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高考英语阅读理解题型及解题技巧ppt


1. 细节理解 题 型 及 解 题 技 巧 2. 猜测词义 3. 推理判断 4.主旨大意 5. 观点态度 6. 篇章结构

1 细节理解
6 篇章结构 2 猜测词义 阅读技巧 3 推理判断 4 主旨大意

5 观点态度

本类试题主要考查学生对阅读材料中的 某一特定细节或文章的主要事实的理解能 力。问题

包括询问人(who)、物(what)、 时间(when)、地点(where)、原因(cause)、 结果(effect)、文中的数据(data)等。新闻、 说明文、广告信息等常常考查这些细节。 常见问题形式有: Which of the following is true/false except…? Which of the following is mentioned except… 三正一误 三误一正

1.According to the passage, who/ what/ which/ when/ Where / why / how/ how many/how much/ how long/ How soon/ how often, etc. ? 2. According to the passage, which of the following is true/ not true? 3. According to the passage, Which of the following is not mentioned ? 4. All of the following are true EXCEPT ___. 5. In the passage the writer states that ____. 6. Choose the best order in which the people do________.

2. 定义; 3. 比较; 4. 年代与数字 5. 原因和结果 此类试题的答案一般可以在文章中直接或 间接找到,但不可能与阅读材料一模一样。 Sample I Hoover Dam lies ______. A. between Arizona and Nevada B. in the Black Canyon C. between New York and San Francisco D. both A and B

This huge dam is in the Black Canyon. It is possible to drive a car from one side of the river to the other on a road, which is on the top of the dam. This dam is so big that there is an elevator inside. … … This huge dam was called Boulder Dam when it was finished in 1936. Later it was renamed Hoover Dam in honor of a president of the United States. Hoover Dam, one of the highest dams in the world,is situated between the states of Arizona and Nevada.

2. 定义; 3. 比较; 4. 年代与数字 5. 原因和结果 此类试题的答案一般可以在文章中直接或 间接找到,但不可能与阅读材料一模一样。 Sample I Hoover Dam lies ______. A. between Arizona and Nevada B. in the Black Canyon C. between New York and San Francisco D. both A and B

Sample II Which of the following is NOT true? A. Luo Lin is a native of Shanghai. B. Luo Lin moved to Hong Kong with her parents. C. Luo Lin won the title of Miss Asia in 1991. D. Asia TV Station helped Luo Lin to become Miss Asia.

Miss Luo Lin, Miss Asia of 1991,… Born in Shanghai and taken to Hong Kong when she was only six years old, Luo Lin has never dreamed of being Miss Asia. Her childhood dream was to be an air hostess. Before she took part in the competition, she had been an airhostess in Cat hay Airline for seven years. However,it still took her three months to learn the art of walking on the stage dancing, singing, making-up and other proper manners, designed by the Asia TV Station.

Sample II Which of the following is NOT true? A. Luo Lin is a native of Shanghai. B. Luo Lin moved to Hong Kong with her parents. C. Luo Lin won the title of Miss Asia in 1991. D. Asia TV Station helped Luo Lin to become Miss Asia.

Miss Luo Lin, Miss Asia of 1991,… Born in Shanghai and taken to Hong Kong when she was only six years old, Luo Lin has never dreamed of being Miss Asia. Her childhood dream was to be an air hostess. Before she took part in the competition, she had been an airhostess in Cat hay Airline for seven years. However,it still took her three months to learn the art of walking on the stage dancing, singing, making-up and other proper manners, designed by the Asia TV Station.

Sample II

According to scientists ,the DIRECT cause of more and fiercer storms is . A.greenhouse gas emissions (散发) in industrialized nations B.higher surface water temperatures of the sea C.continuous global warming D.rising sea levels

… reported to the Earth Policy Institute that the nation suffered an unusaually high number of fierce storms in the past ten years . Many scientists connect higher surface water temperatures resulting from global warming to greater and more damaging storms.

Sample II

According to scientists ,the DIRECT cause of more and fiercer storms is . A.greenhouse gas emissions (散发) in industrialized nations B.higher surface water temperatures of the sea C.continuous global warming D.rising sea levels

Sample III Laupepa was not satisfied with the United States because it did not . A. agree to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions B.sign an agreement with Tuvalu C.allow Tuvaluans to move to the US D. believe the problems facing Tuvalu were real

Laupepa expressed dissatisfaction with the United States for refusing to sign the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement calling for industrialized nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions ,which are a main cause of global warming . ―By refusing to sign the agreement, the US has effectively taken away the freedom of future generations of Tuvaluan to live there,‖ Laupepa told the BBC.

Sample III Laupepa was not satisfied with the United States because it did not . A. agree to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions B.sign an agreement with Tuvalu ? C.allow Tuvaluans to move to the US D. believe the problems facing Tuvalu were real (故意用与原文中一模一样的词来迷惑考生)

Sample IV Jack London’s last days were ______. A. usual ones B. not poor ones C. rich ones D. unhappy ones

Jack London was a famous American writer. He burned himself out when he was 40. He thought of his mother, Flora, who had never been a very responsible person. He was sure she was mentally ill and that he was becoming like her. At last he became too tired to care. He would not work and continued to spend money he did not have. He would not change his life, or his writing, perhaps he could not.

Sample IV Jack London’s last days were ______. A. usual ones B. not poor ones C. rich ones D. unhappy ones

Sample V You have to pay at least ______ a year if you study at the University of Waikato. A. $5,250 C. $9,000 B. $8,000 D. $11,000

Tuition Fees (学费) Tuition fees are different from department to department, generally from $5,000 to $6,000 a year. For further information: tui @ waikato.ac.nz. Accommodation (住宿) You can have a room in a 4-bedroom flat, which will cost about $100 a month with other regular living costs of about $150 a month for one person. For further information: acc@ waikato.ac.nz

Sample V You have to pay at least ______ a year if you study at the University of Waikato. A. $5,250 C. $9,000 B. $8,000 D. $11,000

$5000(学费)+$100(住宿费)x12(months) +$150(生活费)x12=$8000.

Sample V Which of the following is the correct order of shopping with the computerized shopping carts? a. Start the system. b. Make a shopping list. c. Find the things you want. d. Go to a self-checkout stand. A. abdc B. bacd C. acbd D. bcad

People can use a home computer to make their shopping lists. Once at the store, a shopper can use a preferred customer card to start a system (系统) that will organize the trip around the store. If you're looking for toothpicks, you type in the word or pick it from a list, and a map will appear on the screen showing where you are and where you can find them.

Sample V Which of the following is the correct order of shopping with the computerized shopping carts? a. Start the system. b. Make a shopping list. c. Find the things you want. d. Go to a self-checkout stand. A. abdc B. bacd C. acbd D. bcad

Question Form (1) The word ―…‖ in Line … means/can be best replaced by … (2) As used in the passage, the phrase ―…‖ suggests… (3) From the passage, we can infer that the word/phrase ―…‖ is/refers to … (4) The word ―…‖ is closest in meaning to …

技巧 1 根据解释确定词义 1. Social mobility is the movement from one class or level of living to another. 社会流动性 2. The other questioned the veracity--– the truthfulness of these reports. 真实性

3. He is a resolute man, once he sets up a goal, he will not give it up easily. 坚决的 4. He was a prestidigitator who entertained the children by pulling rabbits out of hats, swallowing fire, and other similar tricks.

变戏法者

技巧 2 根据对比确定词义
In the past the world seemed to run in an orderly way. Now, however, everything seems to be in a state of turmoil.

一片混乱

技巧 3 根据逻辑确定词义 If you are capable of working twelve hours a day without a rest, and if you can engage in physical exercise for hours without seeming to get tired, then you are indefatigable. 不知疲倦的

技巧 4 根据上下文情景确定词义 The underlined phrase ―mopping up‖ in the second paragraph means___. A cleaning up B taking in C wiping out D giving out

Rainforests like the Amazon are important for mopping up CO2 from the atmosphere and helping to slow global warming. Currently the trees in the Amazon take in around 500 million tons of CO2 each year: equal to the total amount of CO2 giving off in the UK each year.

技巧 4 根据上下文情景确定词义 The underlined phrase ―mopping up‖ in the second paragraph means___. A cleaning up C wiping out B taking in D giving out

Try to do the following exercises:

根据上下文推测各题中划线词的词义
1. The offspring of a pair of birds leave the nest when they are big enough to fly. A.children B.ancestors C.generations D.mates 2. There is a stack of papers on Mr. Green’s desk. A.piece B.balance C.mixture D.pile

3. Before you buy something,check the quality first.For example, if it is cheap, it might not be good. A.how good it is B.what the color is C.what the size is D.how big it is 4. Please give me your recipe for this cake, so I can make it too. A.a dish B.directions for cooking C.a meal D.directions to your house

5. Before a baby learns to walk, it has to crawl on the floor. A.walk on two feet B.fly C.sit in a chair D.move on the hands and knees 6. Mr. Brown is an amateur photographer.He is an engineer.But in his free time he likes to take pictures. A. as a hobby B.for money C.as a job D.as work

7. This small Christmas tree is made of plastic.It is not a real tree.It is artificial. A. beautiful B. not natural C. for a special holiday D.in an art museum 8. whales and elephants are gigantic animals.No other animals can compare with them in size. A. small B.land C.sea D.huge

9. The kiwi lays the largest eggs in the world. The strange thing about the kiwi is that it cannot fly. A· a kind of fish B.a kind of cat C. a kind of rock D.a kind of bird 10. Some Africans carve beautiful human and animal figures out of wood.They sell their carvings to stores and museums. A.draw B.beat C.heat D.cut

11. Chicken pox can be very serious for a child who is not in good health.The child develops red spots,and feels hot and uncomfortable.A healthy child gets well quickly. A.a kind of animal B.a kind of food C.a kind of childhood disease D.a lack of pure water

12. Ali showed the class a picture of him, his wife,and their baby.Pierre's family has lived in the east of Canada for two hundred years.Their ancestors came from France. A. family members from a long time ago B. grandparents and their grandchildren C. parents, grandparents and greatgrandparents D.family members all living at the same time

技巧
1. 不选择照抄原文的选项,要选择要有 同义词解释的选项。 2. 不选事实细节选项 3. 不选非事实选项 4. 选概括性/哲理性的选项

常见问题形式: 1. It can be inferred/concluded from the passage that ______ 2.The passage suggests/implies that ____ 3.By the first sentence of the second paragraph, the author means _____ 4. We can conclude that_________. 5. When the writer talks about..., what he really means is that_____. 6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

1. The writer talked about the waitress' age because he thought___________. A. she was young B. it a pleasure to make friends with her C. she was beautiful D. it strange for her to fall in love with him 2. The waitress said hello to the writer every day because___________. A. she lived near his house B. he often went to visit her mother C. she wanted to be friendly with him D. she loved him very much

When the young waitress near my house started saying hello to me every day, I was very happy. She was at least fifteen years younger than I. One day she signed me to come near. When I walked over, she asked,‖ Are you single?" ―Why, yes." I answered, smiling at her happily.―So is my mother." she said, ―Would you like to meet her?"

1. The writer talked about the waitress' age because he thought___________. A. she was young B. it a pleasure to make friends with her C. she was beautiful D. it strange for her to fall in love with him 2. The waitress said hello to the writer every day because___________. A. she lived near his house B. he often went to visit her mother C. she wanted to be friendly with him D. she loved him very much

Sample 2 1.Why do people put hot metal in water? A. To make it hard. B. To make it soft. C. To make it cool. D. To make it brittle. 2. In annealing, the required hardness of metal depends on __. A. the quantity of water used B. the temperature of the metal C. the softness of the metal D. the timing of the operation

3. As suggested by the text, how can glass be made less brittle? A. It can be heated and then cooled quickly. B. It can be cooled and then heated slowly. C. It can be heated and then cooled slowly. D. It can be cooled and then heated quickly.

Annealing is a way of making metal softer by heating it and then letting it cool very slowly. If metal is heated and then cooled very quickly, for example by dipping (浸) it in water, it will be very hard but also very brittle-that is, it will break easily. Metal that has been annealed is soft but does not break as easily. It is possible to make metal as hard or as soft as it is wished, by annealing

it. The metal is heated, and allowed to cool slowly for a certain length of time. The longer the heated metal takes to cool slowly, the softer it becomes. Annealing can also be used on other material, such as glass.

Sample 2 1.Why do people put hot metal in water? A. To make it hard. B. To make it soft. C. To make it cool. D. To make it brittle. 2. In annealing, the required hardness of metal depends on ___________. A. the quantity of water used B. the temperature of the metal C. the softness of the metal D. the timing of the operation

3. As suggested by the text, how can glass be made less brittle? A. It can be heated and then cooled quickly. B. It can be cooled and then heated slowly. C. It can be heated and then cooled slowly. D. It can be cooled and then heated quickly.

观点和态度

理解作者的观点和态度题: 既考查学生对字面意思的理解, 也考查学生对作者写作目的、 态度、观点等的理解。 正确理解作者的写作意图,所持的观点 及阐述文章主题时语气或他对所论述的 对象的态度。---假如你是作者,你为 什么要写本文?

此类考题的主要形式:

1.The writer’s purpose in writing this story is ______ . 2. The text discusses men and women 50,000 years from now in order to show that _____ .

注意:
辨认三种作者使用的表达情感、态度及观点的词 汇,以及承接上下文的连接词。

贬义:disgust, critical, negative, tolerant, disappointment 褒义: positive, wonder, support, useful, interesting, enthusiasm, admiring… 中立: indifferent, impassive, uninterested, ambivalent, neutral, apathetic, disinterested,

e.g. The author appears ___modern advertising. A. to like B. to be indifferent to C. to dislike D. to know how to deal with

One of the most authoritative voices speaking to us today is, of course, the voice of the advertisers. It shouts at us from the television screen and the radio loudspeakers; waves to us from every page of the newspaper; signals to us from the roadside bill-boards all day and flashes to us in colored lights all night. (根据文章作者用词来判断)

e.g. The author appears ___modern advertising. A. to like B. to be indifferent to C. to dislike D. to know how to deal with

The writer uses the example of ―ocelots‖ to show that_________. A. wild animals have become more dangerous B. the driving conditions have improved greatly C. the measure for protecting wildlife fails to work D. an increasing number of animals are killed in road accidents.

Millions of animals die each year on U.S. roads, the Federal Highway Administration reports. In fact, only about 80 ocelots, an endangered wild cat, exist in the U.S. today. The main reason? Roadkill.

The writer uses the example of ―ocelots‖ to show that_________. A. wild animals have become more dangerous B. the driving conditions have improved greatly C. the measure for protecting wildlife fails to work D. an increasing number of animals are killed in road accidents.

篇章结构

1.说明文的基本结构 Descriptive writing Definition
(Introduction)

Description
(Explanation)

Examples Comparison Classification

Conclusion

2. 议论文的基本结构 Argumentation Topic Opinion Arguments
Supporting sentences

facts examples theory

论点 论据 结论

conclusion

3.记叙文的基本结构 Narrative writings Story presentation Time clues Inverted time clues surprising Ending humorous

对文章基本结构理解的考查方式:

1. 问结构
1)How is the text organized? A. Topic—Argument—Explanation B. Opinion—Discussion—Description C. Main idea—comparison— supporting examples D. Introduction—supporting examples --conclusion

2)The first paragraph is used as…/to… 3)The first paragraph mentioned Peter Jennings’ death in order to ______ . 2.问指代 1)The word ―everything‖ in paragraph 2 means____ 2)What does the underlined word in paragraph 4 refer to?

3.问文章出处/前文/后续
1). The passage is most likely to be taken from___ 2. The passage is most likely a part of____ 3)The passage is most likely to be taken from the article entitled_____ 4)What may be talked about before the first paragraph? /after the last paragraph? 5)The paragraph following the passage will probably discuss____

主旨大意

技巧 考查考生

如何做主旨大意题
?

做此类题目时,首先要搞清的是问某一段 还是全文的大意,可利用文中主要信息来把握文 脉,进行综合归纳,概括文章的主题。如有标题, 标题中的蕴含的信息往往是关键信息。另外,任 何一篇文章都是围绕某个主题展开的,因此,许 多文章中最明显的特点之一是有一个反复出现的 中心词,即高频词,也叫做主题词。抓住了它, 便容易抓住文章的中心。

一、题型特点
? 这类试题主要考查学生把握全文主题和理解 中心思想的能力,也包括分析归纳文章的段 落大意、重要情节、人物特征、环境特点的 能力。这种试题要求考生能把握文章的总体, 并真正理解主题和中心句;要求能较好地运 用概括、判断、归纳、推理等逻辑思维的方 法,难度较大,属于高层次题。

二:题 干 表 现 形 式
1. 标题类常见的题型: 1.The best title/ headline for this passage might be____. 2.The text (passage) could be entitled . 3.What is the best title for the passage? 4.Which of the following would be suitable as a title for the passage?

2:大意类常见题型
1. This passage chiefly deals with____. 2. What’s the topic of the article? 3. What is the subject discussed in the text? 4. With what topic is the passage chiefly concerned?

3:目的主旨大意常见题型 The author’s main purpose in writing the passage is______. The passage is meant to _____ The purpose of this article is _______

三:主题句呈现的形式 A. 文首

提出主题, 随之用细节来解释, 支撑或发展主题句所表达的主 题思想. 最常见的演绎法写作 方式。

1
Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. Experiments show that cigarette smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious and terrible disease(illness), cancer, cigarette smoking also can cause other health problems. For example, it can give one a “smoker’s cough”. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for cigarette smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or terrible killer, cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it?

Sample 2 1. The panda is a popular animal. Stories about the panda in the Washington Zoo are always front page news and important features on television newscasts. Stuffed pandas are among the most popular toys for children, and panda postcards are always in demand in zoo gift shops.

Sample 3 Today the problem of environment has become more and more serious. The world population is rising, so quickly that the world has become too crowded. We are using up our natural resources too quickly and at the same time we are polluting our environment with dangerous chemicals. If we continue to do this, human life on earth will not survive.

B. 文尾 在表述细节后, 归纳要点, 印象, 结 论建议或结果, 以 概括主题. 这是英 语中最常见的归 纳法写作方式。

2 Often no one looks more guilty than the innocent. On the other hand, nobody may look more innocent than a professi-onal criminal. And the man who knows “everything” may really only be trying to hide his own weakness. So, it is foolish to try to judge a person only by his appearance

Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic discussion type of class. No one teaching method can be devised to satisfy all students at the same time.

通常前面只提出问 题, 文中的主题由 随之陈述的细节或 合乎逻辑的引申在 文中导出, 而后又作 进一步的解释, 支撑 或发展。

3 If you were planning to buy a television set, the following advertisement would certainly draw your attention: “Color TV. Only $79. Two days sale. Hu-rry.” However, when you go to the store ready to buy. You may discover that they are sold out. But the shop assistant is quick to tell you that he has another model. A much better set which is “just right for you” It costs $395. This sales method is called “bait and switch”. Buyers are baited with a sales advertisement, and then they are switched to another more expensive one. Buying things on sale needs careful consideration of the goods and the reason for the sale. The paragraph could be entitled _________. A. Buying A TV Set (detail) B. A Selling Method C. Buyer Beware (detail) D. TV On Sale (detail)

Nothing is as useful as a flashlight in a dark night if a tire goes flat. Few inventions are so helpful to a child who is afraid of the dark. In fact, the modern flashlight brings light to many dark situations. Finding something in the back of a closet is easy with a flashlight in hand a camper also needs one after the light of the campfire has been out.

无主题句

即主题句隐含在全文中, 没有明确的主 题句. 必须根据文篇中所提供的事实细 节,进行全面考虑,综合分析,然后找 出共同的东西,归纳成一般概念。必须 注意的是,既不能以偏概全,也不能在 概括时过于宽泛,要恰如其分。

4
Tom studied four years at the University of Paris and decided to leave before his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida. The main idea of this paragraph is that ______. detail A. Tom, who had studied at Paris Universities for four years, moved to another university. detail B. Tom became a lawyer since his graduation from Harvard Law School and later from Boston College. C. Tom was an excellent student when he studied at Berlin university. detail D. Tom received an excellent education.

Types Of Paragraph Structures
type The position of the topic At the beginning At the end In the middle No clear topic sentence Information words for example…… so, therefore,……

特别注意:
文章中的but, however, as a result, therefore等词。 它们通常是引出中心主旨的方向词。而for example, first, or to begin with等是引出细节的 信息词,在它们之前往往提到文章的中心 主旨。

Passage B(NMET2003)
Reading to dogs is an unusual way to help children improve their literacy skills(读写能力). With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence (自信心), according to Intermountain Therapy Animals (ITA) in Salt Lake City. The group says it is the first program in the country to use dogs to help develop literacy in children, with the introduction of Reading Education Assistance Dogs (READ). The Salt Lake City Public Library is sold on the idea. “Literacy specialists admit that children who read below the level of their fellow pupils are often afraid of reading aloud in a group, often have lower self-respect, and regard reading as a headache,” said Lisa Myron, manager of the children’s department. Last November the two groups started “ Dog Day Afternoon” in the children’s department of the main library. About 25 children attended each of the four Saturday-afternoon classes, reading for half an hour. and Those who attended three of the four classes Example success of the program received a “pawgraphed” book at the last class.The program was so successful that the library plans to repeat it in April, according to Dana Thumpowsky, public relations manager.

How to get the main idea of a passage?

Passage B(NMET2003)
Reading to dogs is an unusual way to help children improve their literacy skills(读写能力). With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence (自信心), according to Intermountain Therapy Animals (ITA) in Salt Lake City. The group says it is the first program in the country to use dogs to help develop literacy in children, with the introduction of Reading Education Assistance Dogs (READ). The Salt Lake City Public Library is sold on the idea. “Literacy specialists admit that children who read below the level of their fellow pupils are often afraid of reading aloud in a group, often have lower self-respect, and regard reading as a headache,” said Lisa Myron, manager of the children’s department. Last November the two groups started “ Dog Day Afternoon” in the children’s department of the main library. About 25 children attended each of the four Saturday-afternoon classes, reading for half an hour. Those who Example success of the program attended threeand of the four classes received a “pawgraphed” book at the last class.The program was so successful that the library plans to repeat it in April, according to Dana Thumpowsky, public relations manager. 59. What is mainly discussed in the text?

A. Children’s reading difficulties. B. Advantages of raising dogs. C. Service in a public library. D. A special reading program.

d e t a i l s

Paragraph ideas
Passage idea

小试身手:

6 1. Magellan’s men were the first to make the trip around the world. It took them more than two years to do so by ship. 2. Magellan was from Portugal, but he sailed for the King of Spain. On September 20, 1519, he left Spain with five ships and 240 men. After passing the tip of South America, they reached the Pacific Ocean, on which they sailed more than one year. Very often they could not see a piece of land for months and they suffered greatly from the lack of food and fresh water. Many of them died of hunger and diseases. They even had to live on sawdust. Finally in April 1521, Magellan got to the Philippine Islands, where he was killed. His men fled and continued their voyage across the Indian Ocean. It was with the greatest difficulty that they passed the Cape of Good Hope. By the time they returned to Spain on December 21,1521, seven out of every eight men had died. 3. Magellan’s voyage proved that men could sail around the world and that our earth is but a huge ball.

1. Magellan’s men were the first to
make the trip around the world. It took them more than two years to do so by ship.

Magellan’s voyage was the first trip around the world .

2. Magellan was from Portugal, but he sailed for the King of Spain. On September 20, 1519, he left Spain with five ships and 240 men. After passing the tip of South America, they reached the Pacific Ocean, on which they sailed more than one year. Very often they could not see a piece of land for months and they suffered greatly from the lack of food and fresh water. Many of them died of hunger and diseases. They even had to live on sawdust. Finally in April 1521, Magellan got to the Philippine Islands, where he was killed. His men fled and continued their voyage across the Indian Ocean. It was with the greatest difficulty that they passed the Cape of Good Hope. By the time they returned to Spain on December 21,1521, seven out of every eight men had died.

1. time 2. ships and people 3. route

The process of Magellan’s long difficult voyage

4. Sufferings and difficulties a. Lack of food and freshwater b. Hunger and diseases
c. Deaths 5. success

3. Magellan’s voyage proved that men could sail around the world and that our earth is but a huge ball.

Magellan’s voyaged proved the earth is round.

Magellan’s men were the first to make the trip around the Para 1: Magellan’s voyage was world. It took more than two years to do so by ship. the first tripthem around the world .

Magellan was from Portugal, but he sailed for the King of Spain. On September 20, 1519, he left Spain with five ships and 240 men. After passing the tip of South America, they reached the Pacific Ocean, on which they sailed more than one year. Very often they could not see a piece of land for months and they suffered greatly from the lack of food and fresh water. Many of Para 2: The process of Magellan’s them died of hunger and diseases. They even had to live on Magellan’s long difficult sawdust. Finally in April 1521, Magellan got to the Philippine voyage voyage Islands, where he was killed. His men fled and continued their voyage across the Indian Ocean. It was with the greatest difficulty that they passed the Cape of Goed Hope. By the time they returned to Spain on December 21,1521, seven out of every eight men had died. Para 3: Magellan’s Magellan’s voyage proved that men could sail around the voyage earth world and proved that our the earth is but a huge ball.

is round.

6
Magellan’s men were the first to make the trip around the world. It took them more than two years to do so by ship. Magellan was from Portugal, but he sailed for the King of Spain. On September 20, 1519, he left Spain with five ships and 240 men. After passing the trip of South America, they reached the Pacific Ocean, on which they sailed more than one year. Very often they could not see a piece of land for months and they suffered greatly from the lack of food and fresh water. Many of them died of hunger and diseases. They even had to live on sawdust. Finally in April 1521, Magellan got to the Philippine Islands, where he was killed. His men fled and continued their voyage across the Indian Ocean. It was with the greatest difficulty that they passed the Cape of Good Hope. By the time they returned to Spain on December 21,1521, seven out of every eight men had died. Magellan’s voyage proved that men could sail around the world and that our earth is but a huge ball. Which of the following do you think is the best title for this passage? (too narrow) A. Magellan’s death (too broad) B. Going Around The World (too narrow) C. The World Is Round D. Magellan’s Voyage (proper)

遵循 四字原则:

精 准 全

用精炼的语言概括出文章的中心思想 要注意文章的内涵和外延, 把作者的观点准确地 表达出来. 要排除掉那些片面的选项, 选取包含文章的主要 内容及作者观点的选项, 范围不宜过大或过小.



所选择的标题要新颖,对读者有吸引力, 能激发读 者的阅读兴趣.

应试技巧
1.主题句的特点 ? 主题句所表达的意思具有概括性 ? 句子结构简单明了, 作者一般不会 采用长句或结构复杂的句子作为文 章的主题句 ? 文章或段落的其他句子都是对主题 句的进一步解释,说明,论证或扩展.

2. 主题句的位置
一.文首找主题句,提炼文章标题 新闻报道, 说明文,议论文 二: 文尾找主题句, 提炼标题或归纳大意. 三: 首尾呼应展现主题句, 瞻前顾后归纳大意. 议论文 总--分--总 四: 整合每一段的主题句,归纳大意 五: 从段落中归纳要点抓大意.
有些文章或段落无明显的主题句, 只是暗示性地体现主 题. 这就要求考生在阅读过程中根据文中所叙述的事实 或提供的线索来概括总结主旨大意

3. 选项分析 ? 正确选项的特点
– 含有抽象名词和概括性词语. 四个选项中, 含有 approach, concept, chance, opportunity, various, both, general, many, difficult, way, necessity, necessary, importance 等词的 选项一般是正确选项. – 四个选项中, 内容相近或完全相反的两个选项 中往往有一个是正确选项 – 那些概括全文, 内容全面, 含义深刻, 说明道理 的选项一般是答案项, 而选项内容片面, 单一的 内容一般是错误选项.

? 错误选项的特点
– 以偏概全. 只是局部信息, 或是一句没 有展开论述的话. – 过于笼统. 即归纳的主题太泛, 与细节 脱节或是没有对细节加以充分论述. – 把观点强加与作者. 读者往往根据自己 的常识对文章进行判断而忽视了作者 的见解. – 无关信息, 既在文章中没有提到或找不 到语言依据的信息

从前面所述可知,查找主旨、标题时,我们要学习识 A, C, D都是从不同的侧面说明旅馆的服务情况 , 相互 别文章中最基本 , 最具有概括力的信息。这种信息应能归纳和概 间并无联系。而 B却概括了A, C, D共性的东西, 即:为什 括文中其它信息所具有的共性。

么旅客在这家旅馆里有宾至如归的感觉。因此 , B符合题 例1:Choose the most general word. 意。倘若在一段文章里包含了以上 A, B, C, D , A) chemist B) physicist C) scientist D)几条信息 biologist 那么 B 就是本段的中心思想。同样 , 如果在一段文章中 , 该问题要求找出最有概括力的词。 C scientist 符合题意, 因为它包 作者分几段来叙述几方面的内容 那这些段落所要说明的 括了 chemist, physicist和biologist,,而 A, B和D 都指某一具体学 科的科学家, 不能概括其他词。因此, scientist 最具有概括性。 问题就是本文的中心思想。
例2:Choose the most general sentence. A) The hotel offers complimentary coffee from 7 to 10 a.m. daily. B) There are many reasons why guests feel at home at the Glorietta Bay Inn. C) The coin-operated laundry room has an ironing board. D) There are a number of extra services at the Glorietta Bay Inn including baby-sitting.

例3:Read the following and choose the title that best expresses the ideas of the passage. There is a simple economic principle used to determine prices. It is called the law of supply and demand. Supply means the amount of, or access to, certain goods. Demand represents the number of people who want those goods. If there are more goods than wanted, the price of them falls. On the other hand, if the demand for those goods is much greater than the supply, then price rises. Of course manufacturers prefer to sell more goods at increased prices. A) Economic Principles B) Law of Supply and Demand C) More Goods, Lower Prices D) Fewer Goods, Higher Prices

“阅读理解”解题步骤的 两种不同看法:
1.“先文后题”,即先读短文后做题; 2."先题后文",即在阅读短文之前先
读题,然后再带着问题去读短文。

Ⅰ.关于“先文后题”,可按以 下步骤进行
1.若有标题,一定要先审读标题。
2.快速阅读,把握大意。 3.快速浏览问题,选择答案。 4.带着“疑题”跳读短文。

5.做完题之后,是否复查,要视情 况而定。

Ⅱ.运用“先题后文”法时要注意:
1.先读题时只能读问题或题干,不读问 题后的选项。 2.读题时要把问题记在心里,并带着这 些问题去阅读短文。 3.在带着问题读短文时,对文中出现的 那些与问题有关的词句,用铅笔作些 记号,以便为下一步选择作好准备。 4.读完短文之后,紧接着便选择答案。

阅读的两大坏习惯
1.阅读时心、手、头、口共用。

2.阅读时强作语法分析。

得分不高的主要问题
1.语言知识问题

1).词汇量不达标,识记的单词太少
2).语法基础较差

2.背景知识问题
3.分析能力问题 4.心理因素问题 有些学生在阅读中因粗心大意而导致失误。

阅读训练策略
1.强化基础训练 扩大词汇量的最好方法是大量阅读

还需要学一点构词法---前缀、后缀
和合成

2.丰富背景知识
3.注意体裁特点

4.注意正确的阅读方法的使用

阅读的方法可以使用以下几种:

1.跳读:就是快速的一步阅读法。实际上是 有选择阅读,找关键词。用这种阅读方法 回答who、what、when、where之类的问题 最为有效。 2.略读:指比跳读慢些的二步阅读法。即泛 泛地、粗略地快速阅读,目的是了解大意, 对文章有个总的概念。此种阅读方法能回 答why、how之类的问题。 3.精读:即最细致、最慢的深层阅读方法, 目的是求得对所读文章的全部意义的理解 与掌握。

1.带着问题阅读短文。

在使用阅读技巧时应做到一下 几点:

2.找出主题句、确定中心思想。

3.推断单词、句子和文章的含义。 4.尽快选择答案。
5.坚持每天做3篇,而且要限时。

What is the main idea of the passage? A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer. B. Bingham is a diligent student. C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education. D. A good lawyer needs good education.

.Joshua Bingham studied 4 years at the University of Paris and decided to leave his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida.

What is the main idea of the passage? A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer. B. Bingham is a diligent student. C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education. D. A good lawyer needs good education.

Sample 2 1. According to the messenger's answer, the visitor can conclude that_________ A. The messenger lives on the western side of the island because he tells the truth. B. the messenger lives on the eastern side of the island because his answer may be a lie. C. it's hard to determine whether the messenger is a truth teller or not. D. the messenger probably lives in the western side of the island because his answer may be true.

2. The native in the distance says he lives on the western side of the island. According to his answer, which conclusion of the following is wrong? A. He may live on the eastern side of the island. B. He may live on the western side of the island. C. He may be telling the truth. D. He can't be telling the truth.

A visitor visits an island where two tribes live. One tribe always tells the truth and the other always lies. The truth tellers live on the western side of the island, and those who lie live on the eastern side. The visitor wants to determine whether the native beside him is a truth teller or not by asking only one question. He asks the native,‖ Go and ask the native in the distance which side of the island he lives on.‖ When the messenger returns, he says, "He said he lives on the western side of the island." Is the messenger a truth teller or not? How can the visitor be sure?

Sample 2 1. According to the messenger's answer, the visitor can conclude that_________ A. The messenger lives on the western side of the island because he tells the truth. B. the messenger lives on the eastern side of the island because his answer may be a lie. C. it's hard to determine whether the messenger is a truth teller or not. D. the messenger probably lives in the western side of the island because his answer may be true.

2. The native in the distance says he lives on the western side of the island. According to his answer, which conclusion of the following is wrong? A. He may live on the eastern side of the island. B. He may live on the western side of the island. C. He may be telling the truth. D. He can't be telling the truth.


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