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1.__________ struggle vi.&n. 2.___________ expand vt.&vi. 斗争;拼搏;努力 使变大;伸展

3.___________ circulate vt.&vi.
4.____________ freedom n.


5.____________ therefore adv.
6. ______________ occupation



7._______________ vt. n. regret
8.______________ n. vt. focus


9. _____________ vt. reduce


10.____________ comment n. 评论;议论 vi.&vt. 表达意见;作出评论 11.hunger n.饥饿;欲望vt.&vi.(使)饥饿→ hungry adj.饥饿的; 12. equip vt.&vi.配备;装备→ equipment n.设备(不可数)

13.export vt.&vi.输出;出口→import (反义词)vt.&vi.输 入;进口 14._________ 令人迷惑的 confuse vt.使迷惑;使为难→ _____________adj. confusing →___________ confusion n.迷惑 confused adj.感到迷惑的→ __________ 15._________ discover vt.发现;发觉 discovery n.发现;发觉→ ___________ 16.__________ summarize vt.总结 summary n.总结;摘要;概要→_____________


1.____________ thanks to 幸亏;由于;因为 2._____________ 摆脱;除去 rid...of 3._____________________ 对??感到满意 be satisfied with 4.________________ would rather 宁愿;宁可

build up 5._______________ 逐渐增强;建立;开发
6. __________________ 导致;造成(后果) lead to

7. __________________ 集中(注意力、精力等)于 focus on 8. __________________ 盛产 be rich in

9. _____________________ from/of 使??免受(影响;伤害等);
使??不含(有害物) 10. __________________ 选择??而不选择??; prefer ...


Important words and phrases

1. … for whom he has struggled for the past five decades. struggle vi. 搏斗, 挣扎, 努力, 拼搏 struggle n. 努力, 拼搏(可数名词) 常见搭配: struggle against/with sb/sth.与……斗争 struggle for sth. 为争取……而奋斗/斗争 struggle to do sth. 努力做某事 Struggle to one’s feet 挣扎着站起来

2. Thanks to his research, the UN has more tools in the
battle to rid the world of hunger.
1) thanks to 表示“幸亏, 多亏”多用于表达正面意思, 也可表示负 面,“讽刺”或“正话反说”

2) rid … of …摆脱,除去(rid vt. 摆脱,除去)
? ? rid-过去式rid/ridded-过去分词rid/ridded 现在分词ridding

rid oneself of sb. / sth. 摆脱,从……中解脱 rid sb. of sth. 为某人去除,清除某物 rid n.除去 get rid of be rid of break away from摆脱

3. Would rather do…than do
Would do…rather than do

Prefer to do …rather than do

would rather后还可跟从句,用虚拟语气,时态往后退一步。 用一般过去时表示现在或将来,用过去完成时表示过去要做的 事。

4. He therefore gives millions of yuan to equip

others for their research in agriculture.
1)therefore adv. 因此;所以; 因而,表示因果 关系

2) Equip vt.&vi.配备,装备 n. equipment equip sb. with sth. 用……来装备某人 equip…for… 为…配备 be well/ badly equipped 装备精良/差 be equipped with 装备着 be equipped for sth. 对…有准备

Important sentences

1. What do you think would happen if tomorrow there was suddenly no rice to eat? [点拨] 本句中使用了插入语do you think。 插入语经常插到一个语法结构完整的句子 里去,对句子的内容作一些附加说明,有 时表示说话者的态度和看法等,它不和句 子的成分发生结构上的关联,常置于句首、 句中或句末。把插入语去掉之后,句子的 结构和语义还是完整的。

①常用于插入语的动词有suppose, know, hope, believe, guess, find, say等。如:

You came by air, I suppose.


? Two middle-aged passengers fell into the sea.
Unfortunately, neither of them could swim.

? If she ran towards it, it might attack her. Worse still,
it could even carry off the baby in its mouth.

2. Although he is one of China’s most famous scientists, Yuan Longping considers himself a farmer, for he works the land to do his research. [分析] ①这是一个含让步状语从句的主从复合句。其结 构为: 让步状语从句(Although he is one of China’s most famous scientists)+主句(Yuan Longping considers himself a farmer)+原因状语 从句(for he works the land to do his research )。 ②主句中包含“consider + 宾语 + n.”结构。

③ for引导的从句为主句中所说的话提供推断的 理由, 加以解释, 此时for前要加逗号。 The shop was quite new, for it had opened only the week before. ④ work vi./ vt. 经营, 管理 work the land = grow crops on it耕耘土地 He works a big farm.

3. In 1974, he became the first agricultural pioneer in the world to grow rice that has a high output. the first ... to do sth. 意为“第一个做……”。 本句中动词不定式(to grow rice) 作定语, 修饰the first agricultural pioneer。 the first, the last, the second, the only等短语 后面多用动词不定式作后置定语。
He is the first guy to treat me like this.

4. This special strain of rice makes it possible to produce one-third more of the crop in the same fields. make it +宾语补足语+动词不定式, it做形式 宾语, 动词不定式是真正的宾语。 it做形式宾语, 通常和下列动词连用: consider, think, make, find, believe, count, declare, deem主张, fancy, feel, guess, imagine, judge, prove, see, show, suppose, understand, take等。

lead to导致、造成(后果)后多跟名词或代词 result in引起(某种结果)、使获得(某种成 果)、结果…… result from由……造成、因……而产生

3. This also keeps the air, soil, water and crops free from chemicals.

keep … free from “远离”或“避免” keep free from emotional reactions
避免激动的反应 keep free from restrictions 避免受到限制



独做谓语。其形式见下表 主动形式 一般式 完成式 doing having done 被动形式 being done having been done


not doing


1. 动词-ing形式作主语表示抽象的或泛指的 动作, 谓语动词用单数。如: Reading aloud is very important for us to learn a foreign language. Going to bed early and getting up early is considered to be a good habit.

2. 动词-ing形式作主语和不定式做主语一样, 用it作形式主语。
no use / no good +doing sth It is/was useless /worth/worthwhile /a waste of time +doing

Is it worthwhile quarrelling with her? It’s no good waiting here. Let’s go home. It was a waste of time reading that book.

3. “There is + no”后可以用动词-ing形式作主 语,表示“没法……”。如:
no point in no use/no good in
There is/was

nothing worse than no way no sense in


There was no telling when this might happen again. There was no knowing what he could do.

动词-ing形式作宾语 1. 有些动词如admit, avoid, consider, escape, deny, risk, suggest等后能接动词-ing形式 作宾语。
We’re considering paying a visit to the Science Museum.

2. 有些短语如can’t help, be used to, end up, feel like, lead to, be busy, be tired of, be fond of, be afraid of, be proud of, think of / about, put off, keep on, insist on, be good at, give up等后常接名词、 代词或动词-ing形式作宾语。如: I have been used to living here. I’m fond of collecting stamps and coins.

3. need, require, want作“需要”解时, 后 接动词-ing形式作宾语, 主动形式表示 被动意义, 相当于to be done。如: need / require/ want doing = need / require/ want to be repaired.

This bike needs repairing This bike needs to be repaired.

[注意] 1. 动词-ing形式的复合结构是指在动词-ing形式前 面加上逻辑主语来强调动作的执行者.
Would you mind Mike borrowing your bike?

2.逻辑主语常为形容词性物主代词或名词所有格; 3.当逻辑主语不出现在句首时,可用人称代词的宾 格me代替形容词性物主代词my.
Would you mind me opening the window? Would you mind my opening the window?

2. 动词-ing形式的否定形式是在其前面加not, 如:

带有逻辑主语时not应在动词-ing形式之前。 Not cleaning his teeth made him smell bad.
Your schoolmate’s not coming home in time made her parents worried. Would you mind me not going there with you?

需要注意的问题: 以下的动词后面加动词的不定式作宾语: decide, hope, expect, seem, agree, afford, arrange, choose, offer, plan, promise, determine, demand, manage, fail, prepare, refuse, pretend

常跟不定式作宾语的动词口诀: 三个希望两答应, 两个要求莫拒绝, 设法学会做决定, 不要假装在选择。 想要拒绝命令, 需要努力学习, 期望同意帮助, 希望决定开始。

hope; wish; want; agree; promise want; refuse; order demand; ask; refuse need; try; learn manage; learn; decide expect; agree; help pretend; choose hope; wish; decide; begin; start

以下的动词后面既可接动词的不定式又可以 接动词的ing作宾语。 含义一样:hate, love, prefer, like, 含义不同:remember, forget, regret, try, stop, begin, start, mean, go on

go on doing 继续做原来做的事

go on to do 接着做另一件事 mean doing 意味着要做某事
mean to do 想要做某事

stop doing 停止做某事
stop to do 停下来(别的事)开始

try doing 试着做某事 try to do 努力做某事

be used to doing 习惯于做某事
be used to do 被用来做某事 can't help doing 禁不住做某事

can't help to do 不能帮助做某事

既跟动词-ing又接不定式作宾语的动词歌诀: 双方一旦开始,不论喜欢与否,都得继续下 去。 不管记住与否,努力打算停止,后悔三个需 要。 begin, start, like, prefer, hate, dislike,continue remember, forget, try, mean, stop, regret, want, need, require


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