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定语从句讲解与练习


定语从句讲解及练习
一、定义:在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句,定语从句是形容词类从句,相当于 形容词修饰名词或代词。 如:1) The man who/that lives next to us is a policeman. 2) You must do everything that/which I do. 二、关系代词与关系副词 关系词常有三个作

用:1、引导定语从句

2、代替先行词

3、在定语从句中担当一个成分

1.who 指人,在从句中做主语或宾语 (1)The boys who are playing football are from Class One. (2)Yesterday I helped an old man who lost his way. 2. whom 指人,在定语从句中充当宾语,常可省略。 (1) Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked about. 注意:关系代词 whom 在口语和非正式语体中常用 who 代替,可省略。 (2) The man who/whom you met just now is my friend. 3. which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略 (1) Football is a game which is liked by most boys. ( which 在句子中做主语) (2) This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday. ( which 在句子中做宾语) 4. that 指人时,相当于 who 或者 whom;指物时,相当于 which。 在宾语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略。 (1) The people that/who come to visit the city are all here. (在句子中做主语) (2) Where is the man that/whom I saw this morning? (在句子中做宾语) 5. whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语 (1) He has a friend whose father is a doctor. (2) I lived in a house whose roof has fallen in. whose 指物时,常用以下结构来代替 (3)The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. =The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. (4)Do you like the book whose color is yellow? =Do you like the book the color of which is yellow? 6. when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。 (1)I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm. (2)He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left. 7. where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。 (1)This is the house where we lived last year.

(2)The factory where his father works is in the east of the city 8. why 指原因,在定语从句中做原因状语 (1) please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. (2) I don't know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 注意:关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系代词”引导的从句替换 (1) The reason why/ for which he refused the invitation is not clear, (2) From the year when/in which he was going to school he began to know what he wanted when he grew up. (3) Great changes have taken place in the city in which/where I was born. 三,定语从句的分类 根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句。 1. 限制性定语从句紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去。例如: Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing. 任何有责任感的人都不会做这样的事。 2.非限制性定语从句主句与从句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。例如: The house, which we bought last month, is very nice. 这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的. 注意:非限定性定语从句中不能使用关系代词 that。 区别:若删掉,主句句意清楚,与主句用逗号隔开,可替代一个词或部分及一个句子。 (1) His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. (2) China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 四,非限定性定语从句 引导非限定性定语从句的常见关系词有:which, as, who, where,that 不能引导非限定性定语从句 which 和 as 用法区别: 1. as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,代表前面整个句子。 He married her, as/which was natural. 2. as 引导非限制性定语从句,可放在主句之前,或者主句之后,甚至可以切割一个主句;which 引导的 非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。另外,as 有“正如??,正像??”的意思 (1) As is known to all, China is a developing country. (2) He is from the south, as we can see from his accent. (3) John, as you know, is a famous writer. (4) He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don't believe. 注意:当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时,常用 which (5) Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry. 3. 当先行次受 such, the same 修饰时,常用 as (1) I have never heard such a story as he tells. (2) This is the same book as I lost last week. 注意:当先行次由 the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句,但是和由 as 所引导的定语从句意 思不同 She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary's wedding. 她穿着她在 Mary 婚礼上穿过的一条裙子。 She wore the same dress as her young sister wore. 她穿着和她妹妹所穿的一样的裙子。 As 引导非限定性定语从句的用法总结:

①引导限定性定语从句时,指与先行词相似的人或物,用做主语、宾语和表语,必须用于 such/so...as...或 the same...as...结构中,例如:Such people as were mentioned by him were honest. Last term our maths teacher set so difficult an examination problem as none of us worked out. This is the same bag as I lost yesterday. ②引导非限定性定语从句时,用做主语、宾语和表语,只能修饰句子,可置于被修饰句子后面、前面 或主谓之间,翻译成“正如...那样”例如:The earth moves around the sun, as we all know. As we all know, the earth moves around the sun. The earth, as we all know, moves around the sun. ③在非限制性定语从句中,which 和 as 引导定语从句时的区别: which 引导的从句不能放在主句前,而 as 引导的从句则既可以放在主句前,也可以放在主句后,还 可以放在主谓之间。 as 和 which 都可以指代一个句子,但 as 有“正如”、“就像”之意,which 则没有此含义,翻译成 “这,这件事”。 as 引导的非限定性定语从句只能修饰句子,which 引导的非限定性定语从句可以修饰句子,也可以 修饰名词。 五.其他 1,只能使用 that,不用 which 的情况: (1) 先行词是 all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。例如: All that he said is true. (2) 先行词被 only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如: He is the only foreigner that has been to that place. (3) 先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如: He was the second (person) that told me the secret. (4) 先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。 This is the best book (that) I have read this year. (5) 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如: He talked about the people and the things he remembered. 2,只用 which 不用 that 的情况: 非限制性定语从句中,不能用关系代词 that,作宾语用的关系代词也不能省略。例如: 1)The boy, who is good at soccer, comes from Xinjiang. That necklace, which you gave me as a present, was lost yesterday. Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾 经是我的老师。 There is somebody here who wants to speak to you 这里有人要和你说话(限制性) 2) 介词后只加 which, whom, 先行词为人,用 whom. 先行词为物,用 which.

定 语 从 句 课 堂 练 习 一.请分析一下定语从句:( 请划出定语从句,并标出先行词) 1. Check the ways you study for an English test. 2. Another thing that I found very difficult was English grammar. 3. You couldn’t understand people who talked fast. 4. I have some ideas that may help. 5. They said something you didn’t like. 6. Can you think of any problems you have had recently?

二、单项选择 ( ) 1. Your teacher of Chinese is a young lady____ comes from Beijing. A. who B. which C. whom D. whose ( ) 2. What’s the name of the program________. A. which are listening B. you are listening to C. to that you are listening D. that you are listening ( ) 3. The students were all interested ____ you told them yesterday. A. in which B. in that this C. all that D. in everything ( ) 4. He was the only person in his office______ was invited. A. whom B. whose C. that D. which ( ) 5. This is the museum______ we visited last year. A. where B. in which C. which D. in that ( ) 6. Charlie told his mother all____ had happened. A. that B. what C. which D. who ( ) 7. Do you know the student_____? A. whom I often talk B. with who I often talk C. I often talk with D. that I often talk ( ) 8. I like the house_____ windows face south. A. whose B. who’s C. it's D. its ( ) 9. Would you tell me where to get the dictionary _____? A. what I need B.I need C. which I need it D. that I need it ( )10. The young woman_____ I spoke just now is a young doctor. A. who B. to whom C. whom D. that

1-5 ADACC 6-10 ACABB

作业: 1. The project aims to get kids to a stage called “deep reading”, _____ they can read to learn. A. which B. where C. that D. what 2. —Steve, the vacation is coming soon. Have you found a summer job yet? —I suppose I can work at the boy’s camp _____ I worked last summer. A. that B. where

C. which D. what 3. Visitors can see the large diamond, ______ has been kept at the Tower since the 17th century. A. which B. that C. what D. who 4. My uncle has a large greenhouse in his garden _____ he grows vegetables in winter. A. which B. where C. when D. whose 5. Tom was highly honored for sending an old man to the hospital, ___leg was badly injured in a traffic accident. A. which B. who C. where D. whose 6. I will never forget my experience in Africa, _______ has a great effect on my life. A. where B. which C. when D. that 7. Molly is an impressive photographer, _______ pictures have appeared in many magazines. A. who B. which C. whose D. what 8. My office wasn’t far from Chinatown, _______ I found some very good Chinese restaurants. A. which B. whose C. when D. where 9. Many firefighters, _____ tried to rescue the people in the building, were injured in the fire. A. where B. which C. who D. that 10. Prince William took a visit to the Forbidden City on Feb. 28, ______ emperors once lived. A. which B. whose C. where D. when 11. Beautiful stories and legends about the West Lake, _______ have been passed down for hundreds of years, keep alive Chinese history and culture. A. that B. where C. in which

D. which 12. The whole class applauded wildly at the end of the speech, ______ greatly encouraged Bob. A. what B. where C. which D. when 13. Jack will hold a meeting ______ people can voice their opinions on today's global economy. A. which B. when C. where D. whose 14. Opposite is St.Paul's Church,___you can hear some lovely music. A. which B. that C. when D. wher 15. I borrow the book Sherlock Holmes from the library last week, ______ my classmates recommended to me. A. who B. which C. when D. Where 16. Many countries are now setting up national parks animals and plants can be protected. A. when B. which C. whose D. Where 17. When deeply absorbed in work, ______ he often was,he would forget all about eating or sleeping. A. that B. which C. where D. when 18. Mary was much kinder to Jack than she was to the others, ______, of course, made all the others upset. A. who B. which C. what D. that

答案 1—5 BBABD;6—10 BCDCC;10—15 DCCDB; 16—18 DBB


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