Words and expressions
1.abuse n. 滥用,妄用[C][U] 辱骂[U] 虐待;伤害[U]弊病;陋习[C] ? vt. 滥用,妄用 ? e.g. He abused his power while in office. ? 他在职时滥用权力。 ? 虐待,伤害 ? Those captives were physically ab
used. ? 那些俘虏遭受了肉体上的摧残
2. stress n.压力; 重音,重读 [C]
be under (the) stress 在压力下 (of) 受到压力 suffer from stress the stresses and strains of modern life现代生活的 ? n. 强调, 重要性[U] ? e.g. Some school lay / put /place stress on foreigh language education. ? vt. 加压力于; 重读; 强调 ? e.g. He stressed the importance of the task.
3. adolescent 青少年
e.g. adolescents between 13 and 18 and the problems they face. 13至18岁的青少年以及他们面临的 问题。
? A very young child is a baby or an _____, infant ______(rather formal). ? A child who has just learned to walk is a ________. toddler teenagers ? People aged 13 to 19 are _________or adolescents. ? A youth is a teenager, usually male. ? British people use Children while kids Americans use ______for all young people.
a ban on sth
? vt.禁止, 取缔 ? ban sb. from (doing) sth. ? impose a ban 颁布禁令 ? lift a ban 解除禁令 e.g. Our government has put/ imposed ? a ban on plastic bags.
5. due to 归因于, 归功于 driving. be due to do sth
e.g. The accident is due to your careless 那意外事故归因于你驾驶不小心。 定于某时做某事 e.g. He is due to speak at the meeting tomorrow.
可以被caused by 所代替
because从属连词, 接从句, 表示所叙述的 理由是本句的重点; as\since从属连词, 接 从句, 表示理由是已知的, 而理由以外才是 叙述的重点; for并列连词, 不用于句首, 至 于第一分句之后, 补充说明理由; 第一分 句表示推测时, 用for说明推测的依据。
because of “由于”, owing to 较正式， thanks to “多亏了” as a result of “因为”
较口语化，只作状语 须用逗号与主句隔开 多用于正面的意义
as a result 副短, “因此” therefore 副词, “因此” so并列连词, “因此” with the result that…接从句, “因此”
６. addicted adj. “对某某上瘾”, “沉
e.g. My children have become
hopelessly addicted to television. 我的几个孩子都成了电视迷, 简直 不可救药了。
addict n. 吸毒成瘾的人 addiction n. 沉湎、成瘾 addictive adj. 使人上瘾的 addict常用于下列结构: addict oneself to sth. 沉溺于某物 be addicted to sth. be addicted to doing sth. 专心做某事;上 了…..的瘾
The parents felt helpless when they found their son had ____ love stories for long. A. addicted B. addicted to C. addicted himself D. been addicted to
７. accustom v.使人习惯于、养成习惯 e.g. She found it necessary to accustom her child to getting up early. 她觉得有必要让孩子养成早起的好 习惯。
1) accustom+名词/oneself + to+名 e.g. Children are quick to accustom themselves to new surroundings. 孩子们很快就会适应新环境。 2) be accustomed to +名词 e.g. I am accustomed to walking long distances. 我习惯与长距离步行。
3) get/become accustomed to +名词 e.g. You will soon get accustomed to the job. 你将会习惯于这个工作。
在英语中, to 有时为动词不定式符号, 后跟 动词原形; 有时用作介词, 后跟名词、代词、 或动名词。下面的这些短语中的to 均为介 词。 stick to 坚持 lead to 导致, 通向 pay a visit to 参观 sentence sb. to 宣判某人 come to 谈到, 涉及 see to 处理，负责 be up to 总计 devote…to 致力于 get down to 开始 /着手
８. quit 动词, 过去式和过去分词均为
e.g. She quit smoking when she got
? admit, advise, allow, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, complete, consider, deny , forbid(禁止), fancy(想象), finish, keep, mention, mind, miss, pardon, permit, prevent, delay, discuss, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, explain, imagine, postpone(推迟), practise, quit, recall, recommend(要 求), recollect(记起), resist(抵制), risk , suggest, tolerate, understand
9. feel like 想要, 只表示一次的想法, 后接
动词-ing形式 e.g. It’s so hot today. I feel like going swimming. 今天好热啊, 我想去游泳。 摸起来像……, 像是…… e.g. The material feels like silk It feels like rain.
10.ashamed adj. feel sorry or embarassed
? e.g. She is ashamed to ask such a simple question. ? 相关短语：be ashamed of sb./ sth ? be ashamed that… ? be ashamed to do… ? feel ashamed for sb. ? be ashamed for doing sth.
11. in spite of 尽管, 无视 后接名词 e.g. She can’t see very well in spite of her glasses. 尽管戴着眼镜她还是不能看得很清楚。 The boy went out in spite of his father’s orders. 那男孩无视父亲的命令,径直出去了。
12. get into陷于, 染上什么习惯 get into the habit of 养成什么习惯。 相当于fall into the habit of或者form the habit of e.g. The girl has got into the habit of playing with her hair while reading. 那个女孩养成了阅读时玩弄头发的 习惯。
get into trouble 惹上麻烦 get into debt get into a temper 负债累累 大发脾气
get into deep water 陷于困境
get into one’s head 有某种看法
get into the way of 习惯于、学会
13.at risk=in danger
take risks/ a risk at the risk of 冒……的危险/风险 at your own risk 自担风险 run the risk of 冒险(做某事)
Now do the quiz and
Complete the sentences
with words from the text.
1. Rice production has increased
greatly in China over the last few
years, largely due to super hybrid rice. _____
2. Having lived in Hawaii all his life, he
was not accustomed to the cold of __________
3. He was ashamed of his body so he _______ decided to go on a diet and do more exercise. 4. In spite of her wounded leg, she ________to get up the stairs. managed 5. He told me the same story ____________ until I felt like automatically screaming.
6. With exams only a week away, I am
under a lot of _____. stress
7. When I quit/quitted playing sport I __________
become very fat and unhealthy.
8. Mental health is as important as ______
9. Now that I am pregnant I eat a good ________ diet because I want my baby to be born healthy. 10. Adolescents often take more risks __________ than adults.
Complete the text with
words from below.
adolescents 青少年 cigarettes 香烟 quit 停止, 戒 drugs毒品 stress压力 alcohol酒 manage管理, 努力做 due to 归因于 eventually 终于 addicted 上瘾的
Smoking cigarettes drinking alcohol ________, ______ or taking other drugs produce many _____ harmful effects and have no real benefits. So why do adolescents it? Some __________do because they believe it makes them look cool. Others think it will help with stress _____ in their life possibly due to pressure from _____ their parents or teachers.
Some just want to see what it is like. What they don’t realize is that they will get into the habit and _________ become eventually quit _______. addicted It will then be difficult to ___ the habit. A few people _______ to quit manage easily but for many it is a very painful process. Of course, the best way to deal with these drugs is not to start in the first place.
1. Master and go over the use of the words and phrases above. 2. Preview the use of it on page 21.