Unit ４ Grammar
1. 单个动词的-ing形式作定语位于被修饰名词的 前面, 动名词作定语表示被修饰者的作用或功能, 现在分词作定语常表示被修饰者的动作或状态。 如：a sleeping car 卧车 动名词 = a car for sleeping a sleeping child 一个正在睡觉的孩子 = a child who is sleeping 现在分词
【即练1】同义改写 1) drinking water 饮用水 = water for drinking 2) a walking stick 拐杖 动 = a stick for walking 名 3) a reading room 阅览室 词 = a room for reading 4) a writing desk 写字桌 = a desk for writing 5) tiring music 令人疲倦的音乐 = music which/that is tiring 6) a surprising result令人吃惊的结果 = a result which/that is surprising
现 在 分 词
2. V–ing 形式短语作定语时, 放在所修饰的名词 之后, 并且在意思上相当于一个定语从句。 如：①The experiment was an amazing success. =The experiment was a success which was amazing. ②They lived in a room facing the street. = They lived in a room that/which faces the street.
3. V-ing形式短语也可以用作非限制定语, 相当于 非限制性定语从句, 这时它与句子其他部分用 逗号分开。 如: His brother, working as a teacher, lives in Beijing. = His brother, who is working as a teacher, lives in Beijing.
1)The man standing there is Peter’s father. = The man who is standing there is Peter’s father. 2)Anybody swimming in this river will be fined. = Anybody who is swimming in this river will be fined. 3) Her sons, both working abroad ring her every week. =Her sons, who both work / are both working abroad, ring her every week.
1. 现在分词作状语时, 分词的逻辑主语必须是
上的主谓关系, 否则不能用现在分词作状语。 如: Hearing the knock on the door，they stopped talking.听到有人在敲门，他们停止了谈话。 ＝When they heard the knock on the door, they stopped talking. （hearing的逻辑主语是句子的主语they 发出的， 当主从句主语相同时，可把从句改为分词短语）
2. 现在分词作状语时, 分词的逻辑主语不是句子的 主语时, 不能直接用现在分词作状语。 判断正误： ①When she heard the words, her face went red.( √ ) ②Hearing the words, her face went red.( × ) （分词hearing的逻辑主语不是句子的主语 her face发出的, 不能用现在分词作状语） 【注意】分词的逻辑主语不相同时, 要用独立主语， 即独立主格结构。 如:The girl waiting for the bus, a bird fell on her head． =When the girl waited for the bus, a bird fell on her head.
3. 少部分Ving形式可以充当独立成分，这时句 子主语与其无任何语法关系，不要误认为是 Ving形式作状语。 如：Judging from his tone, there's no doubt he is against it.从他的话音可判断，毫无疑问他是反对的。 常见短语： generally/strictly/exactly speaking 大体/严格/准确说来 judging from/by...根据……判断 talking of...谈到…… considering...考虑，鉴于…… supposing (that)．..假设，假定 regarding...关于……
1) The child ran through the rain, his hair got wet.
The child running through the rain his hair got wet. ________________________________,
2) If time permits, we'll do another experiment.
we'll do another experiment.
3) When she heard the words, her face went red. She hearing the words her face went red. ____________________, 4) Because all the tickets had been sold out, they went away disappointedly. All the tickets having been sold out they _______________________________, went away disappointedly.
1. V-ing 的一般式和完成式 主动形式 一般式 (not)doing 完成式 (not)having done 被动形式 being done having been done
如: 1) Hearing the bell, they began to enter the room. 解析: hearing是一般式主动，表示听到和进入两个动作 同时发生,相当于状从:When they heard the bell 2) The building being built now is our new library. 解析: being built是一般式被动形式, 表示动作正在进行 之中,相当于定从:The building which is being built now 3) Having done the work, he went home. 解析: Having done是完成式主动,强调听见和进入两个动作 先后发生,相当于状从:After he (had) finished the work
2. 现在分词在句中作状语, 修饰谓语动词或整 个句子, 表示动作发生的原因、时间、方式、 结果、条件、伴随等。现在分词一般不用作 表目的地状语(通常用不定式表目的地状语)。
Walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine. =When I was walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine.
Being a student, you should study hard. =Since you are a student, you should study hard. 3) 表伴随状语 作伴随状语的分词表示的动作, 必须是主语的 一个动作, 或是与谓语所表示的动作(或状态) 同时发生, 或是对谓语表示的动词(或状态)作 进一步补充说明。
He sat on the sofa, watching TV. =He sat on the sofa, and watched TV.
Her mother died in 1990, leaving her with
her younger brother.
=Her mother died in 1990, and left her with
her younger brother. 5) 表条件状语
Using your head, you will find a way. =If you use your head, you will find a way.
1) When they heard the strange noise，they felt scared. Hearing the strange noise, they felt scared. 2) Because he was ill, he didn’t go to school yesterday. Being ill，he didn’t go to school yesterday. 3) If you walked ahead, you will see a white house. Walking ahead, you will see a white house. 4) They laughed and talked happily as they went into the classroom. Laughing and talking happily, they went into the classroom. 5) Unfortunately, his father died, and left the family even worse off. Unfortunately, his father died, leaving the family even worse off.
I. 用V-ing形式改写句子 1. When he approached Ms Smith, he touched her shoulder and kissed her. _____ ___________ When approaching Ms Smith, he touched her shoulder and kissed her. 2. The person who is translating the songs can speak seven languages. the songs The person translating __________ ___ _____ can speak seven languages.
3. The boy standing there is reading a book about body language. The boy ____ __ ________ who is standing there is reading a book about body language.
4. Because he didn’t know anyone, he stood there silently. ____ _______ anyone, he stood there Not knowing silently.
5. The picture that hangs on the wall is a world-famous one. hangingon the wall is a The picture _______ world-famous one. 6. Because he hadn’t received an answer, he decided to write another letter to him. Not______ having_______ receivedan answer, he ___ decided to write another letter to him.
7. When he sees the mountain, he always thinks of his hometown. _______ Seeing the mountain, he always thinks of his hometown. 8. Because it is Sunday, there are no students in the school. It _____ ______, there are no students being Sunday in the school.
9. He hunted all the shops to look for a nice present for his mother. He hunted all the shops, _______ looking _____ for a nice present for his mother. 10. If you study hard, you’ll make progress. Studying hard _________ _____, you’ll make progress. Study hard_____, you’ll make progress. _________ (祈使句+and/or+陈述句)
II．单句改错。句子共有10处语言，涉及一个单 词的增加、删除或修改。 增加：在缺词处加一个漏词符号（/\）,并在该句 下面写出该加的词。 删除：把多余的词用斜线（\）划掉。 修改：在错的词下划一横线，并在该词下面写出 修改后的词。 1. Having not seen the film, I can’t tell you what I think of it. Not having 2. The men worked for extra hours got an extra working pay. 3. Seen from the top of the hill, we find the city more beautiful. Seeing
4. Generally speak, facial expressions are helpful speaking communications, too. 5. “Can’t you read?” the man said, angrily pointed to pointing the notice on the wall. 6. Knocking at the door before entering, please. Knock 7. European football is played in 80 countries, made
making it the most popular sport in the world.
8. The experiment was an amazed success. amazing 9. Have worked for three hours, he took a rest. Having 10. He stood there，wait for a bus. waiting