“。其中”…into…“的前后应是对应的平行结构。很 明显 A 和 D 都不行,不能把”changes“误作名词。C 改变了”…into…“的平行关系。只 有 B 既能与前边的动词”changes“衔接,又能保持”…into…“的平行关系。 2) A 错。 改为 winner's. 3) D 错。 改为 the. ? 冠 词 冠词有两种,一是不定冠词 a/an,另外一种是定冠词 the(有的语法学家说有三种冠 词,这另外一种是零念冠词,这里我们不讨论) 。 一、不定冠词及其用法 1. 可数名词在表泛指时,要加不定冠词“a/an”表示“一个”“每一”相当于 one 或 , 表示某一 2. a 用在辅音音素(即音标中的辅音而不是辅音字母)之前,如 a European scientist.an 用在元音音素(音标中的元音而不是指元音字母)之前,如 an X ? ray examination 3. 跟汉语一样,并列的两个单数名词表示一个概念,第二个名词前的不定冠词 a 可以 省去,以避免重复 二、定冠词的用法 1. 一般来说,普通名词有特指和泛指,如果特指,就要加定冠词;如果泛指,可数名 词前加不定冠词,或用其复数形式 2. 定冠词 the 主要和名词连用,表示某些特定的人或事物 3. 由 of 引起的限定性短语(作定语)所修饰的词前加 the 4. 表示身体的某一部位,用 the 代替物主代词 my, our, your, his, her 等 5. 表示江河海洋,海峡海湾,山脉和群岛及有些湖泊之前用 the 6. 定冠词 the 加姓氏的复数,表示某某一家人,如果做主语,谓语动词要用复数 7. 当一个抽象名词,不表示一般的概念而是表示某一特定的内容时加定冠词 the 8. 由普通名词和一些其他词构成的专有名词前加 the the People's Republic of China 三、同步练习 1. ____rose is____beautiful flower. 2.Mr. Smith always smokes____cigarette with ____cup of coffee. 3.____door of____garage is broken. 4.____donkeys are ____ stupid animals. 5.____bread is made from ____ flour,and ____flour is made from ____wheat. 6.She is ____good musician;she plays ____piano beautifully. 7.Thousands of ____visitors go to ____Great Wall every ____day. 8.When he was enghteen,he joined ____navy. 9.He sent me ____letter and ____postcard;____letter didn't arrive. 10.Li is not at ____office;I think he's gone____home. 11.Is there ____telephone here?

12.She is studying ____English and ____French. 13.I bought ____pen and some paper,but I left____pen in ____shop. 14.____machine is made of ____steel and ____copper. 15.____honesty is ____best policy. 16.____coal is 60 dollars ____ton at the moment. 17.I stay at ____home last night and listened to ____radio. 18.We went to Paris and saw ____Palace of Versailles. 19.He goes back to ____ country to see his people once ____year. 20.____Liu's are going to ____cinema. 四、答案 1.the(或 a) 2.a,a 3.the,the 4.x,x 5.x,x,x,x 6.a,the ,a 7.x,the,x 8.the 9.a,a,the 10.the,x 11.a 12.x,x 13.a,the,the 14.the,x,x 15.x,the 16.x,a 17.x,the 18.x,the 19.the,a 20.the,the ? 数 词 一、 数词的分类: 数词分为序数词 (one, two, three, four…) 基数词 、 (first, second, third, fourth…)和分数词(one third, two thirds, four fifths…) 。表示单一的数词与单数 名词连用,但有些数词和名词连用,表示复数时仍用单数形式 four dozen eggs(四十八个鸡蛋) two score people (四十个人) three hundred years , , (三百年) a few thousand horses (好几千匹马) eight million pounds (八百万英磅) , , 。 注意:被这些数词修饰的名词一定是复数,反过来,如果被修饰的名词是复数,那么就 用数词的单数形式,如 a(one) thousand years: 二、关于“千”百“百万”的数词: 如果“hundred”“thousand”和“million”前边 、 没有表示数字和其他限定词修饰时(如“a few”“one”“ ten”等) 、 、 ,则可用复数形式,表 示不定数, 后面再加 “of+名词” hundreds of (数以百计的) thousands and thousands of (成 : , 千上万的) ,millions of (数以百万计的) 三、关于连字符连接的数词: 在连字符连接的 “数词+普通名词+形容词”中, “数词” 和“普通名词”都要用单数形式 a three ? year ? old girl, a three ? mile ? long walk 四、基数词中表示“几十”的复数形式可以表达人的岁数或年代 He is in his late twenties. 他快 30 了。 五、分数词:分数词是由基数词和序数词组成的,分子是基数词,分母是序数词。除了 表示“1”以外,分母序数词都用复数 六、百分数: 表示百分比的 percent 用单数,如 ninty percent(90%) ? 形容词和副词(一) 内 容 提 要 形容词和副词在语法结构中主要用于比较级和最高级。 形容词和副词的构成形式基本上 一样,它们的形式与单音节、双音节和多音节有关,当然还有其特殊形式。形容词和副词比 较级的基本用法分为同级比较、 比较级和最高级三种形式。 但这三种形式都有它们特殊的表 达方式以及它们的惯用法。对以下要点大家须一一掌握。 形容词比较级和最高级的形式 一、形容词比较级和最高级的构成 形容词的比较级和最高级变化形式规则如下 构 成 法 原 级 比 较 级 最 高 级 ① 一般单音节词末尾加? er 和 ? est strong stronger strongest

② 单音节词如果以? e 结尾,只加? r 和? st strange stranger strangest ③ 闭音节单音节词如末尾只有 一个辅音字母, 须先双写这个辅音字母,再加? er 和? est sad big hot sadder bigger hotter saddest biggest hottest ④ 少数以? y,? er(或? ure) ,? ow,? ble 结尾的双音节词, 末尾加? er 和? est(以? y 结尾的词,如? y 前是辅音字母, 把 y 变成 i,再加? er 和? est,以? e 结尾的词仍 只加? r 和? st) angry clever narrow noble angrier cleverer narrower nobler angrest cleverest narrowest noblest ⑤ 其他双音节和多音节词都在前面加单词 more 和 most different more different most different 二、形容词比较级或最高级的特殊形式: 1. 三个或三个以上音节的形容词只能加 more 和 most 只能说 more beautiful 而不能说 beautifuller; 只能说 the most beautiful 而不能说 beautifullest. 但是,以形容前缀? un 结尾的三音节形容词不适合上述情况,如 unhappy,untidy,我 们可以说:unhappier→unhappiest, untidier→untidiest 2. 由? ING 分词和? ED 分词演变过来的形容词(包括不规则动词如 know→known) 只能加 more 或 most 来表示它们的比较级和最高级 more(most) striking, more(most) interesting, more(most) wounded, more (most)worn 等。 3. 英语里有些形容词由于其词义而不可能有比较级形式 absolute fatal main right universal chief final naked simulta- utter entire foremost perfect neous vital eternal inevitable possible sufficient whole excellent infinite primary supreme wooden 三、不规则形容词的比较级和最高级形式 good well better best

bad ill worse worst many much more most little few less least far farther farthest further furthest 副词比较级和最高级的形式 副词比较级和最高级的变化形式与形容词基本上一样 一般 副词 hard→harder →hardest fast→faster →fastest late→later →latest early→earlier →earliest 特殊 副词 well →better →best much →more →most badly →worse →worst little →less →least 但是, 开放类副词即以后缀? ly 结尾的副词不能像形容词那样加? er 或? est,如 quickly →more quickly →most quickly quietly →more quietly →most quietly [注] early 中的? ly 不是后缀,故可以把? y 变? i 再加? er 和? est : ? 形容词和副词(二) 内 容 提 要——形容词与副词比较级和最高级的基本用法 一、原级比较的基本用法 1. 原级比较由“as+形容词或副词(或再加名词或短语)+as ”构成“原级相同”比 较句,表示两者比较;其否定式,即“程度不及”比较句型为“not so(as) +形容词或副 词+as” ,而且 as…as 结构前可用 just, almost, nearly, quite 等表示程度的词修饰 2. “as (so)+名词+as+名词”进行名词比较,这时一般情况下有一个表示原级的 比较词,但如果第一名词前出现了形容词修饰该词或出现副词修饰谓语,应当用 so 而不用 as 二、比较级 1. 比较级由“形容词(副词)比较级+than+…, ”构成表示在两者中间一方比另一方 “更加…” 。连词 than 后可接句子,也可接名词、代词、名词短语、介词短语、动词、动词 不定式、? ING 结构和? ED 结构,有时也可省去 than. 2. 注意 than 前后两项相比较的人或事物要一致 三、最高级 1. 最高级用于三者以上比较,形容词的结构形式是“定冠词+形容词最高级+名词+ 表示范围的短语或从句” (如 all, of all, of the tree, in the world, that has ever taken place 等) 2. 副词的最高级与形容词最高级的区别在于最高级前没有定冠词 the 四、同步练习 1) Walking briskly for thirty minutes will burn as many calories as .

[A] to run for fifteen minutes [B] running for fifteen minutes [C] you run for fifteen minutes [D] fifteen ? minute walking 解析:B 为正确答案。 2) The gorilla(大猩猩) while [A] not quite as curious than [B] the chimpanzee , (黑猩猩) shows more persistence [C] and memory retention(记忆力) in solving [D] , a problem. 解析:B 错。改为 as ,和前面的 as 和形容词原形 curious 一起构成同程度比较。 3) Alaska is twice [A] as larger [B] as [C] the next largest [D] state, Texas. 解析:B 错。 改为 as large. 4) Thomas Jefferson's achievements as an architect rival his contributions a politician. [A] such [B] more [C] as [D] than 解析:C 对。动词 rival(胜过、匹敌)前后是两个相比较的成分 achievements(成果) 和 contributions(贡献) ,由于前面的名词后出现了短语 as an architect,故空白处也应用 as, 使前后对比成分一致。 5) I should say Henry is not much a writer as a reporter. [A] that [B] so [C] this [D] as 解析:B 为正确答案。 6) Natural mica(云母) of [A] a superior [B] quality is cheapest [C] to obtain than synthetic [D] mica. 解析:C 错。应改为比较级 cheaper.比较级后并不一定跟接连词 than,有时在其间有名 词或名词短语(被形容词所修饰) ,介词短语,不定式或其他成分隔开。 7) She is older than . [A] any other girl in the group [B] any girl in the group [C] all girls in the group [D] you and me as well as the group 解析:A 为正确答案。 “She”作为单个不能跟全组比(C 和 D 不对) ,也不能跟全组所 有相比,因为“她”也是其中一员,自然“她”不能跟自己相比。这里“She”比较的是“这 组中的任何一个” ,所以 A 对。 8) Josephine McCrackin joined [A] the “Santa Cruz Sentinel” in 1905 and, until her death fifteen years late [B] , remained [C] active in journalistic [D] work. 解析: 错。 B 应改为比较级 later, 因此处实为与 1905 年相比晚 15 年, 故应使用比较级。 9) The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than . [A] ours [B] with us [C] for ours it had [D] it did for us 解析:D 为正确答案。 10) Sound travels air. [A] faster through water than through [B] faster than through water and [C] through water faster and[D] where it is faster through water than through 解析:A 为正确答案。 11) Gerbrand von den Feckhout, one of Rembrand's pupils, followed [A] the style of his teacher so implicitly that [B] his paintings [C] are sometimes confused with his master [D] . 解析:D 错。 改为 his master's. 12) The more [A] fearsome of all the [B] animals in [C] the Western [D]

Hemisphere is the grizzly bear. 解析:A 错。 改为 most. 13) Of all economic [A] problems, inflation continues to be [B] a [C] most significant in its daily impact on [D] people and business. 解析:C 错。改为 the, significant 是多音节形容词,在此处应用最高级形式(在前面 加 the most) ,注意句中的“of all… ” 。 14) ,the most familiar to general public is the criminal jurisdiction. [A] All the activities [B] The activities [C] Of all the activities [D] It is the activities 解析:C 为正确答案。本句空白处缺状语,A 和 B 全为名词短语,不符合条件;D 为句 子,和空白后面的句子没有任何联系,故亦应排除。只有 C 正确,和后面的最高级 the most familiar 前后呼应。 ? 形容词和副词(三) 形容词和副词的特殊表达法 一、形容词与副词的同级比较: 由“as(so)…as”引出,其否定式为“not so…”或 “not as…as” ,此外还应注意下列含有“as”结构或短语的句子 1. as such:表示上文所指明的事或人 He is a child,and must be treated as such. 他是个孩子,必须被当作孩子对待。 2. as much:表示“与…同量” Take as much as you like. 拿多少都行。 I would gladly have paid twice as much for it. 就是价格再贵一倍,我也会愿意把它买下 的。 He as much as admitted the whole story. 他几乎全部承认了。 3. as many:表示“与…一样多” I found six mistakes in as many lines. 我在六行中发现了六个错。 二、表示“几倍于”的比较级:用 twice (两倍) ,four times (四倍) ,ten times (十 倍)加上 as … as 结构 This one is four times as big as that one. 这个是那个的四倍大。 (这个比那个大三倍。 ) Our campus is three times as large as yours. 我们的校园比你们的大两倍。 He has books twice as many as she does. 他的书比她多一倍。 三、 “the same +名词+as”表示同等比较 四、比较级前可用 a little, a bit, slightly, a great deal, a lot,many, much 等词 语表示不定量,far, completely,still 表示程度或更进一步 五、与比较级有关的特殊词用法 1. no more than …表示“只不过”“并不比…” , (等于 not any more than) Man cannot live without food any more than plants can grow without sunshine. 人没有食物不能生存,植物没有阳光也不能生长。 There is no difficulty with this task any more than with that one. 这项任务没有困难,那项任务也没有困难。 2. no less than 表示“不亚于” There are no less than five hundred people present at the New Year party. 出席新年晚会的有五百人之多。 (出席的人较多) 3. not less than 表示“不少于” There are not less than five hundred people present at the New Year party.

出席新年晚会的只有五百人。 (出席的人较不多) 4. more often than not 表示“多数情况下” On Friday mornings, he comes late more often than not. 多数情况下,他星期五来得晚。 5. all the more 因而更加 We really admired him all the more for his frankness. 我们更加钦佩他的坦率。 6. (be) better off 较富裕,环境较好 7. had better 最好…… Come, you had much better have the thing out at once. 来,你最好把这东西弄出去。 8. less than 不到 The first steam locomotive could have a top speed of only thirteen mph (miles per hour) and the great sailing ships of the time labored along at less than half that speed.第一列蒸汽火车最快 每小时只有 13 英里,那时的大船还不到这个速度的一半。 9. little more than 差不多 The grain in their barn is little more than that of ours. 他们仓的粮食跟我们仓的粮食差不多。 10. more than 超过,不止 I have waited for your for more than two hours. 我等了你两个多小时。 11. more or less 大体上,或多或少 The work is more or less finished. 工作大体算完成了。 Most of them came here to near money, more or less Mr.Wang worked for his cause.他们大 都来挣钱的,但王先生有点像为事业而工作。 12. other than 除了 They imposed no pre conditions other than that the meeting should be held in their capital. 除了会议要在他们的首都开之外,他们没有提出任何先决条件。 13. rather than 而不是,与其…宁愿(rather than 表示“与其…宁愿”时,如果位于句首 引导句子,有虚拟的成分,相当于“… would rathe than, ”所以 rather than 后面跟动词原形) Read what interests you; read what you have time for magazines and newspapers rather than novels. 读你感兴趣的东西,读你有时间读的东西,如杂志和报纸而不是小说。 Rather than allow the potatoes to go bad, she sold them at half price. 她以半价把土豆给卖了,而没有让它们烂掉。 Rather than cause trouble, he left. 为了不惹事,他还是走了。 14. so much the better 就更好了 If she will help us, so much the better. 如果他能帮我们,那就更好了。 15. so much the worse 就更糟了 So much the worse for you if you still are absent from class. 如果你继续逃课的话,就对你更不利了。 16. the more…the more(less) “越是……,就越……” 六、比较中的省略 1. 在 as…as 中,as 从句可省略整个谓语部分,保留主语 She sings as well as her sister. 她跟她的姐姐唱得一样好(省去了 does) 。

2. 可以省去谓语部分,保留主语和 be、have 等助动词 Susan has done as much housework as you have. (省去了 done.) 3. 可以省去主语和谓语,只剩下状语 It is not as cold in Beijing as in Datong. 北京的天气没有大同冷。 4. than 从句也可以省去整个谓语部分,保留主语 They say that blood is thicker than water, that our relatives are more important to us than others. 他们说血浓于水,亲属对我们来说比其他人更重要。 5. than 从句省去部分谓语,保留主语和 be,have 或助动词 The white collar workers earn more than the blue workers do. 白领工人比蓝领工人挣得多。 这时 我们可以进行倒装,即将 than 后从句中的 be,have 或助动词移到该从句的前边 After all, big changes are relatively easier to make than are small ones. 相对来说,大变动比小变动毕竟容易些。 The fact is that some drug addicts are much better able to cure addiction in each other than are psychiatrists; some convicts can run better rehabilitation programs for convicts than do correctional officers; some patients in mental hospitals are better for each other than is the staff. 事实上, 有些吸毒成瘾者与吸毒成瘾者之间戒瘾比精神病医生的作用还好; 有些罪犯在 改造其他罪犯方面比教改人员强; 医院里的病人与病人之间的沟通比医务人员与病人间的沟 通还强。 6. than 从句可以省去主语和部分谓语,保留宾语 Grandma gives more candies to her grandson than her granddaughter. 奶奶给孙子的糖比给 孙女的多。 (省去了 she gives candies to) 7. than 从句可以省去主语和谓语,保留状语 There are more books in this library than in that library. 这个图书馆的书比那个多。 (省去 了 there are many books) She is much better than yesterday. 她比昨天好多了。 (省去了 she was) Signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous in recent years than in the past. 近些年来在学校、商业和政府中欺诈的迹象比以前更多。 8. than 从句可以省去主语,保留谓语部分 His speed of doing the work was much faster than had expected. 他干此事的速度远比想象 的快。 (省去了 he 或 we) 9. 有时可以省去整个 than 从句 He is much healthier and happier. 她比以往任何时侯都健康幸福。 (省去了 than he was ever before) 10. 为了避免重复,我们经常用 that 代替不可数名词, those 代替复数名词,one 代替 可数名词单数 七、隐含比较级 有时比较级并不一定出现 than,这时通过上下文可喑示出,如:-Of the two oranges, which do you choose? -I like the larger one.这里的 larger one 是指前边提到的两个当中的较 大的一个。而且有些形容词在表示比较的时候,跟“to”而不用“than” 1. prior to 较早的,较重要的 The task is prior to all others. 这项任务比其他所有的任务都重要。 I called on him prior to my departure. 动身前我去看了他一趟。 2. superior to 优越,高于

In math he felt superior to John. 他觉得自己数学比约翰强。 They were resolved to rise superior to every obstacle. 他们决心战胜一切困难。 3. inferior to 下等的,次的 These apples are inferior in flavour to those. 这些苹果的味道不如那些。 4. senior to 年长的,地位高的;junior 年幼的,地位低的,迟的 He is two years senior to me. 他比我大两岁。 Her appointment is junior to mine by six weeks. 她的任命比我迟六星期。 5. preferable to 更好的 Health without riches is preferable to riches without health. 贫穷但健康要比富有却多病更可取。 6. prefer…to 更倾向于… I prefer this to that. 我喜欢这个而不喜欢那个。 八、最高级在特殊短语中的使用:在有下列短语的句子中,往往使用最高级 1. one of… 3. in the world(或群体名词) 九、其他有关比较的习惯表达法 1. “as +形容词(副词)+as possible”结构,表示“最…,尽可能…”“as quickly as : possible” (尽量快) 2. “ sooner or later”是成语,表示“迟早、早晚” 3. “would rather +动词原形+than …”是惯用句型,表示“宁愿…而不愿…” ,由于 连词 than 要求前后所比较的成分要一致 十、most 表示“非常” 有时 most 并不表示“最……” : ,而是作副词表示“非常”之 意。其实它是 much 的最高级,作形容词用是“大多数”之意,前边不加 the.另外 much 与 to 构成介词词组,表示“在很大程度上使……”that 也可以作副词用,表示“如此,那么” 相当于 so 十一、形容词与副词的修饰关系: 一般来说,形容词用来作表语(与系动词连用,注 意 taste, feel, become 等词作系动词用时,它们后的表示应该是形容词,包括? ed 分词) 或作定语修饰名词,而形容词不能修饰形容词包括? ED 分词;但副词可以修饰形容词(包 括? ED 分词) ,副词还可以修饰副词、动词或短语 十二、形容词与副词的位置 1. 当几个形容词共同修饰同一名词时,它们的先后顺序是:限定词→数词→描述性形 容词→大小、长短、形状的形容词→色彩形容词→类属形容词→表材料形容词+被修饰的名 词;或只记住限定词像 a, the, my, their 等词在最前边,其他词根据它们与被修饰名词 关系的远近进行安排 2. 一般来说,单个副词修饰形容词时,副词放在形容词前;但 enough 修饰形容词时要 放在形容词之后 good enough, mysterious enough 3. so 修饰的是副词,而 such 修饰的是名词 4. 形容 词修 饰名 词时 放在 前边 ,但 修饰 复合 不定 代词 ( something , someone, somebody; anything, anyone, anybody; nothing, no ? one, nobody)时,则放在这 些词之后 something important, anything possible 十三、关于 hardly, rarely, scarcely 与 seldom 的用法 hardly“刚刚,不完全” ,表示程度:I hardly know him. “我几乎认不出他了” ,表示还

是能认出或者说“我刚刚能认出他” ;hardly 与 any 连用表示“几乎没有” ,与 ever 连用表示 “几乎从来不” scarcely 的意思与 hardly 更接近。rarely“不经常” ; ,表示事物发生的频率: He rarely goes there. 他很少(不经常)去那里。seldom“很少,不经常” ,它与 rarely 更接近。 ? 同步练习 1) The five ? year deal obligates [A] the country to buy nine million tons [B] of grain a year [C] , three million more as [D] the old pact's minimum. 解析:D 错。 改为 than. 2) The lens of a camera performs the lens of the eye. [A] in the same function [B] the same function as [C] the function is the same as [D] and has the same function 解析:B 对。本句的汉语意思是“照相机的镜头和眼睛的水晶体所起的作用相同” 。 3) The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would have as the amount of money borrowed. [A] as the same value [B] the same value [C] value as the same [D] the value is the same 解析:B 对。本句的汉语意思是“消除通货膨涨会保证还的钱与借时的钱同值” 。 4) There are now methods for studying color vision in infants than there once were. [A] more sophisticated than [B] much more sophisticated [C] much sophisticated [D] sophisticated 解析:B 为正确答案。 5) The photographs of Mars taken by satellite are than those taken from the Earth. [A] clearest [B] the clearest [C] much clearer [D] more clearer 解析:C 为正确答案。 6) Common porpoises 海豚) are usually not considered [A] migratory, although [B] ( some do move [C] to more warmer [D] waters in winter. 解析:D 错。 改为 warmer. 7) During observations made over a fifty ? year period, the power output of the Sun has than a few tenths of one percent. [A] varied by no more [B] varied no more by [C] not varied more by [D] more varied by not 解析:A 为正确答案。 8) Few of the people who live on the cooperatives than they were as laborers. [A] is well off financial [B] financially well off [C] are better off finanically [D] financial better off 解析:C 为正确答案。 9) He came all the way to China for promoting friendship for making money.

[A] other than [B] better than [C] more than [D] rather than 解析:D 为正确答案。 10) He preferred to write the letter by hand . [A] to typing it [B] than type it [C] to type it [D] rather than type it 解析: D 为正确答案。 11) The harder he tried, [A] the worst [B] he danced [C] before the large [D] audience. 解析:B 错。 改为 worse. 12) The quicker a loan [A] is repaid [B] , the least [C] it will [D] cost. 解析: C 错。 改为 less. 13) Hot objects emit do cold objects. [A] rays more than infrared(红外线) [B] rays are more infrared than [C] more than infrared rays [D] more infrared rays than 解析:D 对。本句中的比较级为形容词 more (much 的比较级) ,被比较的两个事物为 “hot objects”和“cold objects” ,在所释放(emit)的红外线(infrared rays)的量上,前者 多于后者。其中 more 修饰 infrared rays,它们不能被分开,故只有 D 在词序上正确。空白 后面为倒装语序, 其中的 do 代替动词 emit, 本句空白后也可用正常语序,“cold objects do” 即 。 14) Last year the country had [A] fewer imports as [B] did the year before last [C] due to [D] the energy crisis. 解析: B 错。 改为 than. 15) Long Island, an [A] island that forms the [B] southeastern part of New York, has a [C] greater population than which [D] of forty ? two of thefifty states. 解析: D 错。 改为 that,代替 population. 16) The grain of rye is longer [A] and slenderer [B] than [C] those of [D] wheat. 解析:D 错。 改为 that.这里比较的“The grain”不是复数,不能用复数代词 those. 17) The activities of the international marketing researcher are frequently much broader than . [A] the domestic marketer has [B] the domestic marketer does [C] those of the domestic marketer [D] that which has the domestic marketer 解析:C 为正确答案。比较句中,连词 than 前后,即所比较的成分要一致,应该在同 种事物间进行比较。本句所比较的是两种 activities ,故 C 正确,代词 those 代替“the activities” 。 18) The grape is cultivated plants. [A] one of the oldest [B] the oldest one [C] one which the oldest [D] the one is the oldest of 解析:A 对。 “one of the oldest…”表示“ (历史)最长的栽种植物之一” 和 D 均不 ,C 合语法,而 B 选项中的 one 多余。 19) , William Shakespeare is the most widely known. [A] With all writers in English [B] All writers in English [C] All of the writers in English

[D] Of all writers in English 解析:D 为正确答案。 20) The crane is of the wading birds. [A] the tallest [B] the tallest that is [C] which is the tallest [D] which the tallest is 解析:A 为正确答案。 21) The Appalachians Trail, extending [A] approximately 2,020 miles [B] from Maine to Georgia, is the longer [C] continuous [D] marked footpath in the world. 解析:C 错。只有在两者相比较时才使用比较级,而本句出现了状语 in the world,明显 表示不止两者相比,故应改用最高级 (the) longest . 22) La Paz, Bolivia is the higher [A] capital city in [B] the western hemisphere and [C] the second ? highest [D] in the world. 解析:A 错。 改为 the highest. 23) The best way to control rats is by seeing that they have as . [A] possibly little nourishment [B] nourishment possibly little [C] little as possible nourishment [D] little nourishment as possible 解析:D 为正确答案, “as little nourishment as possible ”意为“尽可能少的养料” 。 24) Earlier [A] or later, all lakes are influenced [B] by eutrophication, a process in which lake sediment 沉积物) lowers the depth [C] of the water and drains 除去) oxygen ( ( from it [D] . 解析: A 错。改为 sooner. 25) Alexander Graham Bell once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher of the deaf of the telephone. [A] than inventing [B] than as the inventor [C] the invention [D] as the inventor 解析:B 为正确答案,两个短语“as a teacher of the deaf”和“ as the inventor of the telephone”相比。 26) Wool is characteristic on which to classify breeds of sheep. [A] most obviously [B] obvious the most [C] the most obvious [D] the most obvious that is 解析:C 为正确答案。注意: 空档后的“characteristic”是名词而不是形容词,所以不 能填 A. 27) The Democratic party has controlled [A] the most [B] of the elected positions at [C] state and local levels in South Carolina since [D] the Reconstruction. 解析:B 错。 改为 most. 28)During [A] the seventeenth century the most [B]colonists were primarily concerned with [C] D)] economics [D] and defense. 解析:B 错。 改为 most. 29) Belgium, in the [A] 19th century, rapid [B] grew into [C] an industrial [D] country.

解析:A 错。改为 rapidly. 30) The Lost Colony in North Carolina mysterious [A] disappeared between [B] 1587 and 1590, when its [C] founder returned from a visit [D] to England. 解析:A 错。改为 mysteriously. 31) Many flatworms have of eyes. [A] more pairs than one [B] more than one pair [C] one more pair than [D] one pair more than 解析:B 为正确答案。 32) Of the two houses the family prefers . [A] the most isolated one [B] the one isolated more [C] the more isolated one [D] the isolated one more 解析:C 为正确答案。 33) Freezing is at present one of the of preserving meats and vegatables. [A] most methods are important [B] methods most important [C] most important methods [D] most are important methods 解析:C 为正确答案。 34) The radio was of so [A] inferior quality that [B] I took it back [C] and asked for a better one [D] . 解析: A 错。 改为 such. ? 代词(一) 内 容 提 要 代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词, 它们在句子中承担不同的功用。 人 称 代 词 一、主格人称代词有 I, we, you, he, she, they, it,主格人称代词就是在句中 充当主语和表语的代词 二、宾格人称代词有 me, us, you, him, her, them, it,宾格人称代词即在句 中充当宾语(含介词宾语)的代词 三、同步练习 1)Archibald Motley's artistic talent[A]was apparent[B]by the time him[C]enrolled [D] in high school. 2) Legends often contain an element [A] of fact, but [B] sometimes it is [C] totally [D] untrue. 3) Unlike [A] road vehicles, Hovercrafts have no physical [B] contact with the surface over which [C] them [D] travel. 4) Let you and I [A] promise that we shall always [B] dare to do [C] what is [D] right. 5) Most of we [A] know that conductors direct their orchestras with a baton, but how

many[B] are aware that[C] they also direct with their faces, hands [D] ,and shoulders? 四、例题解析 1) C 错。him 是宾格,而此处却需要作主语的人称代词,故应将 him 改为主格 he. 2) C 错。 改为 they are.C 处代替的是“Legends”而不是“an element” 。 3) D 错。them 也是宾格,应改用主格 they,作定语从句中的主语,谓语为 travel. 4) A 错。 改为 me. 5) A 错。改为宾格 us,因为前面是介词 of,us 作其宾语,故用宾格。 物 主 代 词 一、表示人的物主代词用 my, our, your, his, her 和 their,指无生命的东西用 its (但指国家时一般用 she 或 her) ,它们在句中作定语 二、 名词型物主代词能作表语 (It's theirs) 主语 、 (Mine is there) 宾语 don't like hers) 、 (I , 与 of 连用可以作定语(the food of theirs) 。 三、同步练习 1) A scientist bases its [A] work on hypotheses that [B] have been checked [C] through careful [D] experimentation. 2) Crude rubber is an [A] elastic(有弹性的) solid with a specific gravity of 0.911 and a refractive index (折射率) of 1.591, though it [B] composition varies with different latexes (橡浆) as well as [C] with the way it is prepared [D] at the plantation. 3) Manufacturers [A] of consumer goods [B] often change [C] the styles of them [D] products. 四、例题解析 1) A 错。 改为 his. 2) B 错。 改为 its. 3) D 错。 改为 their. ? 代词(一) 内 容 提 要 代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词, 它们在句子中承担不同的功用。 人 称 代 词 一、主格人称代词有 I, we, you, he, she, they, it,主格人称代词就是在句中 充当主语和表语的代词 二、宾格人称代词有 me, us, you, him, her, them, it,宾格人称代词即在句 中充当宾语(含介词宾语)的代词 三、同步练习 1)Archibald Motley's artistic talent[A]was apparent[B]by the time him[C]enrolled [D] in high school. 2) Legends often contain an element [A] of fact, but [B] sometimes it is [C] totally [D] untrue. 3) Unlike [A] road vehicles, Hovercrafts have no physical [B] contact with the surface over which [C] them [D] travel. 4) Let you and I [A] promise that we shall always [B] dare to do [C] what is [D] right. 5) Most of we [A] know that conductors direct their orchestras with a baton, but how many[B] are aware that[C] they also direct with their faces, hands [D] ,and shoulders?

四、例题解析 1) C 错。him 是宾格,而此处却需要作主语的人称代词,故应将 him 改为主格 he. 2) C 错。 改为 they are.C 处代替的是“Legends”而不是“an element” 。 3) D 错。them 也是宾格,应改用主格 they,作定语从句中的主语,谓语为 travel. 4) A 错。 改为 me. 5) A 错。改为宾格 us,因为前面是介词 of,us 作其宾语,故用宾格。 物 主 代 词 一、表示人的物主代词用 my, our, your, his, her 和 their,指无生命的东西用 its (但指国家时一般用 she 或 her) ,它们在句中作定语 二、 名词型物主代词能作表语 (It's theirs) 主语 、 (Mine is there) 宾语 don't like hers) 、 (I , 与 of 连用可以作定语(the food of theirs) 。 三、同步练习 1) A scientist bases its [A] work on hypotheses that [B] have been checked [C] through careful [D] experimentation. 2) Crude rubber is an [A] elastic(有弹性的) solid with a specific gravity of 0.911 and a refractive index (折射率) of 1.591, though it [B] composition varies with different latexes (橡浆) as well as [C] with the way it is prepared [D] at the plantation. 3) Manufacturers [A] of consumer goods [B] often change [C] the styles of them [D] products. 四、例题解析 1) A 错。 改为 his. 2) B 错。 改为 its. 3) D 错。 改为 their. ? 代词(二) 内 容 提 要 代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词, 它们在句子中承担不同的功用。 反 身 代 词 一、 反身代词有 myself, ourselves, yourselves, himself, herself, themselves, itself. 主语与宾语为同一人或物时,要用反身代词(否则就不能用反身代词) ,反身代词也可放在 名词或代词(主格)后面(也可放在句尾)起强调作用 1) All [A] the scouts 童子军) got theirselves [B] ready for the [C] long camping ( trip by spending their weekends living [D] in the open. 2) Various [A] animals have shells that keep themselves [B] from growing beyond [C] a certain [D] size. 3) Benjamin Banneker's aptitude [A] in mathematics [B] and knowledge of astronomy enabled himself [C] to predict the solar [D] eclipse of 1789. 4) The president announced that he himself [A] would act upon [B] the evidence as presented [C] to himself [D] by the congressional committee. 5) Garrett[A] Morgan died in Cleveland, Ohio, the city that [A] had awarded himself [B] a gold medal for his devotion [C] to public [D] safety. 6) Plants rid them [A] of excess water through [B] transpiration, the evaporation of extra [C] moisture from their [D] leaves. 7) When Jonathan went [A] to Spain with his [B] sister, he bought a [C] leather

coat for her and another for him [D] . 二、例题解析 1) B 错。 改为 themselves. 2) B 错。B 处明显指代 animals,而它前面的主语 that 却指代 shells,也就是说“that” 和“themselves”指的不是同一事物。由于主语与宾语不是同一物,故不能用反身代词,应 改为宾格 them. 3) C 错。本句的主语为 aptitude,而非 Benjamin Banneker(在这里它作 aptitude 的定 语) ,而 C 处的代词却指上文提到的人名“Benjamin Banneker” ,由于主语与宾语并非指同 一人,故不能用反身代词,应改用宾格 him. 4) D 错。 改为 to him.动词“presented”的(逻辑)主语是“evidence” ,而不是 A 处 的“he, ”所以 D“himself”处与 C 处“presented”的主语“evidence”不一致,所以不能用 反身代词。 5) B 错。 改为 him.同上。 6) A 错。此处的 them 指主语 plants,rid 是及物动词,由于主语与宾语指同一物,故 应使用反身代词 themselves. 7) D 错。 改为 for himself. ? 代词(三) 内 容 提 要 代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词, 它们在句子中承担不同的功用。 不 定 代 词 一、 “every” (每一个)只作为定语使用,即必须在其后加上单数可数名词构成名词短 语,它不可与 everyone(每一个)混淆。 everyone 相当于名词,它不可修饰其他名词,只 作主语或宾语 1) Every [A] knows that hospitals are institutions where the sick are treated, but how many [B] realize that they were once [C] homes for the indigent and the friendless [D] ? 2) Everyone [A] child in the United States must [B] receive [C] some form of educational instruction [D] . 例题解析 1) A 错。every 不可单独充当句子成分,应在其后加上 person 或改为 everyone. 2) A 错。改为 Every,修饰 child. 二、 “much”和“many”分别修饰不可数名词和可数名词,可作为代词(如 much of) 和形容词使用 3) Food seasoning plays an important [A] role in the cooking [B] customs of much [C] cultures in [D] the world. 4) The general sales tax has been [A] a major source of income for state governments, much [B] of which derive more than half [C] of their budgets from [D] it. 5) Data received from [A] two spacecraft indicate that there is many evidence [B] that huge thunderstorms are now occurring [C] around the equator [D] of the planet Saturn. 例题解析 3) C 错。应改为 of many,因为被修饰词 cultures 为可数名词,故其修饰语应用 many, 而 much 要修饰不可数名词。 4) B 错。应改用 many,因此处所指代的是可数名词 governments(复数) ,many 在本 句中为代词,作非限定性定语从句的主语。

5) B 错。应改为 much evidence,因为 evidence(证据,迹象)为不可数名词,故应用 much 来修饰。 三、 “some”和“any”是表示不定数量的代词,相当于汉语的“一些” ,作定语可修 饰可数名词复数或不可数名词, 其中 some 包括它的合成词 something, ( someone, somebody) 多用于肯定句,而 any(包括它的合成词 anything, anyone, anybody)则用于疑问句和否 定句中,其中 any 在否定句中相当于汉语中的“任何” ;形容词修饰 something, someone, somebody, anything, anyone, anybody, nothing, nobody 时,形容词要放在这些词的 后边 6) Historians [A] have never reached some general [B] agreement about [C] the precise causes of the [D] Civil War in the United States. 例题解析 6) B 错。应为 any general,因为本句为否定句(否定副词 never) ,应该用 any,此处 表示“ (没有达成过) 任何共识” 。 四、 “another”和“other”分别表示“另外的一个” (an+other)和“另外的”其余的“意 思, 可以用作定语修饰名词或单独作主语与宾语, 其中前者只用来修饰或指代单数可数名词, 后者修饰单复数名词和不可数名词,二者不能相互混淆 7) Lizards lack [A] the built ? in body temperature control [B] many another [C] creatures possess [D] . 8) Some bacterium are extremely [A] harmful, but anothers [B] are regularly [C] used in producing cheeses, crackers, and many other foods [D] . 9) Like [A] most another [B] art forms, the Greek tragedy had [C] its origins in religious [D] observances. 例题解析 7) C 错。应改用 other 来修饰可数复数名词 creatures.本句是一个省略了关系代词 that (或 which)的定语从句,control 为名词作主句中及物动词(谓语)lack 的宾语,同时又受 其后面定语从句的修饰。 8) B 错。 改为 others. 9) B 错。 改为 other. 五、one 与 other “one”作为代词代替前面提到的人或物,它前边加 the; “other”作 代词修饰复数名词。 “one…another”表示“一个…另一个”的意思,或表示多个(三者以 上)之中的“另一个”“又一个” “one…the other”表示两者之中剩下的“另一个,又一 , ; 个” 10) I'd like to [A] buy a coat similar [B] to one [C] you are wearing [D] . 11) Though [A] Art Tatum was totally blind in one eye and had only slight [B] vision in another [C] , he became [D] an internationally renowned jazz musician. 例题解析 10) C 错。改为 to the one. 11) C 错。应用 the other,因为此处表示两者之中的另一个,Art Tatum 为人的名字, 他只有两只眼睛,故提到“另一只”时应用 the other. 六、 “few”和“little”两者分别为“many”和“much”的反义词,表示“少,很少” 的意思,有否定含义,即等于“几乎没有” ,如若表示肯定的含义,则应在 little 和 few 前加 不定冠词“a” ,即变为“a few”和“a little” 12) Because they are generally [A] taken simply to obtain a recognizable [B] and relatively clear[C]image,most non ? prefessional photographs demand few[D]equipment.

例题解析 12) D 错。应改用 little,因为 equipment 为不可数名词,故其修饰语应用 little,few 后面只接可数复数名词。 七、 “a great deal (of) (大量)只作为限定语修饰不可数名词或在句中指代不可 ” 数名词作主语或宾语 13) of gift ? giving, barter, buying and selling goes on among the Narvjos. [A] A great deal [B] A great many [C] Much greater [D] Many 例题解析 13) A 为正确答案。空白后为不可数名词“gift ? giving, barter, buying”“ ,[B] A great amny”和“ [D] Many”修饰可数名词,而“ [C] Much greater”本身是形容词,空 档后不应有“of” 所以填“ , [A] A great deal of” 。 八、 “nothing but”表示“只不过,就是,只有” He is nothing but a singer. 他只不过是个唱歌的。 Nothing but a miracle can save us. 只有奇迹才能救我们。 九、 “anything but” 表示“根本不,并不” She is anything but beautiful. 她并不美。 John is anything but a liar. 约翰决不是个骗子。 十、 “something of” 表示“略有” He has seen something of life. 他略有阅历。 I'm something of a cook. 我略懂烹饪。 (试比较) He is not much of a scholar. 他算不上个很好(高明)的学者。 十一、 “none other than”表示“就是” The new arrival was none other than the President. 刚到的那人就是总统本人。 我们要注意 none other than 与 other than 的区别,后者表示“与……不同” I do not wish him other than he is. 我不希望他改变现状。 The truth is quite other than what we think. 事实与我们所想的不一样。 十二、 “none”有时可作副词,表示“一点也不” We did the work none too well. 我们活干得一点也不好。 十三、nowhere 可用以成语:be nowhere 一无所得,一事无成;get nowhere 一事无成, nowhere near 离……很远。 十四、有些不定代词同时也是形容词,或有其他的含义 He is all attention, and she is all eyes. 他十分留意,她也注意力集中。 Everybody who is anybody (somebody) at all will be at the dance. [句中的“anybody(somebody) ”在此当“大人物,重要人物”讲。 ] ? 代词(四) 内 容 提 要 代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词, 它们在句子中承担不同的功用。 指 示 代 词 一、指示代词 this,that,these 和 those 用来代替上文已提到或指示眼前的人或物,在 句中可充当主语、宾语和定语。做定语的指示代词要与所修饰的词在数上一致 1) Today's libraries differ greatly from . [A] the past [B] those of the past [C] that are past [D] those past

2) The amount of money spent on cosmetics, according to some authorities, has exceeded spent on public health. [A] one [B] those [C] it [D] that 3) The culture and customs of America are more like of England than of any other country. [A] that [B] what [C] which [D] those 例题解析 1) B 为正确答案。此题中的 differ from 意为“不同于” ,相比较的对象为“现代的图 书馆”与“以往的图书馆” ,故应选 B ,用 those 代替前面提到的 libraries(复数) 。 2) D 为正确答案。 “has exceeded”超过,超越“,空档后”spent on public health“作 定语,而空档处是代词代替”The amount of monay“,这是不可数名词,所以” [A] one “和” [B] those“均不符合条件。[C] it“也不对,it 代词代”the amount of money spent ” on cosmetics, “那么空档后的”spent on public health“显然与”spent on cosmetics“相矛盾。 所以 C 也不对。 3) D 为正确答案。 “what”和“which”为连接和关系代词, “that”指代单数,而空档 处是代前边的“The clture and customs of America” ,所以应当用复数代词 those. 二、为了避免重复,that 或 those 来代替前边的名词或代词,that 表示事物,those 表示 人。 一般来讲 that 表示单数或不可数, those 表示复数。 those 可以和 who 连用, who 而 但 由 引导一个定语从句,这时 those 就不是代替前边的某词 4) Numerous efforts have been made [A] to improve [B] the laws governing [C] air pollution, but none have been as successful as them [D] devised by the state of Oregon. 5) An internationally famous ballerina [A] , Maria Tallchief demonstrated [B] that the quality of ballet in the United States could equal those [C] of the ballet in Europe [D] . 6) Since the job was going to be [A] difficult, he asked only [B] them [C] he trusted to assist him [D] . 7) Forest animals [A] utilize the sense [B] of smell less [C] than them [D] in the countryside. 例题解析 4) D 错。 改为 those.这里“those”与“none”同指,都代“the laws” 。 5) C 错。 改为 that,代“the quality.” 6) C 错。改为 those.C 处作“asked”的宾语,又作“he trusted to assist him”的先行词。 7) D 错。 改为 those. 三、such 修饰可数名词须与 a 连用,也可修饰可数名词复数和不可数名词 8) Let us take a serious, reasonable look at what the results might be if proposal were accepted. [A] so many [B] a so many [C] a such [D] such a

9) Although signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous in recent years than in the past, could it be that we are getting better at revealing dishonesty? [A] so [B] those [C] such [D] such a 例题解析 8) D 为正确答案。 9) C 为正确答案。 ? 代词(五) 内 容 提 要 代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词, 它们在句子中承担不同的功用。 关 系 代 词 关系代词有 who, whom, whose, that, which,as.它们用来引导定语从句。它们 既代表所修饰词,又在从句中担任一定的成分。 一、who 和 whom 代表人,who 在从句作主语而 whom 在从句中作(动词或介词的)宾 语 1) Human beings are social [A] animals whom [B] usually prefer not to live in physical [C] or psychological isolation [D] . 二、whose 表示“某人的” ,在从句中作定语 2) There was a teapot fashioned like a China duck out of open mouth the tea was supposed to come. [A] which [B] its[C] that[D] whose 三、that 既可代表事物也可代表人,which 代表事物或前边整个句子所表述的情况;that 在从句中作主语、宾语和表语;which 在从句中作主语或宾语 3) The first doll say “mama” was invented in 1830. [A] that it could [B] could [C] it could [D] that could 四、代表物时多用 which,但在带有下列词的句子中用 that 而不用 which,这些词包括 all, anything, much 等 4) Probably he had come down in the world and this sampling was all was left him from the time when he could afford to come and select his favorite pudding. [A] what[B] that[C] which[D] who 5) Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much we can learn from him today. [A] as[B] when[C] who[D] that 五、在非限定性定语从句中,不能用 that,而用 who, whom 代表人,用 which 代表事 物 6) After a while I recognized him as “Big Jim, used to sit behind me in maths class in ” high school. [A] which[B] who[C] he[D] that 7) I have often wondered whether some people, had no intention of making a purchase, would take advantage of this privilege of having a sample puddings without buying them.

[A] whom[B] who[C] which[D] what 8) This means we shall have to carry our own water, will add even greater weight to the saucer.“ [A] that[B] although[C] why[D] which 六、which 引导非限定性定语从句来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分,而不 是一个名词 9) One can suggest that students should spend two or three years in an English-speaking country, amounts to washing one's hands of English complex structures. [A] whom[B] which[C] when[D] that 七、 在引导限定性定语从句时, 有时相当于 in which,at which,for which 或 at which that Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing in much the same way that in which) attitudes ( towards night dreaming have changed. 人们对白日做梦的态度正在改变, 这与人们对夜间做梦 的看法的变化有非常相似之处。 I like the music for the very reason that(for which) he dislikes it. 我出于某种原因喜欢这 种音乐,而他恰恰与我相反。 We arrived the day that(on which) they left. 刚好我们到的那天他们走了。 八、有时 as 也可用作关系代词 Sam set out to improve efficiency at the shirt factory but, as we find out later in this unit, his turned out not quite as he had expected. 九、例题解析 1) B 错。改为 who.2) D 为正确答案。3) D 为正确答案。4) B 为正确答案。5) D 为正确答案。 6) B 为正确答案。7) B 为正确答案。8) D 为正确答案。9) B 为正确答案。 ? 代词(六) 内 容 提 要 代词分人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、不定代词、指示代词、关系代词和连接代词, 它们在句子中承担不同的功用。 连接代词:是用来引导主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句,连接代词有 what, who, whom,whose, which. 一、what 可引导名词性从句,作主语和表语。 “what”兼具先行词和关系代词的性质, what=the thing(things)that 1) Continue to be you are before you find an exercelent job! [A] who[B] that[C] what[D] which 2) would be a fairly long speech in a play is often presented as a recitative(宣叙部) in opera. [A] That[B] There[C] It[D] What 二、 代词 who (m) which 和 what 可以和? ever 构成复合代词 , (whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever) ,它们起强调作用,都兼具先行词和关系词的作用。表示“所有,一 切”意。whoever 和 whomever 作为复合代词,前边有介词,如果单纯作介词的宾语用 whomever;如果介词后边的复合代词引导从句,则用 whoever 3) it is you have heard, you'd better ask him about it in person. [A] Whatever [B] However[C] That[D] Although 4) The government will sell public houses to provides enough amount of money for the government further investment.

[A] whoever [B] those[C] people[D] who 三、有时这些复合代词还可以引起状语 5) the size or nature of a business,its main goal is to earn a profit. [A] Whatever[B] Of[C] Whereas[D] Because 四、例题解析 1) C 为正确答案。2) D 为正确答案。3) A 为正确答案。4) A 为正确答案。5) A 为正确答案。 ? 情态动词(一) 内 容 提 要 情态动词有 can(能) ,may(可以) ,must(必须) ,have to(不得不) ,ought to(应该) , dare(敢) ,used to(过去经常) ,had better(最好) ,would rather(宁愿) 。在肯定句中它们 后边都要接 动词原形 .在否定句中,can,may,must 和 dare 后边加 not;have to 和 ought to 分别在 have 和 ought 后加 not;used to 的否定式可用 used not to,也可用 didn't use to,但后 者用得较多; better 和 would rather 的否定式分别是 had better not 和 would rather not.这些 had 情态动词与现在完成时连用在某种意义上有一定的虚拟性。 肯定句和否定句中的情态动词 一、情态动词的现在式在肯定句中的比较 1. can 表示体力或脑力方面的“能力”“技能”或根据客观条件能做某种动作的“可能 、 性” 1) Mild forms of execrise can some of the loss of flexibility that accompanies aging. [A] stop[B] to stop[C] stopping[D] be stopped 但表示人体力或智力的具体 动作时须用 be able to He was able to do that without any help.他不需要任何帮助就能完成这项工作。 2. may 表示“允许,可以” ,相当于 be allowed to 2) If there is social or political change in a region [A] where a standard language [B] is spoken, local varieties [C] of the language may developing [D] . may 或 might 可和 as well 连用,表示“建议” ,译为“还是……的为好” You may as well keep a certain distance from that mad man. 你们还是离那疯子远点为好。 You might as well go home now.你还是现在回家为好。 3. must 表示“必须”或“应当”“一定” 、 3) The formation of snow must be occurring [A] slowly [B] , in calm air, and at a temperature near [C] the freezing point [D] . 4. have to 加动词原形,表示“不得不”“必须” , ,它比 must 更强调客观 Tom had to work into the deep night everyday to earn a living. 汤姆为了生计每天都得工作 到深夜。 5. should 表示“劝告”“建议”或“义务”时,译作“应当” , ,或表示“预测”和“可 能” He should take care of his parents as they are old enough not to live on themselves. 由于父 母亲老了,不能自理,他应当照顾他们。 He should be there now. 他可能到了。 should have done 在虚拟语气中表示“责备或后悔” 6. ought ,只有一种形式,即 ought 后必须加 to,然后跟接动词原形表示“有义务”或 “必要”做某事,译为“应当,应该” 4) The traditional goal of science is to discover how things are,not how they ought .

[A] to[B] to be[C] be[D] have been 5) You are quite right;I am inferring in my comments [A] that McGraw had not ought to [B] have broken [C] in the room without his permission [D] . 7. dare 可以用作情态动词,后面跟不带 to 的动词不定式,这主要用于否定句中,它本 身可有现在时第三人称单数,词尾加? s,它还可以有? ING 分词形式(daring)和过去式 及? ED 分词形式(dared) 6) Although Oriental ideas of woman's subordination to man prevailed in those days,she meet with men on an equal basis. [A] did not dared [B] dared not [C] dared not to [D] did dare not to 二、情态动词在一般时否定句中的用法 can't(can not, cannot) 表示“不可能” may not 表示“不可以” mustn't(must not) , , 表示“一定不要”“不许可” , ,needn't (need not) 表示“不必” ,dare not +动词原形 表 示“不敢” He can't finish his essay by this time. 现在他不可能写完论文。 He may not sleep now. 他或许现在没在睡觉。 You mustn't criticize her in that way. 你不应那样批评她。 You needn't come tomorrow. 你明天没必要来了。 He dared not meet his fiancée. 他不敢见女朋友。 三、例题解析 1) 正确答案为 A.由于情态动词 can 要求跟动词原形,所以 B 和 C 都不对,can 后虽 然有被动形式,但在意义上和语法上与横线后部分都无法衔接,所以 D 也错。 2) D 错。改为 develop.may 后要求跟动词原形,而 developing 是现在分词,显然不符 合要求,所以应改为 develop. 3) A 错。改用 must occur,此处叙说的是客观现象,而非强调正在发生的事,故用一 般现在时。 4) B 为正确答案。 5) B 错。改为 ought not to. 6) B 为正确答案。 ? 情态动词(二) 内 容 提 要 情态动词有 can(能) ,may(可以) ,must(必须) ,have to(不得不) ,ought to(应该) , dare(敢) ,used to(过去经常) ,had better(最好) ,would rather(宁愿) 。在肯定句中它们 后边都要接 动词原形 .在否定句中,can,may,must 和 dare 后边加 not;have to 和 ought to 分别在 have 和 ought 后加 not;used to 的否定式可用 used not to,也可用 didn't use to,但后 者用得较多; better 和 would rather 的否定式分别是 had better not 和 would rather not.这些 had 情态动词与现在完成时连用在某种意义上有一定的虚拟性。 情态动词与完成时的使用 一、must+have+? ED 分词:用于肯定句,表示对过去情况的一种肯定推测,表示“肯 定,一定” 1) It around nine o'clock when I drove back home because it was already dark. [A] had to be [B] must have been [C] was to be [D] must be 2) John's score on the test is the highest in the class; [A] he should study last night [B] he should have studied last night

[C] he must have studied last night [D] he must had to study last night 3) After searching [A] for evidence in the house,the police concluded [B] that the thief must have come in [C] through the window and stole [D] the silver while the family was asleep. 二、may (might)+have+? ED 分词:用于肯定句和否定句,表示对已发生事情的不 肯定的推测,相当于“可能,大概, ”其中 might 较 may 语气更弱,把握更小 She might have gone to see her doctor last week, but I am not sure. 上星期或许她去看医生了,但我不敢肯定。 Don't worry, your husband may not have been hurt seriously. 别急,你丈夫也许伤得不厉害。 三、should(ought to)+have+? ED 分词:肯定句表示过去本应发生的事却没有发生; 否定句表示已发生了本不该发生的事。前者可译为“本应, ”后者为“本不该” You should have apologized to her for not soon replying to the letter. 你本应向她道歉, 说明 为什么没能及时回信。 (可你没这么做) 4) You yesterday if you were really serious about your work. [A] ought to come[B] ought to be coming[C] ought to have come[D] ought have come 四、can(not) +have+? ED 分词 He is an hour late —— He can have been delayed by fog. Of course,that's a possibility.他 迟到了 1 小时,可能因为大雾而耽搁了。当然这只是可能性问题。 The poem can not have been written by her since she was only five years old then.这诗不可 能是她写的,因为她那时才 5 岁。 五、 “could+have+? ED 分词”有时用于表示过去的时间,说明某事可能或不可能已发 生;有时可表示过去本来可以做某事,但却未做 I simply can't understand how he could have made such a mistake. 我简直不明白他怎么会 犯那样的错误。 He walked there,but he could have taken a taxi. 他走着去了,可当时完全可以坐出租。 “couldn't+have+? ED 分词”还表示无论如何也不可能或没有做到 I couldn't have called you. I wasn't near a telephone. 反正我也不可能给你打电话,我附近 没有电话。 5) “We didn't see him at the lecture yesterday.”He it.“ [A] mustn't attended[B] couldn't have attended[C] would have not attended[D] needn't have attended 六、needn't+have+? ED 分词:表示对过去不必做的事情却做了,可译为“其实不必” 6) You all these parcels yourself.The shop would have delivered them if you had asked a shop assistant. [A] didn't need to carry[B] needn't have carried[C] needn't carry[D] didn't need carry 七、 used to 表示过去的习惯动作或状态, 现在已不存在, 在否定陈述句中, 一般用 didn't use to,也可用 used not to;在疑问句中用“Did…use to” 。used to 还可 never,often,always 等连用。注意 used to 与 be used to 的不同,后者表示 be accustomed to “习惯于某种状态” , 而且跟接名词或? ING 形式,而 used to 后接动词原形,试比较 He used to drink. 表示“他过去经常喝酒”而现在不喝了。

He is used to wine (He is used to drinking wine) at each meal. 表示“他现在已养成习惯,每顿饭喝点葡萄酒。 ” 八、had better 表示“最好……” ,后接动词原形,其否定式为 had better not+动词原形 You had better not follow his behavior. 你最好不要学他。 九、would rather 意思是“宁愿” ,表示选择。它有两种用法,一是在肯定句中后边直 接跟动词原形,其否定句是在 would rather 后加 not,即 would rather not+动词原形;二是 它后边可以跟接从句,该从句的谓语动词用一般过去式表示虚拟语气。由于 would rather 表 示选择,它后边可跟接 than She would rather sleep than talk rubbish. 她宁愿睡不愿闲聊。 7) “Did you criticize him for his mistakes?”——“Yes,but it.” [A] I'd rather not do [B] I'd rather not doing [C] I'd rather not have done [D] I'd rather not did [注] would rather 和 had rather 都表示 “宁愿” 在用法上也没有区别。 , 但如果说 would rather 与 had rather 完全一样(Longman Dictionary of Comtemporary English 如是说) ,这一 说法有争议。其实 had rather 在现代标准英语中几乎已经不用了。这对我们考试来说是比较 重要的,因为一般考题作为标准英语是不用 had rather 的。 十、例题解析 1) B 为正确答案。2) C 为正确答案。 3) D 错。改为 stolen.这里 C 处和 D 处是并列的谓语,D 处相当于 must have stolen. 4) C 为正确答案。5) B 为正确答案。6) B 为正确答案。7) C 为正确答案。 ? 动词不定式(一) 内 容 提 要 动词不定式是一种非限定性动词,由 to+动词原形构成,但它还是属于动词,所以它本 身可以带宾语和状语。动词不定式在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语和状语,还可用在 复合结构中,而且有完成式、进行式、完成进行式和否定形式。动词不定式的被动形式除了 一般形式外还有其完成式和进行式。动词不定式的特殊情况也要掌握。 第一节 动词不定式的构成与形式 一、动词不定式的概念:动词不定式指由 to 加上动词原形(而且只能是动词原形)所 构成的一种非限定性动词,但在有些情况下 to 可以省略。动词不定式在语法功能上可作主 语 1) 、宾语 2) 、表语 3) 、定语 4) 和状语 5) 1) education is the principal way of gaining status in a culture that generally stresses achievement,skillfulness,and upward mobility. [A] To acquire[B] Acquire[C] Acquires[D] Have acquired 2) We are planning for the entrance examination for postgraduate. [A] registering[B] register[C] to register [D] registered 3) The most urgent problem now we are facing is to learn the needed materials for the matriculation of postgraduate. [A] make our every effort[B] to make our every effort [C] to our every effort[D] made our efforts 4) -Where should I send my application? -The Personnel Office is the place it to. [A] sends[B] be sended[C] to be sended [D] to send 5) from others, one should take his promise. [A] To get confidence [B] To getting confidence

[C] To get confidences[D] Getting to the confidence 说明:以上五句中的斜体是其动词不定式的附属部分。 二、动词不定式的构成与形式: 动词不定式可以作以上各种成分,但它毕竟是动词, 所以有动词的属性 动词不定式及其短语还可以有自己的宾语[2]和 4]中的斜体部分]和状语[5]中的 斜体部分] 。虽然动词不定式在语法上没有表面上的直接主语,但它表达的意义是动作,这 一动作一定由使动者发出。这一使动者我们称之为 逻辑主语 .考研题中,语法中所考动词 不定式部分包括检测考生是否掌握动词不定式与其逻辑主语之间的一致, 其中主要包括它们 之间 主动和被动 的关系以及 它们在时间上的一致 , 同时动词不定式还有其否定形式。 所 有这些涉及到动词不定式的各种形式。现以动词 make 为例,其形式如下: 主动形式 被动形式 一般式 (not) to make (not) to be made 完成式 (not) to have made (not) to have been made 进行式 (not) to be making 完成进行式 (not) to have been making 6) Some [A] types of naphtha (石油脑) are employed to dissolving [B] rubber [C] and to thin paints and [D] varnish. 7) The Statue of Liberty was originally [A] proposed [B] in 1865 to commemoration [C] the alliance [D] of France with the American colonies during the American Revolution. 8) The purpose [A] of inductive logic [B] is to inferring [C] general laws from particular occurrences [D] . 三、例题解析 1) A 为正确答案。2) C 为正确答案。3) B 为正确答案。4) D 为正确答案。5) A 为正确答案。 6) B 错。改用动词原形“dissolve” ,不定式符号“to”后只能出现动词原形。 7) C 错。 “commemorate” 8) C 错。 “to infer” 注意句子的主语为 改为 。 改为 , “purpose” (目的) 。 ? 动词不定式(二) 第二节 动词不定式的用法 一、 不定式结构作主语 1. 不定式前置 1) Derive [A] mineral resources from [B] sedimentary rock [C] is a [D] major modern industrial activity. 2) in the matriculation for postgraduate in a short time is realy a hard nut. [A] To make high scores[B] To make low goal[C] To the high scores[D] Make the low goals 2. 上述形式一般情况不多见,作为考试的规范英语,如果不定式较长,显得头重脚轻, 则可由代词“it”作形式主语(形式主语“it”不能由“that”或“this”等其他代词代替) , 而将不定式放到后面 It is really a hard nut to get high scores in the matriculation for postgraduate in a short time. 3) John admitted that it's always difficult . [A] for him being on time[B] being on time for him [C] for him to be on time[D] on time for him 4) It is difficult for me [A] to be concentrating [B] while someone [C] is using

[D] a vacuum cleaner. 3. 不定式后置的情况不仅限于动词是系动词,也适用于其他动词 It took us a great deal of efforts to finish that task. It made him extremely happy to get contact with his family in Taiwan since they separated more than 40 years ago. 4. 不定式结构所表示的动作是谁做的,即不定式的逻辑主语,通常可以在特定的上下 文中能看出,也可以通过带“for +名词短语”辨出 It is quite important for us to read good books during the period of general review(总复习) 。 It is not difficult for those who study maths well to pass the exam. 5. 在某些形容词(如 careless,clever,considerate, foolish, good, impolite, kind, naughty, nice, silly, stupid 等)作表语时,不定式后可以加 of 来引导出其逻辑主语 It is very kind of you to help me./It is stupid of him to do such a silly thing. 间或也可用 for + there to be 表示(而且 there 后面的不定式只能是 to be) 。 It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the company. 二、 不定式作宾语 不定式作宾语有两种:一种是及物动词后直接跟带 to 的不定式;另一种是“动词+疑 问词+带 to 的不定式” 1. 动词+带 to 的不定式结构 只能跟动词不定式的动词,常见的有:afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, believe, care, claim, decide, decline (拒绝) demand, desire, determine, endeavor, , expect, fail, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, long, manage, mean(想要) offer , (表示愿意做…) pretend, promise, refuse, seek(试图) swear, undertake, wish , , (想要)等。 5) We refuse that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults(银行保管库) of this nation. [A] to believe [B] to be belived[C] beliving [D] have belived6) The green turtle has been known over 2,000 miles to return to a nesting site. [A] in the navigating [B] the navigation [C] to navigate [D] navigation 7)For the[A]first time Venusian scientists managed landing[B]a satellite on the planet Earth, and it has been sending [C] back signals as well as [D] photographs ever since. 8) The day is past when Chinese universities and colleges to give high school diplomas to all who sit through four years of instruction, regardless of whether any visible results can be discerned. [A] afforded[B] affording[C] to afford [D] can afford 从上例我们可以看出 afford 一般与 can 和 can't 或 could 和 couldn't 连 用。 2. 动词+疑问代(副)词+不定式 这类动词常见的有: advise, decide, discuss, find out, forget, inquire, know, learn, regard, remember, see, settle, teach, tell, think(=consider) understand, wonder , 等。这些疑问代(副)词有 what, when, where, which, how, whether 等,但不包括 why,如: He does not know how to go there when to speak before strangers.

who(m) to visit. which one to choose. You can decide whether to go forward or stay here. when to see a doctor. I will show you what to do. where to go. how to deal with it. 其中,1)和 2)中不定式的逻辑主语仍是句子的主语,分别为 He 和 You;而 3)中不 定式的逻辑主语则不是句子的主语 I,而是宾语 you. 9) The director of this organization must know . [A] to manage money, sell his product and beable to satisfy stockholders [B] managing money, selling, and be able to satisfy the stockholders [C] how to manage money, sell his product, and satisfy the stockholders [D] money management, selling and being able to satisfy the stockholders 10) To tell you the truth, I really don't know how deal with a man like him. [A] can I[B] well[C] to[D] much 3. 有时,不定式跟作主语时一样,可由 it 来代替,而把不定式放到后面去 He makes it a rule to take a walk before breakfast. I think it interesting to play football while it is snowing hard. We find it difficult to get everything ready before the time you require. She cosiders it important to make friends with them. I don't think it necessary to argue with them on this problem. 4. 有时 THERE 和 TO BE 连用表示“有”或“存在(某情况) ”等 It is impossible for there to be any more. Would you like there to be a meeting to discuss the problem? I expect there to be no argument about this? 有时在个别的介词后可用“疑问词+不定式结构”作其宾语 He has his own decision of how to do it. 三、 不定式作表语 1. 一种情况为主语是不定式(表示条件) ,表语也是不定式(表示结果) To see is to believe/ To work means to earn a living. 2. 另一种情况主语是以 aim, duty, hope, idea, happiness, job, plan, problem, purpose, thing, wish 等为中心的名词,或以 what 引导的名词性从句,不定式表语对主语 起补充说明作用 His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future. / The boss's plan is to start building the skycraper immediately. / What I want to say is to get rid of the plan forever. 11) The function of Louis Sullivan's architecture was providing [A] large uninterrupted floor areas [B] and to allow ample light [C] into the interior [D] . 12) The most important [A] thing is negociate [B] with them about [C] the future of [D] the plant. 四、 不定式作定语 1. 不定式作定语修饰名词或代词,它只能放在它所修饰的名词或代词后面。这时被修 饰的名词与不定式之间有逻辑上的主谓关系 13) The flexibility of film allows the artist unstrained imagination to the animation of

cartoon characters. [A] to bring[B] bringing[C] is brought[D] brings 14) Billie Holiday's reputation as a great jazz ? blues singer rests on her ability emotional depth to her songs. [A] be giving[B] are given[C] being given[D] to give 另外,有些词的不定 式定语有主谓关系,如除了上述例句以外,还有些词常跟不定式作定语。这些词主要有 decision (to make) (a) need (to eat) opportunity (to speak) reason , , , (to learn a foreing language) time (to sth)等。 , 2. 动词不定式作定语往往有一层动宾关系,即所修饰的名词是不定式的宾语 15) Alice was having [A] trouble to control [B] the children because there were [C] so many [D] of them. 16) There are so many reference books for matriculation of postgraduate and I haven't decided which book . [A] to buy[B] buy[C]to be buying[D] buying 17) Astronauts can be affected by loneliness for they have to sit in the spacecraft for weeks with very little and no one . [A] to do … to talk[B] doing … to talk to [C] to do … to talk to[D] doing… to talk 3. 因为不定式所修饰的名词是不定式的宾语,所以如果不定式动词是不及物动词,那 么就要在动词后加上相应的介词 He has a lot of trifles to deal with./ I had got no place to live in./That girl has nothing to worry about./the subject to concentrate on. / He has a strict teacher to listen to. / She has four children to look after. / She had a sick mother to live with. / This is the very person to sell your ticket to. 18) Although the lecture had already been on for five minutes, I still was not able to find a chair . [A] to sit[B] for to sit on[C] to sit on[D] for sitting 4. 一些表示企图、努力、倾向、目的、愿望、打算、能力、意向等意义的名词后面要 求接不定式作其定语,如:ability, attempt, effort 等 19) During [A] the 19th century scientists found [B] that when certain parts of the brain were damaged [C] men lost the ability doing [D] certain things. 20) What is new, however, is the scientific attempt whether other planets beyond our own have given birth to advanced civilizations. [A] discover[B] discovers[C] discovering[D] to discover 21) Surely her daughter would make an even bigger effort her? [A] please [B] pleased [C] to please [D] having pleased 五、不定式作状语 注意作状语的动词不定式要与其逻辑主语在意义上和数上的一致。 1. 表示目的 22) its plans to promote disarmaments,the party has decided to establish a campaign headquarters with Benjamin Seaman as its leader. [A]Although[B]To carry out[C]Except that[D] Make 23) pure lead,the lead ore is mined,then smelted,and finally refined. [A] Obtaining[B] Being obtained[C] To obtain[D] It is obtained

24) When they met,Leonardo and his enemy were fighting . [A]killed each other[B]killing each other[C]to be killed each other [D]to kill each other 2. 表示结果,在这种情况下,不定式的逻辑主语也是全句的主语 He must be cripple not to walk by himself./It seems that the employee didn't sleep at all to be so sleepy in the early morning. / What have I done for you to deserve such an amount of money? 还有固定搭配的不定式表示结果: so…as to; such (…) as to …; enough to…; too… to…; in order to … 等 We have got so plenty of food as to treat our guests./ Is that room big enough to seat all of us?/ He is too young to fit that job. 3. 表示原因 It's very kind of you to say so. / I am pretty pleased to hear the news that you are elected as the president of the club. / I'm sorry to interrupt you. / They are quite surprised to see the great changes taking place in the area. 4. 伴随状况 在下列表示能力、愿望、倾向等语义的形容词后边也要接不定式:able(但其同义词 “ capable”后面要接“of+动名词”,anxious, eager, glad, inclined(倾向于) ) ,liable, likely, pleased, ready 等。 25) Certain [A] minerals are magnetic and are able to detected [B] by instruments that measure [C] differences in the Earth's magnetic fields [D] . 六、 在复合结构中的不定式 不定式的复合结构是指有些动词带宾语后再带上不定式, 作宾语的补足语。 前边已提到 过,在这种结构中宾语是不定式的逻辑主语。 1. 有很多这样的动词可以跟宾语及其(或)补足语不定式,如:advise, allow, ask, enable, beg, cause, drive, encourage, expect, forbid, force, hate, get , intend, invite, like, permit, persuade, pretend, remind, say, teach, tell, trust, urge, want, warn 等表示“致使”等意义 26)The company manager may enable the men who tend the machines a large panorama 全 ( 景) of possibilites. [A] to see[B] see[C] seeing[D] seen 27) Did you intend us the new method? [A] to use [B] using [C] our having used [D] the using of 28) The teacher encouraged good compositions. [A] us write[B] us writing[C] us to write[D] our wrting 2. 在某些成语动词如 arrange for, call on, care for, count on, count upon, depend upon, long for, prepare for, prevail upon, rely on, vote for, wait for 等后面,也可以 跟宾语加不定式的复合结构 We are waiting for the bus to come./ They voted for Wang Gang to be the monitor. / Don't count on me to do that. 3. 另外,表示感觉的动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice, observe 和 have, let, make 后的宾语可接不带 to 的不定式(help 后不定式可带 to 也可不带 to) 29) I often heard him that his family was well descended. [A] said[B] say[C] to say[D] to be said 30) We must have a person them build the house.

[A] see[B] to see[C] will see[D] shall see 31) You would become irritated [A] if you watched [B] the correspondence to pile up [C] on your desk day by day [D] . 4. 表示心理状态的动词像 consider, declare, find, prove, think, know , believe, discover, feel(=think) imagine, judge, pretend, suppose, understand 等词的宾语 , 补足语不定式一般是 to be(或动词的完成时态) 32) “You've been taking a lot of nice photographs.”Thanks. I'm considering a professional photographer.“ [A] becoming[B] about become[C] to become[D] over becoming 而且,在 consider, declare, find, prove, think 等动词后的 to be 是可以省去的。 如: She considered me a scholar. / They found him gulty. 七、不定式的完成式、进行式和完成进行式:这三类在考研题中出现的频率很高,要特 别注意不定式的这三种形式 1. 如果不定式所表示的动作与主要谓语所表示的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发 生或发生在主要谓语之后,那么用不定式的一般形式 He received a warm welcome from the Australians and from his family who had flown there to meet him. In 1967, he arrived back in England, where a quarter of a million people were waiting to welcome him. After all, eighty was a special birthday, another decade lived or endured just as you chose to look at it. Now suddenly she began to sob, holding herself in as if weeping were a disgrace. 2. 如果不定式所表示的动作(状态)发生在主要谓语动词或特定的某时间之前,那么 不定式就要用其完成式 She feels relaxed to have finished writing her thesis before the deadline. 33) The Vikings are believed America. [A] to have discovered [B] in discovering [C] to discover D] to have been discovered [ 34) The students were to at the auditorium before 1:30 pm, but the lecture was cancelled at the last minute. [A] assembled [B] have assembled [C] assembling [D] be assembled 35) He was to the new ambassador, but he fell ill. [A] having telephoned[B] have telephoned[C] has telephoned[D] telephoning 3. 不定式进行式表示主要谓语动词所表示的动作(情况)发生时,不定式所表示的动 作正在发生 When he came in, I happened to be doing my experiment in the lab. Why do you stand here? You are supposed to be working in the workshop. 4. 不定式完成进行式表示其动词所代表的动作,在主要谓语动词所代表的动作之前一 直在进行 The students from the Department of Sociology are said to have been investigating the possibility of producing the new product. They are quite happy to have been cooperating harmoniously with us till now. 八、不定式的被动形式 当不定式的逻辑主语是动作的承受者时, 这个不定式要用被动式, 包括它的一般式和完 成式

36) Here we found little snow, as most of it seemed blown off the mountain. [A]to have been[B]to be[C]that it was[D]that it had been 37) For twelve years, Spanish censorship did not allow Lorca's name or his works . [A] to mention; to be published[B] to be mentioned; to publish [C] being mentioned; being published[D] to be mentioned; to be published 38) There is,it seems [A] , no [B] limit to the satisfaction to be finding [C] in the pursuit of knowledge [D] . 九、不定式的否定形式:否定形式是在不定式的标志 to 前边加 not 39) that new information to anyone else but the sergeant. [A] They asked him not to give[B] They asked him to don't give [C] They asked him no give[D] They asked him to no give 40) Please remember lights on in the future. [A] don't leave [B] not to leave [C] not leaving [D] don't to leave 41) The teacher told [A] the students to don't [B] discuss [C] the take ? home exam with each other [D] . 十、介词 except 和 but(作“只有……,只能……”讲时)跟不定式结构(but 与不带 to 的不定式连用) He seldom goes back home except to ask for money from his parents. He did nothing there except watch TV for the whole night.(不带 to 的不定式) I had no choice but to stay in bed. Last night I did nothing but prepare my lessons. 42) Lots of empty bottles were found under the old man's bed.He must have done nothing but . [A] drink[B] to drink[C] drinking[D] drunk 43) When the streets are full of [A] melting [B] snow, you cannot help but getting [C] your shoes wet [D] . 十一、例题解析 1) A 错。 改为 To derive. 2) A 为正确答案。 3) C 为正确答案。 4) B 错。改为 to concentrate. 5) A 为正确答案。 6) C 为正确答案。 be known”后通常接不定式,与此类似的尚有“to be said”等。 “to 7) B 错。改为 to land.因为 manage 后只能跟带 to 的不定式作宾语。 8) D 为正确答案。 9) C 为正确答案。因为 know 须接带特殊疑问词的动词不定式。 10) C 为正确答案。 11) A 错。改为 to provide,根据平行原则,A 处和“to allow…”是并列的表语,故 A 处也应用不定式。 12) B 错。改为 to negociate. 13) A 对。 不定式短语 “to bring…characters” 充当宾语 “the artist” 的定语。 “allow sb.to do sth.”是固定搭配,还有类似的其他动词。这句话的意思是:在动画片摄制过程中,影片 的灵活性能使艺术家充分施展其想象力。 14) D 为正确答案。名词“ability” (能力) 后要接不定式,表示哪一方面的能力。

15) B 错。改为“controlling” ,此处的“to control”与“trouble”并没有这层关系。 16) A 为正确答案。 17) C 为正确答案。 18) C 为正确答案。 19) D 错。 改为 to do.20) D 为正确答案。 21) C 为正确答案。22) B 为正确答案。23) C 为正确答案。24) D 为正确答案。 25) B 错。改为“be detected” 。 26) A 为正确答案。27) A 为正确答案。28) C 为正确答案。29) B 为正确答案。 30) A 为正确答案。 31) C 错。改为 pile up.32) C 为正确答案。33) A 为正确答案。34) B 为正确答案。 35) B 为正确答案。 36) A 为正确答案。37) D 为正确答案。 38)C 错。 本句不定式所表示的动作 “发现”find)逻辑上的主语为 ( “满足”satisfaction) ( , 而“满足”只能被“发现” ,故 C 应改为? ED 分词“found”“to be found”为不定式被动 , 态。 39) A 为正确答案。 40) B 为正确答案。 41) B 错。改为 not to. 42) A 为正确答案。 43)C 错。 改为 get.如果去掉 C 前的 “but” 本句应为:When the streets are full of melting , snow, you cannot help getting your shoes wet. ? ——ING 分词 内 容 提 要 -ING 分词也是动词的非限定性形式, 由动词原形+-ING 构成, 在句中可以直接作主语, 也可用形式主语 it 来代替,而把-ING 分词放到后边;可以作表语;作宾语时对动词有一定 的要求,有的动词只能跟接-ING 分词,有的动词则既可以跟不定式也可以跟-ING 分词,而 且-ING 分词还可作介词的宾语; 在作宾语补足语时对动词也有一定的要求; 作状语时, -ING 分词要与其逻辑主语呼应,否则就要用独立结构;-ING 分词作定语时相当于一个定语从句。 跟动词不定式一样,-ING 分词也有它的完成时态、被动语态和否定形式;最后我们还要了 解-ING 分词的逻辑主语问题。 第一节 -ING 分词的形式 -ING 分词是指由动词原形+-ING 构成的、具有完成时态和被动语态的一种非谓语动词 形式,具体形式如下 主动形式 被动形式 一般时 doing being done 完成时 having done having been done 就其语法功能而言,它可以作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补语、状语和定语。 第二节 -ING 分词的用法 一、 作主语 1. 一般形式 1) the matriculation for postgraduate is probably the turning point of my life. [A] Taking the part of [B] Taking part in [C] To take the part of [D] To take the notice in 2) a teacher is being present at the creation, when the clay begins to breathe. [A] As[B] To be[C] Is[D] Being 3) by transforming the blame to others is often called scapegoating.

[A] Eliminate problems B] eliminated problems C] [ The [ Eliminating problems[D] Problems are eliminated 2. 有时可以用 it 做形式主语 It's waste of time arguing with the gossip about it. It's interesting having traveled to Beidaihe this year.[说明:从这句中我们可以看出,这种 结构通常适用于名词和形容词。但不适用于像 possible, important, essential, necessary 等表示性质的形容词,这些词后面一般要跟动词不定式。我们不能说 It's quite necessary taking part in the negociation.应改作 It's quite necessary to take part in the negociation.] It's glorious getting involved in working out the plan. 4) It is [A] possible determining that [B] French explorers reached the jucture of [C] the Kansas and Missouri rivers [D] in the seventeenth century. 二、作表语的-ING 分词 Seeing is believing. His aims are learning two foreign languages and applying the theory he has learned to practice. 三、-ING 分词作动词宾语 1. 一类是动词或短语后边跟宾语的非限定性动词只能是-ING 分词,如:acknowledge, admit (坦白, 承认) advise, advocate, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, can't help, consider, , contemplate (深思) delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape , (躲过, 避开) excuse, fancy, , finish, give up, imagine, include, keep on, justify, mean(意味着,等于) mind , (在乎) miss, postpone, practise, prohibit, put off, quit, recall, regret, resist, , resume, risk(冒险干…) suggest, threaten. , 5) By taking the back way he escaped . [A] to be seen [B] have been seen [C] seeing [D] being seen 6) I came late and missed Jack winning. [A] to see[B] seeing[C] see[D] seen 7) “I see our boss coming down the hall.” “Then we'd better quit and get down to business.” [A] talking[B] to talk[C] from talking[D] having talk 8) The young doctor first [A] practised to use [B] the needles on [C] his own [D] wrist. 9) Some experts have advocated to bring [A] that country into [B] the talks, to revive the intermittent dialogue [C] that began [D] after the 1967 Middle East War. 2. 另一类动词后边作宾语的非限定性动词可以是-ING 分词的动名词,也可以是动词不 定式,如:attempt, begin, can't bear, cease, continue, deserve, endure, forget, go on, hate, intend, like, love, need, neglect, omit, plan, prefer, propose, regret, remember, start , stop, try 等。 (动词后接-ING 和不定式时在用法上的区别在下一章讲) 10) “What's wrong with Henry?”He needs .“ [A] cheer up[B] to be cheer up[C] cheering up[D] to cheered up 11) Any such news would start her . [A] to worry[B] worrying[C] worry[D] worried 3. -ING 分词作宾语还有下一结构,即用 it 代表-ING 分词,而把-ING 分词短语放到句 子的后边去 I consider it worthwhile spending ten thousand yuan on the furniture./Marry fount it

marvellous having a journey with him. 四、 -ING 结构作介词的宾语 几乎所有介词,不管是单个介词还是介词词组,不管它们是谓语动词的组成部分与否, 都能用-ING 分词的动名词作其宾语。所以,-ING 结构作介词宾语的时候很多。-ING 结构 一般作介词短语的宾语,主要有以下搭配关系 1. 动词+介词+ -ING 12) Scientists measure the hardness [A] of a material [B] by comparatively [C] with a table of ten well-known [D] metals. 13) Her mother did not [A] approve of her to go [B] to the party without dressing [C] formally [D] . 14) Although many women's colleges [A] have been coeducational [B] , other universities remain committed to keep [C] their facilities separate [D] . 15) We insist on you leave [A] the place before [B] any further [C] disturbances take place [D] . 2. 名词(形容词,不及物动词)+介词 to(不要把它视为动词不定式的标志) 。下面是 大纲中所列短语中的 “to” 为介词: (be) contrary to (与…相反) object objection) (反 , ( to 对) with a view to (为…起见)(be) opposed to (反对) in contrast to (与…成对 , , , 比) used to (习惯于) be exposed to, be dedicated to (致力于) ,be , ,resort to (诉诸于) , as to (关于) be accustomed to (习惯于) be devoted to (献身于) be committed to (委 , , , 身于) react to (对…反应) with regard to (关于) look forward to (期待) contribute , , , , to (贡献) ,owe to 由于,归功于等 16) I have no objection the evening with them. [A] to spend [B] to spending [C] to have spent [D] to have to spend 17) Why do you object to the direction? [A] following [B] follow [C] have follow [D] have been followed 18) Mr. Brown often wore [A] a heavy coat [B] because he was not used to live [C] in such a [D] cold climate. 19) Livy was the [A] only great historian of the time [B] , and he devoted his attention to give [C] the world splendid [D] pictures. 3. 动词+副词+介词+ -ING I look forward to her coming soon. 4. 形容词(或具有形容词性质的-ED 分词)+介词+ -ING I am proud of having such a son. He is greatly honored of shaking hands with the President. It's impossible for him finishing the task in such a short time. He is interested in playing table tennis. 5. 表示征询意见的 “How about…?” “What…about?” , How about going there? What about having a concert? 20) How about to the movies tonight? [A] going[B] if go[C] to go[D] if we go 6. 前面省略了介词 in 的-ING 惯用法 The two children are busy doing their homework. Mr. Smith has difficulty fulfilling the task.

There is no use going over the lessons before the night of exam. He has spent a lot of time preparing the exam for the postgraduate. Xiao Li lost no time catching up with his classmates. There is no point arguing with him. 五、 -ING 结构作宾语补足语 1. 表示感觉和心理状态的动词, hear, feel, find, give, listen to, look at, notice, 如 observe, see, smell, watch 等词的宾语可以用-ING 作宾语补语 21) “Where are the children?” “I saw in the yard.” [A] them to play [B] them played [C] them playing [D] to them playing 22) I must say I don't like to hear you like that. [A] talking[B] to talk[C] have to talk[D] talked 2. 表示“致使”等意义的动词,如 catch, have, get, keep, leave, set I am sorry to have kept you waiting for me so long. What you have told left me thinking that you experienced much when you were young. 3. 其他动词宾语的补语 23) The average age [A] of the Mediterranean [B] olive trees grow [C] today is two hundred years [D] . 六、 -ING 结构作状语 -ING 结构作状语表示主语在进行一动作的同时所进行的另一动作,它对谓语动词起修 饰或陪衬的作用。这时要注意-ING 与其逻辑主语在时态、意义上的统一 1. 表示时间和伴随 一般放在句首,有时可放在句中 Coming into the room, I found him sobbing. (=When I came into the room, I found him sobbing.) 在这里 coming 这一-ING 分词动作发生时,紧接着(几乎是同时)发生了谓语动 作,有“一……就”的意思。 Pulling his body in the car, he drove away. =After he pulled his body in the car, he drove ( away.) 24) Those naughty boys were caught flowers in the garden again. [A]to steal[B]stealing[C] having stolen[D]stolen 25) Daniel walked up and down [A] as he listened, hands behind [B] his back, now and then [C] asked [D] a question. 2. 表示方式 Being a clever girl, she was sent to college by her father.(此例不可改成:Being a clever girl, her father sent her to college.因为分词短语的逻辑主语不是“her father ” 而只能是 , “she ”) 。 如果-ING 分词所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,-ING 分词前可以加 when, while 等连词, 可放在句首或句末: When arriving home, he found the door opened. / He listened to the music radio while reading. 26) ,Tony jumped into the river and saved the drowning man. [A] Good swimer as he is [B] He can swim very well [C] Being that he was a good swimmer [D] Being a good swimmer 27) the kind of man he was, he did not pay much attention to it at first. [A] To be[B] Being[C] Having been[D] Though to be 28) Was a dancer [A] and blues singer before [B] the age of eight [C] ,Florence Mills made her [D] vaudeville debut(轻歌舞首演) in 1910.

3. 表示原因 Not having had any letter from Tom, Marry was worried. =Marry was worried because she ( did not have any letter from Tom.) Having got a headache, I didn't come to the concert. (=Because I got a headache, I didn't come to the concert.) 29) Most of the people, , could not go to sleep that night after the party. being so excited [A] being so excited [B] be so excited [C] being so exciting [D] be so exciting 30) Having the highest marks in his class, . [A] the college offered him a scholarship [B] he was offered a scholarship by the college [C] a scholarship was offered him by the college [D] a college scholarship was offered to him 4. 表示条件:一般放在句首 Knowing anything about it, I will tell you all. (=If I know anything about it, I will tell you all.) Working diligently, you will pass the entrance exam. (=If you work diligently, you will pass the entrance exam.) 5. 表示让步:表示让步的-ING 分词常常由 although/though, even if/though, unless 等连词引入,一般放在句首 Having great diffculties in the course of working, they finished the task ahead of time. Buying a lot of reference books for the exam, he failed in it because of the learning method. Although repeating his words many times, the teacher could not make his students understand the concret concept of philosophy. Even if coming by taxi, I will arrive in at least 45 minutes. 6. 表示结果:置于句末,前面要加 so, thereby, thus, hence 等表示结果的副词 He worked day and night, making himself near sighted. Not making what he meant misunderstood, he adjusted his tones to underline his meaning. The workers worked 14 hours a day, thus producing products three times as they did last month. He wished to travel all over the world, thereby studying customs of other countries. 31) The bus was held up by the traffic jam, . [A] thus causing the delay[B] so that caused the delay [C] to cause the delay[D] caused the delay 七、-ING 分词作定语 -ING 分词可以单独作定语,也可以构成合成词作定语,但在更多情况下是分词短语作 定语, 包括限定性和非限定性 (用逗号与其他部分分开) 在意义上相当于一个定语从句 , (包 括限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句) 32) Jacob Lawrence executed many cycles of paintings significant social themes. [A] expressed [B] expressing [C] express [D] expression of 33) The name Nebraska comes from the Oto Indian word “nebrathka” flat water. , [A] to mean [B] meaning [C] it means [D] by meanig 34) The production of tin ore in the United States is relatively insignificant, less than one hundred tons annually. [A] amounting to [B] in the amount [C] amounts to it [D] to the amount of

八、-ING 的完成时、被动语态与否定形式 1. 如果-ING 分词表示的是一般性动作, (即不指明是现在、过去或将来)不表示动作 的先后或与谓语所表示的动作同时或几乎同时发生,这时要用-ING 的一般形式 35) Revolution means the productive forces. [A] to liberate [B] to have liberated [C] liberating [D] having been liberated 36) It is a simple matter [A] to have found [B] the density of a gas [C] from its formula [D] . 2. 但如果-ING 分词所表示的动作先于句子谓语发生,就要用“ (not)having+-ED 分词” 表示完成时 37) by the journey, he went to bed immediately after he came back home. [A] Being exhausted [B] To have exhausted [C] Having exhausted [D] Having been exhausted 38) with an accedent, he arrived at the station ten minutes late. [A] Having met [B] To have met [C] Meeting [D] Having been met 3. 当非限定性动词-ING 的逻辑主语是-ING 所表示的动作对象时要用-ING 的被动形式, 包括其一般形式“ (not)being + -ED 分词和完成形式” (not)having been +-ED 分词“ 39) Solids, liquids, and gases at rest all have a tendency to resist in motion. [A] setting[B] to set[C] being set[D] to be set 40) Upon questioning [A] he denied having killed [B] the old woman with [C] the home-made [D] gun. 4. -ING 的否定形式是把 not 加在-ING 的前边 41) of the change in the meeting time, Mike arrived late. [A] Not having notified[B] Not notifying[C] Not to notify[D] Not having been notified 42) I regret hard at school. [A] not to have worked[B] not having worked[C] not have worked[D] having not worked 九、-ING 分词的逻辑主语 1. -ING 分词除了具有动词的特点以外, 它还有名词的特点, 即可以加物主代词 (如 my, your,his 等)和名词的属格(如 Wang Qing's 等)来表示其逻辑主语(这时-ING 的逻辑主 语和句子主语不一致) 43) I suggest on an excursion this Sunday. [A] we are going [B] to go [C] us going [D] our going 44) on a clear day, far from the city crowds, the mountains give him a sense of infinite peace. [A] If walking [B] While walking [C] Walking [D] When one is walking 45) Marta [A] being chosen [B] as the most outstanding [C] student on her campus made her parents [D] very happy. 2. 还有一种-ING 分词的逻辑主语与句子主语不一致的情况, 这时直接可用 “-ING 分词 的主语+-ING”来表示,这样的-ING 分词短语可由介词引导。这种结构叫独立结构 46) A new technique , the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent. [A] to have been worked out [B] having worked out [C] working out [D] having been worked out 47) Walter offered us a lift when he was leaving the office, but our work , we declined

the offer. [A] not being finished[B] not having finished[C] had not been finished[D] was not finished 3. 如果逻辑主语已和句子主语一致,那么其逻辑主语就可省略(在使用这种用法时要 注意:-ING 分词所表示的动作[ZZ(]一定[ZZ)]是主语所发出的,也就是说-ING 分词的逻 辑主语[ZZ(]一定[ZZ)]是主句的主语。试比较下列句子) Getting into the room, I smelled a terrible smell.(getting 是 I 的动作) Getting into the room, it give a terrible smell. (错误) Walking through the forest, we found many strange animals. (walking 是 we 发出的) Walking through the forest, a lot of animals are there. (错误) Looking out of the window of our hotel room, we saw zigzag mountains. (Looking 的使 动者是 we) Looking out of the window of our hotel room, there were zigzag mountians.(错误) 48) Never attempting to be a literary stylist, in her novels. [A] she considered the plot the most important element [B] the most important element considered to be the plot [C] considering the plot the most important element [D] the plot was considered to be the most important element 49) with the new method, the material does not break up easily. [A] To have treated [B] Having treated [C] Being treated [D] Having been treated 50) Attempting to reach his home before the storm, . [A] the bicycle of John broke down[B] it happened that John's bike broke down [C] the storm caught John[D] John had an accident on his bicycle 4. -ING 分词的主语可以与做主语的名词或代词 (即代词的主格) 一致, 放在-ING 前边, 与 -ING 分词构成逻辑上的“主谓”关系。但是,-ING 分词(还有-ED 分词)短语作状语 时,也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的“主语” 。这种结构与主句不发生句法上的联系,叫做独 立结构。在很多情况下它都相当于各种形式的状语,表示一种伴随的动作或情况 51) Weather , we'll go sightseeing. [A] permitted[B] is permitted[C] permitting[D] is permitting 52) There are four factories in our institute, . [A] each to have over 100 workers[B] each having over 100 worders [C] which there are over 100 workers[D] with each that has over 100 workers 53) We went to [A] the World Park, Xiao Wang act [B] as guide for [C] he had been there several times [D] 。 十、习惯用法 1. There is no +-ING 分词,表示“不可能” There is no getting along with him.(无法和他相处。 ) 2. It(There) is no use (good) +-ING 分词,表示“无用”= It is of no use (good) to +V: There(It) is no use advising him to give up smoking.(劝他戒烟是徒劳的。 ) 3. be busy(worth)+-ING 分词 (忙于) He is busy mapping out his plans for the next semester. 4. feel like+-ING 分词 (想)

I don't feel like eating just now.(我现在不想吃。 ) 5. What do you say to+-ING 分词?(…怎么样?) What do you say to joining us for dinner?(和我们一起进餐,你看怎么样?) 6. spend+时间+(in)+-ING 分词 Jane spent several days (in) preparing for the final exams.(简花了好几天时间准备期末 考试。 )7. difficulty trouble have + a problem +(in)+ -ING 分词 a good(hard) time fun (快乐) 54) The student had [A] difficulty to write [B] a short paragraph [C] correctly [D] . 55) I imagine that [A] I could go to the theater again and have just as good a time [B] not try to [C] think of an opening sentence [D] . 十一、例题解析 1) B 为正确答案。2) D 为正确答案。3) C 为正确答案。 4) B 错。 改为 to determine,关于动词不定式与-ING 分词的区别请参见第七章“小 结” 。 5) D 为正确答案。6) B 为正确答案。7) A 为正确答案。8) B 错。改为 using.9) A 错。改为 bringing. 10) C 为正确答案。 11) B 为正确答案。 “start+不定式”与“start+-ING”有所不同,前者表示具体动作, 后者表示一般性动作或状态。 12) C 错。改为 comparing.13) B 错。改为 her going. 14) C 错。改为 to keeping.be committed to+名词或-ING 分词,意为“同意承担,答应 (干某事或支持某事)” 。 15) A 错。 改为 your leaving.16) B 为正确答案。17) A 为正确答案。18) C 错。 改为 to living. 19) C 错。 改为 giving.20) A 为正确答案。21) C 为正确答案。22) A 为正确答 案。 23) C 错。改成“growing” 。本句中先后出现了两个动词, “grow”和“is” ,这显然不 合语法。将“grow”变为“growing”后便构成了-ING 短语,修饰“trees”[参见第六章] 。 24) B 为正确答案。stealing 表示正在进行。25) D 错。改为 asking.26) D 为正确答 案。27) B 为正确答案。 28) A 错。改成“Being a dancer” 。29) A 为正确答案。30) B 为正确答案。31) A 为正确答案。 32) B 为正确答案。本句空白处缺能起定语作用的词,用来修饰前面的名词 paintings. 33) B 为正确答案。 本句空白后面的成分为-ING 短语, 相当于 “which means…” C 表 。 面上正确,但英语中没有连接词连接的两个分句是不能成立的,但我们可以说“which means” ,用“which”指代“Nebrathka” 。但这样就变成非限定性定语从句了。 34) A 为正确答案。本句相当于一个非限定性定语从句(which amounts to…) ,amount (总计) -不及物动词, 故没有-ED 分词。 35) C 为正确答案。 36) B 错。 改为 to find.37) D 为正确答案。38) A 为正确答案。39) C 为正确答案。 40) A 错。Upon being questioned.41) D 为正确答案。42) B 为正确答案。43) D

为正确答案。44) D 为正确答案。 45) A 错。改为 Marta's.46) D 为正确答案。47) A 为正确答案。48) A 为正确答 案。49) D 为正确答案。 50) D 为正确答案。 51) C 为正确答案。 52) B 为正确答案。 53) B 错。 改为 acting.54) B 错。改为 writing. 55) C 错。改为 trying to. ? ——ed 分词(一) 内 容 提 要 -ED 分词即我们平常所说的动词过去分词。它有两种形式:规则动词形式和不规则动词 形式。规则动词形式由规则动词+-ED 构成;不规则动词有其特殊的-ED 分词。在语法功能 上,它在句子中所能承担的成分基本与-ING 分词相同,可以作表语,定语,状语,也可以 用在复合结构中,不管它作什么成分,其最基本的含义是“被动”的。-ED 分词在语法功能 和意义上与-ING 分词有一定的区别。 第一节 -ED 分词的用法 一、-ED 分词作表语 The glass is broken. / He was amused. / She seemed quite disappointed. / He is greatly discouraged by her refusal of inviting her to the party. / The window remains locked. 已经形容词化了的-ED 分词大都作表语,常见的有:accomplished, amazed, amused, astonished, broken, closed, completed, complicated, confused, crowded, deserted, devoted, disappointed, discouraged, dressed, drunk, exhausted, excited, experienced, fadded, fascinated, frightened, hurt, inexperienced, interested, known, learned, lost, married, pleased, puzzled, qualified, satisfied, surprised, tired, unprepared, unqualified, unkown, upset, worried, wounded 等。 二、作定语的-ED 分词 -ED 分词可以作前置定语也可以作后置定语,作后置定语时相当于一个定语从句 1) Commercial banks make most of their income from interest on loans and investments in stocks and bonds. [A] earn [B] earned [C] to earn[D] was earned 2) On his return from his college, he found the house . [A] deserting[B] deserted[C] desert[D] to be deserted 3) The age [A] of a geological sample can be estimated [B] from the ratio of radioactive to nonradioactive carbon present [C] in the object is examined [D] . 三、用作状语的-ED 分词 这样的-ED 分词通常来自及物动词。-ED 分词用作状语时,跟-ING 分词作状语时一样, 修饰主句的谓语动词,意义上相当于状语从句,表示时间,条件,原因,伴随状况等。-ED 分词结构作状语,前边往往可以加 when,while,if,as if,though.这时,我们可以把-ED 分 词结构理解为一个省略句,即省去了“主语和 be 的变化形式” 。一般说来,这种结构的逻辑 主语必须与主句的主语一致。 1. 表示时间 4) Inaugurated a second time on March 4, 1901, focused on domestic rather than foreign policies. [A] William McKinley's new term looked forward to and [B] the new term looked forward to William McKinley and [C] looking forward to a new term was William McKinley

[D] William McKinley looked forward to a new term 2. 表示条件 5) under a microscope,a fresh snowflake has a delicate sixpointed shape. [A] Seen [B] Sees [C] Seeing[D] To see 6) to steel,chromium(铬) increases the metal's hardness. [A] Added [B] In addition [C] Adding[D] Adds 7) enough food and water, they could have beaten the enemy. [A] Being given[B] Given[C] Give [D] To give3. 表示原因 8) Encouraged by his mother, . [A] art was studied in Florence by John Singer Sargent [B] Florence was where John Singer Sargent studied art [C] the study of art in Florence by John Singer Sargent [D] John Singer Sargent studied art in Florence. 9) by the decision, the lawyer quickly left the court room. [A] Angering [B] Having angered [C] Being angry [D] Angered 10) Written in great haste, . [A] Jim made a lot of mistakes in the report [B] there are plenty of errors in the report [C] we found several mistakes in his report [D] the books is full of errors. 4. 表示伴随状况:-ED 分词结构作状语表示伴随状况时,没有适当的分句可替换 11) was not incorporated as a city until almost two centuries later,in 1834. [A] Settling Brooklyn,the Dutch [B] The Dutch settled Brooklyn [C] Brooklyn was settled by the Dutch [D] Settled by the Dutch,Brooklyn 12) Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely to the outside world. [A] being lost[B] having lost[C] losing[D] lost5. 表示让步 13) Francis Preston Blair,Jr., born in Kentucky,lived and practiced law in Missouri. [A] was [B] he was [C] although [D] who he was 6. 表示结果 14) in all parts of the state, pines are the most common trees in Georgia. [A] Found [B] Finding them [C] To find them [D] They are found 7. 表示目的 15) They should be kept here this matter. [A] informing about [B] be informed [C] be informed of [D] informed of8. 表示背景和衬托 16) Known for her caricatures(漫画) of the United States society, . [A] Peggy Brown wrote and illustrated books for children [B] the writing and illustrating of books for children by Peggy Brown [C] children's books were written and illustrated by Peggy Brown [D] Peggy Brown's writing and illustrating of children's books 17) Well known as a splendid pianist in Boston, . [A] we all are pleased to hear Mr. Anderson's concerto(小协奏曲) [B] a concerto was composed by Mr. Anderson [C] Mr. Anderson composed a concerto

[D] Mr. Anderson's concerto was composed 四、-ED 分词在复合结构中 Don't get your schedule changed; stay with us in this class. Peter had his gas and electricity turned on when he moved into his new apartment last month. He kept his mouth shut and stayed where he was.(他闭口不言,呆在原地不动。 ) They are talking about the experiment made in the new lab. 五、独立结构 如果-ED 分词短语与-ING 短语带有与句子主语不同的主语,即本短语自己本身带有主 语,这就构成了独立结构(也叫独立主格结构或垂悬结构) ,这种结构也可作状语表示时间, 原因等。有时在独立结构前还可加介词 with 或 without. Her eyes filled with tears, she did not notice his coming. 18) This , we went out to play. [A] was done[B] did[C] was dong[D] done 19) all his followers dead, the commander was taken by his enemy. [A] For[B] As[C] Because of[D] With 六、例题解析 1) B 为正确答案。空档前是一完整的句子,在没有连词的情况下,不能填充 A 和 D; 根据题意, “利息”是“通过…(被)挣来的” ,有被动之意,所以选 B. 2) B 为正确答案。此句的意思是“房子”被“遗弃,没人住” ,是被动的意义,而 A 和 C 都不符合这一点。D 是动词不定式,一般表示将来或具体动作,所以 D 也不对。 3) D 错。应去掉多余的“is” ,使-ED 分词“examined”作后置定语修饰“object” 。C 处并没有错。 “present”是形容词,它与后面的成分构成形容词短语修饰限定前面的“the ratio…carbon” 。 4) D 为正确答案。这句话前半句的-ED 分词相当于一个时间状语从句“When he was inaugurated a second time …” ,主句的主语应当是人,所以 A 和 D 为可能选项,但 A 中的 look forward to 后应跟名词,那么只有 D 为正确选项。 5) A 为正确答案。本句的意思是“在显微镜下看,雪花……” ,显然这里的看是“被 观察”之义。B、C、D 都表示主动,A 为正确选项。 6) A 为正确答案。 (同上) 7) B 为正确答案。 (同上) 8) D 为正确答案。四个选项中,只有 D 的主语为“John Singer Sargent” (人名) , 而只有人才能被“encouraged” (鼓舞) ,也就是说,只有 D 中的主语能充当空白前-ED 分词 短语的逻辑主语。 9) D 为正确答案。空白处只能用-ED 分词才可和后面的“by”短语发生联系,并且其 逻辑主语和主句主语一致。 10) D 为正确答案。本句的意思是“由于(被)写得急,……” ,所以 A 和 C 不对。 虽然 B 中的主语“plenty of errors”与“written”逻辑上可以呼应,但与“in the great haste” 不一致。 “Written in great haste”的逻辑主语还是“the books” 。所以 D 正确。 11) D 为正确答案。从上下文看,空档处的主语应是表示要点的名词( “as a city”, ) 那么 A 不对;B 和 C 都是一分句,而空档后是谓语部分,它们不作为正确选项。 12) D 为正确答案。 13) C 为正确答案。 14) A 对。本句的主语为 pines(松树) ,这样就排除了 B 选项,因为-ING 分词表 主动,而“松树”不可能是“找” (find)这个动作的逻辑主语,即动作发出者。故只有 A

“found” (被发现) 的逻辑主语与“pines”一致,应选 A. 15) D 为正确答案。 16) A 为正确答案。空档前是-ED 分词短语,空档处应是主谓俱全句,排除 B 和 D. 从-ED 分词短语中(Known for her …)可知,主句的主语是人而不是物,所以 C 也不对。 17) C 为正确答案。 (同上) 18) D 为正确答案。A 是不对的,如果 we 前加上 and,才能选 A. 19) D 为正确答案。 ? ——ed 分词(二) 不定式、-ING 分词和-ED 分词三者间的关系 一、动词不定式与-ING 分词的区别 1. 作宾语时,-ING 分词表示抽象的、一般性或习惯性的和连续性的动作,而不定式则 表示某次具体动作,特别是将来的动作 I like playing football. I would like to play football this afternoon. 1) The school cannot tolerate on exams. [A] cheating [B] to cheat [C] be cheated [D] being cheated 2) News of success keeps in. [A] pouring [B] to pour [C] poured [D] to be pouring 3) Long [A] before the dawn [B] of recorded [C] history, humans celebrated to harvest [D] their crops. 2. 作定语时,-ING 表示正在进行的动作,用-ING 的完成时表示动作的完成;不定式表 示未来发生 4) We were overjoyed at the news of China another man-made satellite. [A] having launched [B] to have launched [C] to launch [D] launched 5) The applicants interviewing [A] are required to [B] bring all the necessary papers [C] two days later [D] . 6) Sorghum(高梁) leaves [A] occasionally contain [B] enough hydrocyanic acid killing [C] livestock(牲畜) [D] . 3. 当谓语动词是进行时的时候,用不定式而不用-ING 分词作宾语 It's beginning to snow you. It starts raining. I'm considering how to go (where to go, what to do) I considered emplying Mr.Wang but 。 decided that Mr.Chen was more suited to the job. 4. 在 remember,forget 等词后,如果跟-ING 分词,表示-ING 分词的动作发生在主要谓 语之前;如果跟不定式则表示不定式的动作发生在主要谓语动作之后 I remember telling her that last night. ( “告 诉“发生在”记得“之前) He remembered to tell her that when she came back. ( “记得”发生在“告诉”之前) I'm sorry I forgot to give you the message. (主 语动词表示的动作“忘记”发生在不定式表 示的动作“给带口信”之前) Why! I have such a bad memory. I forgot giving the message last night. (-ING 分词 表示的动作“给带口信”发生在谓语动词表 示的动作“忘记”之前) 5. stop, go on 和 leave off 之后跟接动词不定式和-ING 分词所表达的意义有所不同

They stopped (talking) to work. [停下(其他动作)来工作] They stopped working. [停下工作(来干其他动作) ] Workers went on discussing the problem. [工人继续讨论这一问题] Workers went on to discuss the problem.[工人们停下来其他事,继续讨论这一问题] He left off writing.[他停下写作(去干其他事) ] He left off to write.[他停下(其他事)来写作] 6. … used to 后跟不定式和-ING 分词,后跟不定式有两种情况:一种是 used to 是固定 用法表示“过去经常干……” ;另外一种情况是 use 的被动词态“be used”后跟不定式;后 跟-ING 分词的情况有一种,那就是当 used to 中的 used 是形容词时,to 后跟名词或-ING 分 词 7) When he was in the plastic plant, he together with the workers. [A] has worked [B] had worked [C] had been worked [D] used to work 8) You will soon this climate and then the changes in temperature will not affect you. [A] get used to[B] get to[C] get over[D] get on with 9) Mr. Anderson used to jogging [A] in the crisp morning [B] air during [C] the winter months [D] , but now he has stopped. 7. 一般情况下,for 后边跟接 there to be,而 of 后边则跟接 there being 10) It is fairly common in Africa for there an ensemble of expert musicians surrounded by others who join in by clapping, singing, or somehow adding to the totality of musical sound. [A] to be [B] being [C] to have been [D] having been 8. be+形容词后面要跟动词不定式作状语,而不用-ING It is very difficult to manage the company. 二、-ING 分词与-ED 分词的区别 虽然在语法功能上,-ED 分词在句子中所能承担的成分基本与-ING 分词相同,但在意 义上两者有差别:-ING 分词表示主动的意义,而-ED 分词则表示被动的意义;-ING 分词表 示一般性的或正在进行的动作,而-ED 分词则表示已经完成和被动的动作。在表现形式上, -ING 分词有“一般式”和“完成式”与“主动式”和“被动式”之分;而-ED 分词只有一 种形式。下边我们分析-ING 分词与-ED 分词在语法功用上的区别。 1. 作表语时,-ING 分词表示主语所具有的特征而-ED 分词表示主语所处的状态 The book is quite interesting. I am insteredted in the book very much. The play is more exciting than any I have ever seen. That piece of land lay deserted. 2. 作状语时-ING 分词表示主语正在进行的另一动作而-ED 分词则表示主语发生动作的 背景或情况 11) In his movies,W. C. Fields was always at war with the world, . [A] battling both people and objects [B] both people and objects were battled [C] he was battling both people and objects [D] both people and objects that were battled 13) Having been served lunch, . [A] the problem was discussed by the members of the committee [B] the committee members discussed the problem [C] it was discussed by the committee members the problem [D] a discussion of the problem was made by the members of the committee 12) for her anthropological research,Margaret Mead also was involved with the World

Federation for Mental Health. [A] She is noted primarily [B] Noted primarily [C] Primarily is noted [D] She primarily noted 14) Considered one of the leading poets in America today, . [A] a number of books and plays have also been written by Sonia Sanchez [B] Sonia Sanchez has also written a number of books and plays [C] a number of Sonia Sanchez's books and plays have been written [D] there have been a number of books and plays written by Sonia Sanchez 3. ①作定语时,-ING 分词表示正在进行的动作,而-ED 分词表示动作发生在谓语动词 之前; ②-ING 分词表示它所修饰的词经常或当时的状态, 而-ED 分词则没有时间性; ③-ING 分词表示主动,而-ED 分词表示被动 15) The boiled [A] point of any liquid [B] is determined [C] by the pressure [D] of the surrounding gases. 16) High-grade [A] written [B] paper is frequently [C] obtained [D] from cotton rags. 17) Scientists [A] still cannot find [B] any convinced [C] link between intelligence [D] and the quantity or quality of brain cells. 4. 但少数几个动词的-ED 分词,有两种形式而且在意义上有差别,如:bear 的-ED 分 词有 born 和 borne 之分,前者只用于“出生”的意义,而后者用于“负担”“负荷”“承 , , 担”和“传送”之意 I was born in 1966. His borne responsibility to the whole workers of the factory is really great. 再如:hang 的-ED 分词也有两种,一是 hung,另一形式是 hanged, 前者表示“悬挂” , 后者表示“吊死,绞死” 。strike 的-ED 分词也有两种:struck 和 striken, 前者有“打击” 冲击“感动”等义,而 striken 只用作形容词,表示“受折磨”之意。 来自及物动词的-ED 分词所表示的是被动意义; 来自不及物动词的-ED 分词则可表示主 动和完成的意义: fallen leaves (落叶) a full-blown rose (盛开的玫瑰) escaped prinsoners , , (逃犯) the exploded bomb, her deceased husband, the retired workers, the vanished , jewels, the newly arrived visitors, the returned students, the risen sun. 三、例题解析 1) A 为正确答案。 (一般性的动作。 2) A 为正确答案。 ) (连续的动作。 ) 3) D 错。 改为 harvesting(抽象的动作) 4) A 为正确答案。 。 (已完成的动作。 ) 5) C 错。 改为 to be interviewed(将要发生的动作) 6) C 错。改为 to kill(不定 。 或未来动作) 。 7) D 为正确答案。 (过去经常或总是干……) 8) A 为正确答案。 (习惯于……used 是形容词) 9) A 错。改为 jog.(表示过去经常或总是干……) 10) A 为正确答案。 11) A 为 正确答案。 12) B 为正确答案。本句是由-ED 分词“noted”引导的-ED 结构,在句中说明主句谓 语的背景。 13) B 为正确答案。 14) B 为正确答案。-ED 分词“considered”的逻辑主语应为人, 除 B 外的其他选项都无法和空白前-ED 结构在逻辑主语上一致。

15) A 错。改为 boiling.-ED 分词含有完成和被动的意思,-ING 分词则表示主动、进 行,也可用作前置定语表示性状、用途。如: “boiling water(water which is boiling.) ”意思 是“开水” ,意即“正在开着的水” ,而“boiled water(water which has been boiled.) ”虽也 可译为 “开水” 但表示 , “已开过了的水 (现在可能凉了)” 。 本句 A 处应改为 boiling, “boiling point”意思是“沸点” 。 16) B 错。 “writing” 改用 , “writing paper” “写字的纸, 意为 信纸” -ING 分词 , “writing” 表用途。与此类似的还有“swimming pool” (游泳池) , “sleeping car” (卧铺) .“written” 含有完成和被动意味,不合上下文。 17) C 错。 改为 “convincing” 。 “令人信服的联系” 应为 “convincing link” , “convincing” 含有主动的意味,即“联系” (link)本身具有这种性质,而“convinced”则含有完成或被 动的含义, 修饰有生命的名词 .试比较: surprising man (使人惊讶的人) , surprised man a a (被惊吓了的人) 。



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