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2014年译林牛津高中英语一轮复习配套讲义:大一轮写作专题:如何写好开头和结尾


第九周 如何写好开头和结尾

俗话说得好:好的开头是成功的一半(Well begun is half done);结尾好,一切都好(All is well that ends well)。一篇英语作文的开头如果写得好,就会给阅卷老师良好的印象,吸引他 继续读下去;如果结尾又写得好,就会进一步强化阅卷老师对你所写作文的好感,从而给你 的作文打高分。
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br />一、如何写好开头 开头一般来说要做到开门见山, 使读者了解文章要谈什么, 最好能立刻引起读者的兴趣。 下面介绍几种常见开头的写法: 1.背景法——说明事件发生的时间、地点、背景等 Last Monday, my father said goodbye to my mother and me and went on a business trip.(2013· 北京高考书面表达) 上周一,我爸爸向妈妈与我告别,因为他要外出做生意。 2.主题句法——提出一个观点或论据作为文章要阐明和论述的主题 Old people can play an important role in our country, because they have experience, they are wiser, and they have enough time. 老年人在我们国家起着重要的作用,因为他们经验丰富,聪明智慧,时间充足。 3.问题法——用提出问题的方法来引出文章的内容,以吸引读者的注意力 Why do we go to university? Different people have different opinions. 我们为什么要上大学?不同的人有不同的观点。 4.引语法——摘录或引用某些名人的名言或常见的习语、谚语作为文章的开端 There is an old English saying, “Gain time, gain life”. Then what is time? Time is a kind of thing that we can't see or touch, but we can feel it pass by. 有一个古老的英语谚语“赢得时间,就赢得生命”。那么,时间是什么呢?时间是一种 看不见、摸不着的东西,但是我们能感觉到它的流逝。 5.定义法——常见于对标题下定义,然后通过举例、逻辑推理等方法加以说明 A good student is one who possesses good morality, sound health, perfect knowledge and various abilities. 一个好学生要拥有良好的品德、健全的身体、完美的知识和各种各样的能力。 6.数据法——引用已经证实的某些统计数字来引起话题 The fact that less than 5% of the British population graduate from universities may seem surprising, especially compared with the American percentage of over 30%. 英国人口中大学毕业生所占的比例不足 5%的事实看上去很令人吃惊,尤其是和美国的

超过 30%的比率相比。 7.实例法——通过一个实例或现象引出话题 Nowadays, people in many big cities are complaining about heavy traffic. It has seriously influenced people's daily life and economic development. 现今, 许多大城市的人们都在抱怨交通拥堵, 它严重地影响了人们的日常生活和经济发 展。 [即时演练] 用上述开头法翻译下列句子 1.上周日,我和同学们去了香山公园。 Last_Sunday,_my_classmates_and_I_went_to_Xiangshan_Park._(背景法) 2.眼下,街谈巷议,人们的热门话题总离不开“三贵”:买房贵、上学贵、看病贵。 Nowadays_it_is_often_talked_about_that_there_are_three_things_that_people_can't_afford._ It_is_expensive_to_buy_houses,_to_pay_for_the_children's_education_and_to_see_the_doctor.( 主题句法) 3.当有那么多方式可以与学生家长沟通时,家访还有必要吗? Are_home_visits_necessary_when_there_are_so_many_ways_to_communicate_with_studen ts'_parents?(问题法) 4.正如谚语所说的那样“时间就是金钱”,是的,情况确实就是这样。 As_the_saying_goes,_“Time_is_money.”_Yes,_it's_indeed_the_case.(引语法) 5.宠物是人们饲养并将其视为伙伴的动物。 A_pet_is_an_animal_kept_by_a_person_as_a_companion.(定义法) 6.最近的研究表明,有 50%的学生不吃早饭。 A_recent_study_shows_that_50%_of_the_school_kids_don't_have_breakfast.(数据法) 7.目前,怎样处理垃圾是我们城市面临的一大问题。 How_to_deal_with_waste_is_a_big_problem_for_our_city_now.(实例法)

二、如何写好结尾 结尾有概括全文内容,进一步强调或肯定文章的中心思想,升华主题的作用。主要有以 下几种写法: 1.照应开头 Everyone enjoys beautiful things. And seeing sunrise may be one of the most unusual experiences in our life. 每个人都喜欢美好的事物,看日出也许是我们人生中最不平凡的经历中的一次了。 2.复述中心 We must protect the water as well as find ways to reuse it. If not, the last drop of water will be a teardrop.

我们必须保护水源,寻找再利用水的方法,如果不这样做,最后一滴水将是人类的一滴 泪水。 3.总结式 In a word, a friend in need is a friend indeed. May all of us treasure friendship. 总之,患难之交才是真正的朋友,愿我们所有人珍视友谊。 4.引用式 I believe my dream will come true one day because “Where there is a will, there is a way.” 我相信我的梦想总有一天会实现,因为“有志者事竟成”。 5.希望式 The Internet is now very important to me because it not only gives me a lot of fun but also it is very useful. I like it and hope you will like it too. 现在网络对我来说非常重要,因为它给我带来很多乐趣,而且非常有用,我喜欢它,希 望你也喜欢它。 6.问题式 Will you join us in the next century? How romantic and fantastic it will be! 你愿意在下个世纪加入我们吗?那将是多么浪漫和奇妙啊! [即时演练] 用上述结尾法翻译下列句子 1.不同的旅行方式都能让人们愉快,但我还是最喜欢乘火车旅行。 Different_ways_of_traveling_can_make_people_happy,_but_I_like_traveling_by_train_most .(照应开头) 2.从这次经历中,我了解到细心非常重要,尤其在考试时,我们怎样细心都不为过。 From_this_experience,_I_learned_that_being_careful_is_very_important_and_that_we_can't _be_too_careful,_especially_in_examinations.(总结式) 3.爱是给予,爱是关注他人,我将尽力把我所有的爱奉献给他人。 Love_is_giving_and_love_is_paying_attention_to_others._I_will_do_my_best_to_give_all_ my_love_to_others.(复述中心) 4.作为一名学生,我非常支持这项活动,因为它很有意义,对学生很有帮助,我希望 此类活动在将来能继续开展下去。 As_a_student,_I_am_strongly_for_the_activity_because_it_is_very_meaningful_and_helpful ._I_hope_that_this_kind_of_activity_will_continue_in_the_future.(希望式) 5.找一个伙伴和我们一起去如何?这样我们可以互相帮助并且在旅途中保持愉快。 How_about_finding_a_companion_to_be_with_us?_So,_we_can_help_each_other_and_be_ happy_during_the_trip. (问题式) 6.不管怎样,有不同的文化,就有不同的习俗,如果你能“入乡随俗”,就会更好地 享受这里的生活。

Anyhow,_different_cultures,_different_customs._If_you_“Do_as_the_Romans_do_when_in_ Rome.”,_you_will_enjoy_more_of_your_stay_here.(引用式) 附录: 常见开头方式: as far as ...is concerned 对??而言,就??而论 as far as we know 据我们所知 as everybody knows/As is known to all 众所周知 as the proverb says 正如谚语所说 as the saying goes 俗话说 as has been already discussed 正如已经讨论过的 as has been mentioned above 如上所述 as we can see from the above table 从上表可知 compared with ...与??相比 contrary to ...与??相反 despite the fact that ...尽管?? for one thing ..., for another (thing)一方面??,另一方面?? however, the difficulty lies in ...然而,问题在于?? I am greatly convinced that ...我深信?? It is estimated/predicted that ...据估计?? It is generally agreed that ...大家通常认为?? It is believed/thought that ...人们认为?? It is said that ...据说?? It is reported that ...据报道?? It is well known that ...众所周知?? It must be admitted that ...必须承认的是?? It must be pointed out that ...必须指出的是?? It must be emphasized that ...必须强调的是?? It can be said with certainty that ...可以肯定地说?? It can't be denied that ...不可否认的是?? It goes without saying that ...不言而喻/不用说?? No one can deny that ...谁也不可否认的是?? Now that we know that ...既然我们知道?? There is no denying the fact that ...不可否认的是?? There is no doubt that ...毫无疑问??

Therefore, we should realize that ...因此,我们应当意识到?? to begin with 首先 to tell the truth 老实说 We must recognize the fact that ...我们必须承认?? What calls for special attention is that ...需引起特别注意的是?? What we believe is that ... 我们相信的是?? when it comes ...当提到?? with the development of ...随着??的发展 常见结尾方式: all in all 总的来说 as a consequence/result 结果 from this point of view 就此而论 If we can do as mentioned above, there can be no doubt that ...如果我们能做到如上所述, 毫 无疑问?? in a word/in brief/in conclusion/in general/in short/in summary 总之;简言之 In this way, I believe that ...如此,我相信?? last but not least 最后但同等重要的 on the whole 总的来看 Only with combined efforts can we ...唯有通力合作我们才?? Therefore, we have the reason to believe that ...因此,我们有理由相信?? to sum up 概括地说 We can, therefore, come to the conclusion that ...因此,我们可以得出如下结论?? We, therefore, can make it clear from the above discussion that ...因此,从上面的讨论中我们可 以明白?


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