河北省晋州市 2016 高考英语阅读理解含语法填空练习（4）
【阅读理解】 Getting rid of dirt, in the opinion of most people, is a good thing. However, there is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt. In the early 16 centur
y, people thought that dirt on the skin was a means to block out disease, as medical opinion had it that washing off dirt with hot water could open up the skin and let ills in. A particular danger was thought to lie in public baths. By 1538, the French king had closed the bath houses in his kingdom. So did the king of England in 1546. Thus began a long time when the rich and the poor in Europe lived with dirt in a friendly way. Henry IV, King of France, was famously dirty. Upon learning that a nobleman had taken a bath, the king ordered that, to avoid the attack of disease, the nobleman should not go out. Though the belief in the merit of dirt was long-lived, dirt has no longer been regarded as a nice neighbor ever since the 18 century. Scientifically speaking, cleaning away dirt is good to health. Clean water supply and hand washing are practical means of preventing disease. Yet, it seems that standards of cleanliness have moved beyond science since World War Ⅱ. Advertisements repeatedly sell the idea: clothes need to be whiter than white, cloths ever softer, surfaces to shine. Has the hate for dirt, however, gone too far? Attitudes to dirt still differ hugely nowadays. Many first-time parents nervously try to warn their children off touching dirt, which might be responsible for the spread of disease.On the contrary, Mary Ruebush, an American immunologist(免疫学家)， encourages children to play in the dirt to build up a strong immune system. And the latter position is gaining some ground. 1. The kings of France and England in the 16 century closed bath houses because A. they lived healthily in a dirty environment. B. they thought bath houses were too dirty to stay in C. they believed disease could be spread in public baths D. they considered bathing as the cause of skin disease
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2.Which of the following best describes Henry IV’s attitude to bathing? A. Afraid. B. Curious. C. Approving. D. Uninterested.
3. How does the passage mainly develop? A. By providing examples. B. By making comparisons.
C. By following the order of time. D. By following the order of importance. 4. What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage? A. To stress the role of dirt. B. To introduce the history of dirt. C. To call attention to the danger of dirt. D. To present the change of views on dirt. 【参考答案】1—4、CA CD
【四川省绵阳市 2014 高考英语一模试题】D What's your earliest childhood memory? Can you remember the first time you heard thunder or watched a television program? Adults seldom recall events much earlier than the year or so before entering school, just as children younger than three or four rarely retain any memory of specific, personal experiences. A variety of explanations have been proposed by psychologists for this "childhood amnesia"( 记忆缺失,健忘).One argues that the hippocampus, the region of the brain which is responsible for forming memories, does not mature（成熟）until about the age of two. But the most popular theory maintains (主张）that, since adults do not think like children, they cannot access childhood memories. Adults think in words, and their life memories are like stories. But when they search through their mental files for early childhood memories to add to this verbal life story, they don't find any that fit the pattern. It's like trying to find a Chinese word in an English dictionary. Now psychologist Annette Simms offers a new explanation for childhood amnesia. She argues that there simply aren't any early childhood memories to recall. According to Dr. Simms, children need to learn to use someone else's spoken description of their personal experiences in order to turn their own short-term, quickly forgotten impressions of these experiences into long-term memories. In other words, children
have to talk about their experiences and hear others talk about them - Mother talking about the afternoon spent looking for crabs(蟹) at the beach or Dad asking them about their day at Ocean Park. Without this verbal reinforcement, says Dr. Simms, children cannot form permanent memories of their personal experiences. 69. According to the passage, it is widely believed that_________. A. it is impossible for an adult to recall his(or her) childhood experiences B. adults virtually have no access to their childhood memories C. adults think in words while children think in images D. adults and children have different brain structures 70. "Trying to find a Chinese word in an English dictionary" is stated in the passage to show that_______. A. Chinese and English are totally different languages B. it is unlikely to find a Chinese word in an English dictionary C. adults and children have different memory patterns D. memories are in some way connected with languages 71. According to Annette Simms,_______________. A. verbal reinforcement is necessary for children to have permanent memories B. there does not exist such things as childhood memories C. children's brains are mature enough to form permanent memories D. children are generally inexperienced and unable to remember things they don't understand 【参考答案】69—71、BCA
科普知识型阅读理解(一) Scientists at Harvard University and Bates College find female chimpanzees(黑猩猩) appear to treat sticks as dolls, carrying them around until they have children of their own.Young males engage in such behavior much less frequently. The new work by Sonya M．Kahlenberg and Richard W．Wrangham, described this week in the journal Current Biology, provides the first evidence of a wild non?human species
playing with dolls, as well as the first known sex difference in a wild animal’s choice of playthings.
The two researchers say their work adds to a growing body of evidence that human children are probably born with their own ideas of how they want to behave, rather than simply mirroring other girls who play with dolls and boys who play with trucks.Doll play among humans could have its origins in object—carrying by earlier apes(猿类), they say, suggesting that toy selection is probably not due entirely to socialization. “In humans, there are obvious sex differences in children’s toy play, and these are remarkably similar across cultures， ” says Kahlenberg.“While socialization by elders and peers has been the primary explanation, our work suggests that biology may also have an important role to play in activity preferences.”
In 14 years of data on chimpanzee behavior at the Kibale National Park in Uganda, Kahlenberg and Wrangham counted more than 100 examples of stick?carrying.Some young chimpanzees carried sticks into the nest to sleep with them and on one occasion built a separate nest for the stick.“We have seen juveniles occasionally carrying sticks for many years, and because they sometimes treated them rather like dolls, we wanted to know if in general this behavior tended to represent something like playing with dolls， ” says Wrangham, a Professor at Harvard.“If the doll hypothesis (假设) was right, we thought that females should carry sticks more than males do, and that the chimpanzees should stop carrying sticks
when they had their first child.We have now watched enough young chimpanzees to prove both points.” ( )1.What does a female chimpanzee do with sticks?
A．She gives them to her child to play with. B．She treats them as dolls. C．She makes useful tools from them.
D．She treats them as weapons. ( )2.What causes the different toy selection of chimpanzees, according to the
passage? A．Sex difference. B．Socialization. C．Environment. D．Cultural difference.
)3.We can infer from the fourth paragraph that ________.
A．socialization has nothing to do with human’s choice of playthings B．sex difference is the only factor in human’s choice of playthings C．the biology factor may also influence toy choice D．people choose different toys in different cultures ( )4.Wrangham probably believes that ________.
A．observing so many chimpanzees has been enough for them to make a conclusion B．the study proves human beings have evolved (进化) from chimpanzees C．all chimpanzees treat the sticks as dolls D．children playing with sticks are abnormal
)5.It can be concluded from the passage that ________.
A．both humans and chimpanzees choose their playthings due to sex difference B．different factors cause humans and chimpanzees to choose different playthings C．only female chimpanzees have playthings D．chimpanzees usually choose playthings for their children
【解析】 本文是科普文。研究发现，雌性黑猩猩喜欢把棍子当作自己的玩具娃娃。 1．B 细节理解题。从文章第一段可知，雌性黑猩猩把棍子当作自己的玩具娃娃。 2．A 细节理解题。综合分析文章可知，性别差异是导致黑猩猩玩具选择差异的主要原 因。 3．C 推理判断题。从第四段可知，这两位科学家的研究表明生物学因素也可能影响对
玩具的偏好。 4．A 推理判断题。从第五段最后一句可知答案。 5．A 推理判断题。综合文章信息可知，无论是人类还是黑猩猩，性别是导致玩具选择 差异的重要原因。
【四川省绵阳市 2014 高考英语一模试题】 A century ago in the United States, when an individual brought suit against a company, public opinion tended to protect that company. But perhaps this phenomenon was most striking in the case of the railroads. Nearly half of all negligence cases decided through 1896 involved railroads. And the railroads usually won. Most of the cases were decided in sate courts, when the railroads had the climate of the times on their sides. Government supported the railroad industry; the progress railroads represented was not to be slowed down by requiring them often to pay damages to those unlucky enough to be hurt working for them. Court decisions always went against railroad workers. A Mr. Farwell, an engineer, lost his right hand when a switchman's negligence ran his engine off the track. The court reasoned that since Farwell had taken the job of an engineer voluntarily at good pay, he had accepted the risk. Therefore the accident, though avoidable had the switchmen acted carefully, was a "pure accident". In effect a railroad could never be held responsible for injury to one employee caused by the mistake of another. In one case where a Pennsylvania Railroad worker had started a fire at a warehouse and the fire had spread several blocks, causing widespread damage, a jury found the company responsible for all the damage. But the court overturned the jury's decision because it argued that the railroad's negligence was the immediate cause of damage only to the nearest buildings. Beyond them the connection was too remote to consider. As the century wore on, public sentiment began to turn against the railroads-against their economic and political power and high fares as well as against their callousness toward individuals. 72. Which of the following is NOT true in Farwell's case?
A. Farwell was injured because he negligently ran his engine off the track. B. Farwell would not have been injured if the switchman had been more careful. C. The court argued that the victim had accepted the risk since he had willingly taken his job. D. The court decided that the railroad should not be held responsible. 73. What must have happened after the fire case was settled in court? A. The railroad compensated for the damage to the immediate buildings. B. The railroad compensated for all the damage by the fire. C. The railroad paid nothing for the damaged building. D. The railroad worker paid for the property damage himself. 74. The following aroused public resentment EXCEPT _____. A. political power B. high fares C. economic loss D. indifference
75. What does the passage mainly discuss? A. Railroad oppressing individuals in the US. B. History of the US railroads. C. Railroad workers' working rights. D. Law cases concerning the railroads. 72—75、AACD
语法填空。阅读下面材料，在空白处填入适当内容(不多于 3 个单词)或括号内单词的正确形 式。 【全国新课标卷题型】 Every language has its own special words and expressions. And a story can be told about each of them. Hot is a simple, easily?understood word. So are most of the expressions__1__(make) with the word hot. But not always，__2__we shall see. The words hot potato, for example, give you no idea at all to the meaning of the expression, hot potato. The potato is a popular vegetable in the United States. Many people like baked potatoes, cooked in an oven or fire. Imagine__3__(try) to carry a hot, baked potato in your hand. It would be difficult, even painful, to do so. Now we are getting close__4__the meaning of hot potato.
Some publicly?disputed issues are__5__(high) emotional. The issues must be treated carefully, or they will be difficult and painful if an elected official has to deal with__6__， as difficult and painful as holding a hot potato. One such hot potato is taxes. __7__(call) for higher taxes can mean defeat for a politician. And yet，__8__taxes are not raised, some very popular government programs could be cut__9__that also can make a politician very unpopular. So the questions must be dealt with carefully， __10__same way you would handle any other hot potato. 1．______ 2.______ 3.______ 4.______ 5.______ 6．______ 7.______ 8.______ 9.______ 10.______ 答案： 1．made 过去分词短语做定语，与所修饰的名词之间是被动关系。 2．as as 引导非限制性定语从句，意为“正如??”。 3．trying imagine 后接动名词做宾语。 4．to get close to“接近”，固定搭配。 5．highly 修饰形容词 emotional 用副词。 6．them 指代前面的名词 issues，故用 them。 7．Calling 动名词短语做主语。 8．if if 引导条件状语从句。 9．and 此处语意承接，用并列连词 and。 10．the same 前应该用定冠词 the。
广东省语法填空 阅读下面短文，按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求，在空格处填入一个适当的 词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空。 Among the few scientists who have had a great effect on science and history, Albert Einstein is perhaps the __1__ (great). An American university president once commented that Einstein had created __2__ new view of the universe. His theory has completely changed the way scientists understand time and space. Now, more and more people agree that the universe is something more complicated than __3__ they have ever thought before. Einstein __4__ (bear) in Germany in 1879. In 1914, young Einstein, already
internationally famous, became a professor at an institute in Berlin. He had few duties, little teaching and unlimited opportunities for study. However, __5__ peaceful life was soon broken by the First World War. Einstein hated violence. He was deeply affected by the war; he sat __6__ (happily) in his office doing nothing and __7__ (lose) interest in his research. Only when peace came in 1918 was he able to get back to work. In the years __8__ (follow) the First World War, people showered honor upon him. He became the head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Theoretical Physics. In 1921 he won the Noble Prize __9__ Physics and was greatly honored and respected in Germany. However, his life was again disrupted. The Second World War broke out and Einstein had to move to the US，__10__ he lived until his death in 1955. 1．[解析] 结合语境考查形容词的最高级。由上文信息可知此处表示三者以上的人之间 的比较，所以用最高级。句意：在为数不多的对科学和历史有重大影响的科学家中，爱因斯 坦是最伟大的。 [答案] greatest 2． [解析] 结合语境考查冠词。a new view of...“看待??的一种新观点”。结合 语境可知，应用 a，因为不定冠词可以表示泛指。 [答案] a 3． [解析] 结合语境考查名词性从句。此处 what 相当于 the universe that。句意为 “现在越来越多的人赞同这个说法：宇宙要比他们以前想象的复杂得多”。 [答案] what 4． [解析] 结合语境考查动词的时态和语态。表示人的出生常用 was born。句意：爱 因斯坦于 1879 年生于德国。 [答案] was born 5． [解析] 结合语境考查形容词性物主代词。名词前设空，答案首选限定词；结合语 境可知，此处应填 his。句意：然而，很快第一次世界大战把他平静的生活打破了。 [答案] his. 6． [解析] 结合语境考查词形转换。由文章中的“Einstein hated violence. He was deeply affected by the war”可知此处用 happily 不合适，应用它的反义词 unhappily。 [答案] unhappily 7． [解析] 结合语境考查动词的时态。本题易误用 losing，认为其与前面的 doing nothing 并列。实际上 doing nothing 在此处作动词 sat 的伴随状语，动词 lost 表示的动作 与前面的 sat 表示的动作并列。 [答案] lost
8． [解析] 结合语境考查非谓语动词作定语。此处意为“在第一次世界大战以后的日 子里”。years 与动词 follow 之间为主谓关系，所以用现在分词。 [答案] following 9． [解析] 结合语境考查介词的用法。表示获得某方面的诺贝尔奖时常用介词 for。句 意：1921 年他荣获诺贝尔物理学奖，深受德国人民的爱戴。 [答案] for 10． [解析] 结合语境考查定语从句。 表示地点的名词后设空时， 很多情况下选用 where 引导定语从句。此处用 where 指代先行词 the US，在定语从句中充当地点状语。 答案] where
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