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【新步步高】(江苏专用)2016版高考英语二轮复习 第四部分 任务型阅读


第四部分 任务型阅读

任务型阅读阅读量较大,但阅读难度适中,一般原词与推理、归纳词的比例是 5∶5。2013 年能在文中找到原词的共 5 题,需要对原文词性、词形变换的共 1 题,归纳总结得出答案的 共 4 题。2014 年推理、归纳题考查比例较大,共 6 题。能在原文中找到原词和需要对原文 词性、词形变换的各 2 题。2015 年有 7 题可在原文中找到原词或相对应的词形、词性。

任务型阅读将会继续在江苏高考试题中占有较大比重, 考题形式还是主要以表格形和树状形 为主,文章体裁主要以议论文为主,阅读量大,要求考生具有捕捉信息、组织信息和综合概 括信息的能力。

(一) (2015·江苏) People select news in expectation of a reward.This reward may be either of two kinds.One is related to what Freud calls the Pleasure Principle,the other to what he calls the Reality Principle.For want of better names,we shall call these two classes immediate reward and delayed reward. In general,the kind of news which may be expected to give immediate reward are news of crime and corruption,accidents and disasters,sports,social events,and human interest.Delayed reward may be expected from news of public affairs,economic matters,social problems,science,education,and health. News of the first kind pays its rewards at once.A reader can enjoy an indirect experience without any of the dangers or stresses involved.He can tremble wildly at an axe?murder,shake his head sympathetically and safely at a hurricane,identify himself with the winning team , laugh understandingly at a warm little story of children or dogs.
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News of the second kind,however,pays its rewards later.It sometimes requires the reader to tolerate unpleasantness or annoyance—as,for example,when he reads of the threatening foreign situation,the mounting national debt,rising taxes, falling market,scarce housing,and cancer.It has a kind of “threat value”.It is read so that the reader may be informed and prepared.When a reader selects delayed reward news,he pulls himself into the world of surrounding reality to which he can adapt himself only by hard work.When he selects news of the other kind,he usually withdraws from the world of threatening reality toward the dream world. For any individual , of course , the boundaries of these two classes are not stable.For example,a sociologist may read news of crime as a social problem,rather than for its immediate reward.A coach may read a sports story for its threat value: he may have to play that team next week.A politician may read an account of his latest successful public meeting,not for its delayed reward,but very much as his wife reads an account of a party.In any given story of corruption or disaster, a thoughtful reader may receive not only the immediate reward of indirect experience,but also the delayed reward of information and preparedness.Therefore,while the division of categories holds in general,an individual’s tendency may transfer any story from one kind of reading to another,or divide the experience between the two kinds of reward. What news stories do you read? ?People expect to get 71.________ from reading news. ?News stories are roughly divided into Division of news stories two classes. ?Some news will excite their readers instantly while others won’t. 72.________ of the two classes ?News of immediate reward will seemingly take their readers to the very

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frightening scene without actual 73.________. ?Readers will associate themselves closely with what happens in the news stories and 74.________ similar feelings with those involved. ?News of delayed reward will make readers suffer,or present a 75.________ to them. ?News of delayed reward will induce the reader to 76.________ for the reality while news of immediate reward will lead the reader to 77.________ from the reality. ?What readers expect from news stories are largely shaped by their 78.________. ?Serious readers will both get excited Unstable boundaries of the two classes over what happens in some news stories and 79.________ themselves to the reality. ?Thus,the division,on the whole, 80.________ on the reader. (二) (2014·江苏) The expression,“everybody’s doing it,” is very much at the center of the concept of peer pressure.It is a strong influence of a group,especially of children, on members of that group to behave as everybody else does.It can be positive or negative.Most people experience it in some way during their lives. People are social creatures by nature,and so it is hardly surprising that part of their self?respect comes from the approval of others.This instinct(天性) is why the approval of peers,or the fear of disapproval,is such a powerful force in many

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people’s lives.It is the same instinct that drives people to dress one way at home and another way at work,or to answer “fine” when a stranger asks “how are you?” even if it is not necessarily true.There is a practical aspect to this:it helps society to function efficiently,and encourages a general level of self?discipline that simplifies day?to?day interaction. For certain individuals , seeking social acceptance is so important that it becomes like an addiction;in order to satisfy the desire,they may go so far as to abandon their sense of right and wrong.Teens and young adults may feel forced to use drugs,or join gangs that encourage criminal behavior.Mature adults may sometimes feel pressured to cover up illegal activity at the company where they work, or end up in debt because they are unable to hold back the desire to buy a house or car that they can’t afford in an effort to “keep up with the Joneses.” However,peer pressure is not always negative.A student whose friends are good at academics may be urged to study harder and get good grades.Players on a sports team may feel driven to play harder in order to help the team win.This type of influence can also get a friend off drugs,or to help an adult take up a good habit or drop a bad one.Study groups and class projects are examples of positive peer groups that encourage people to better themselves. Schools try to teach kids about the dangers of negative peer pressure.They teach kids to stand up and be themselves,and encourage them to politely decline to do things that they believe are wrong.Similarly, it can be helpful to encourage children to greet the beneficial influence of positive peer groups.

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(三) (2013·江苏) Quiet Virtue:The Conscientious The everyday signs of conscientiousness(认真尽责)—being punctual,careful in doing work , self?disciplined , and scrupulous( 一 丝 不 苟 的 ) in attending to responsibilities—are typical characteristics of the model organizational citizen, the people who keep things running as they should.They follow the rules,help out, and are concerned about the people they work with.It’s the conscientious worker who helps newcomers or updates people who return after an absence,who gets to work on time and never abuses sick leaves,who always gets things done on deadline. Conscientiousness is a key to success in any field.In studies of job performance, outstanding effectiveness for almost all jobs,from semi?skilled labor to sales and management , depends on conscientiousness.It is particularly important for outstanding performance in jobs at the lower levels of an organization:the secretary whose message taking is perfect,the delivery truck driver who is always on time. Among sales representatives for a large American car manufacturer,those who were most conscientious had the largest volume of sales.Conscientiousness also offers a buffer(缓冲)against the threat of job loss in today’s constantly changing

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market,because employees with this quality are among the most valued.For the sales representatives,their level of conscientiousness mattered almost as much as their sales in determining who stayed on. There is an air around highly conscientious people that makes them seem even better than they actually are.Their reputation for dependability influences managers’ evaluations of their work,giving them higher evaluations than objective measures of their performance would predict. But conscientiousness in the absence of social skills can lead to problems.Since conscientious people demand so much of themselves,they can hold other people to their own standards,and so be overly judgmental when others don’t show the same high levels of model behavior.Factory workers in Great Britain and the United States who were extremely conscientious,for example,tended to criticize co?workers even about failures that seemed unimportant to those they criticized,which damaged their relationships. When conscientiousness takes the form of living up to expectations,it can discourage creativity. In creative professions like art or advertising,openness to wild ideas and spontaneity(自发性)are scarce and in demand.Success in such occupations calls for a balance, however; without enough conscientiousness to follow through,people become mere dreamers,with nothing to show for their imaginativeness.

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一、任务型阅读的解题步骤 1.略读。快速浏览全文,理清文章基本结构,了解文章的框架及每段大意。 2.扫读。扫读图表,分析表格结构和内容,准确定位填空的要求,以便带着问题寻找答案。 3.细读。深入理解文章内容,分析整合信息,准确表达。归纳概括,转换信息正确表述。 4.复查。通观全篇,复读检查。 二、复习中应注意培养解题能力 1.培养词形转换能力,如:用所给词语的适当形式填空。 (1)The car rushed down the road at astonishing speed.(astonish) (2)The postal service here is very unreliable.(serve) (3)The exam was relatively easy.(relative) 常见的词性转换有: 说明 动词转化为名词,这类动词变为名词后,常 跟 have,make,take 等词搭配表示一个动作 make a study(guess,visit,call,change,
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举例 have a look(talk, wash, swim, rest, dream, laugh,ride,dance,interview,etc.)

answer,reply,promise,request,etc.) take a seat(drive,look,bath,etc.) a drop of water(水),water the flowers(浇);a map of Europe(地图),map 表具体实物的名词可转化为动词 the South Pole(绘制地图);a bicycle chain(链条),chain a boat to a tree(拴 住) 表身体部位或某类人的名词可转化为动词 Head straight for the factory.(朝向) The nurse on duty is nursing the patient.(护理) Time is a bird for ever on the wing.(时 表抽象概念的名词可转化为动词 间) Take a deep breath and I’ll time you.(计 时) 有些形容词可作动词用 Slow down your car in the crowded streets.(放慢) Let’s sit in the shade and get cool.(凉 爽的) Open the windows to cool the room.(使凉 爽) 2.培养英语释义与概括能力,如:根据提示用意义相同的词完成各句,每空一词。 (1)The boy felt uncomfortable with his new classmates.(not comfortable) (2)If you ignore your diet,trouble will follow.(pay no attention to) (3)At any rate,the medical supplies will reach you within a week.(things such as food,medicines,etc.that are needed by a group of people) 3.培养逆向思维能力。如:根据提示用意义相反的词完成各句,每空一词。 (1)I am unable to cycle to school because my bicycle is broken.(able) Your watch is five minutes slow.(慢的) The stone hit him on the head.(头)

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(2)There has been a steady decrease in population in this city.(increase) (3)The rough road made the car vibrate.(smooth) 4.培养语篇结构解读能力。 如:利用完形填空和阅读理解的文章,在阅读后,写出文章主题,段落大意,自己动手绘制 语篇结构图,以增强语篇结构解读的能力。 三、复习建议 学生在做任务型阅读时常遇到的困难是: 难以理解文章结构与图表; 难以用适当的词或词的 适当形式填空;不会概括;方法不当,信心不足等等。因此,在备考复习时要有的放矢地进 行训练,特别要在以下几个方面注意积累经验。 1.学会查读 (1)带着问题有意识地在细节处和关键处做标记; (2)留意最醒目的字眼(time,age,number,place...); (3)依据信息词搜索所需要的内容。如: ①5W+H:who,what,when,where,why,how; ②时间先后:first,then,after that,next,finally; ③因果:because,thus,lead to,caused by,as a result of; ④比较:similarly,differently,like,unlike,but,while,however,instead,on the contrary。 2.学会组织、表述信息 (1)用名词所有格代替 of。如: the citizens’ longer living 代替 the longer living of the citizens (2)词性转换。如: 原文:Taking a gap year and going to university offer valuable experience in similar ways... 转换成表格中:Similarities between taking a gap year and going to university... (3)句子结构转换。如: 原文:One likely development will be a gradual change in the family unit;the other likely development will be a change in the proportion of the nation’s workforce. 转换成三个词以内的名词短语:family unit change;workforce proportion change (注意抓住句子中传达主要信息的关键词)
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(4)另选其他词来释义。如: 原文:...The ministry warned that thefts and robberies inside or near banks rose rapidly,with the victims mostly women and elderly people...It advised people not to take large amount of cash while traveling,especially during the approaching Spring Festival season,which always witnesses a large number of crimes. 转换成表格中:Theft and robbery accounted for 80%;women and elderly people were mostly targeted for;people were advised to avoid taking a large amount of cash. 3.学会归纳、概括 原文第一段:By the end of this decade,more than half of the world’s population will live in cities.Urbanization brings many problems to almost every country in the world,among which energy is one of the most serious one. 概括成题目:Title:Urbanization and Development 复习时注意积累一些概括性的词汇,它们的特征是:(1)概括性,在最大限度上覆盖栏内信 息;(2)针对性,不能太大也不能太小,量体裁衣,大小适度;(3)醒目性,注意措词。如: reason(s),cause(s),result(s),effect(s),consequence(s),advice,suggestion(s), opinion(s) , problem(s) , measure(s) , solution(s) , way(s) , form(s) , feature(s) , characteristics , type(s) , advantage(s) , disadvantage(s) , difference(s) , similarities,name(s),age,time,costs,event(s),purpose(s)等。 提醒:完成作业 强化练(二十三)(二十四)

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二轮专题强化练 强化练(二十三)强化练(二十三) (建议用时:13 分钟/篇) [1] (2015·南京市高三三模) The emotional bond a child secures with its parents has a greater impact on its education than previously thought,a report suggests.The Sutton Trust study says children’s early attachment to parents has far?reaching consequences for their ability to speak,learn and think.Parents who are insecure themselves find it harder to provide children with security,it says.And the report calls for more help so parents can develop such crucial bonds.The study focuses on the application of the theory of attachment—a key theory in children’s development and psychology.This says the degree to which children are secure and resilient as they grow up depends on their own early experiences with their mothers and fathers and how they have bonded. The report from the Sutton Trust education charity,entitled Baby Bonds,makes the case that it has an important impact on children’s future educational chances as well as their emotional well?being.It is based on an analysis of more than 100 studies on the issue,including home visits and assessments and observations of children in a range of countries.The Trust argues that although psychologists have been aware of attachment theory,it has not been seen by policy makers as a key influence on educational attainment.And it asks them to take this into account.The report says when babies and toddlers do not form these strong parental bonds—known as secure attachment—they are more likely to exhibit poor language and poor behavior before they reach school. And it cites international studies which suggest this continues late into life, with insecure children more likely to leave school early or duck out of employment or training.They are also more likely to suffer from aggression , defiance and
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任务型阅读(1)

hyperactivity later in life. The Sutton Trust says its analysis of the research suggests that about 40% of children in the UK lack a secure attachment with their parents.Lead author Sophie Moullin said that when her team looked at large scale representative studies in a number of countries they all found,from their observations,that between 38% and 42% of children suffered from poor attachment in all the different study locations.She added,“Secure attachment really helps children with emotional and social development and at school it really helps them to manage their behavior.Shouting,looking out of the window,hitting each other...These are the things that teachers will tell you that are stopping children from learning.It’s really only as we understand more about these behavior problems that we have decided that a lot of it goes back to this early bonding with parents.” Research director at the Trust Conor Ryan said,“Better bonding between parents and babies could lead to more social mobility,as there is such a clear link to education,behavior and future employment.The educational divide emerges early in life,with a 19?month school readiness gap between the most and least advantaged children by the age of five. This report clearly identifies the fundamental role secure attachment could have in narrowing that school readiness gap and improving children’s life chances.“More support from health visitors,children’s centers together with local authorities in helping parents improve how they bond with young children could play a role in narrowing the education gap.” The Sutton Trust Study The study reveals children’s early Introduction attachment to parents 1.________ affects their ability to speak,learn and think. Researchers 2.________ more than 100 case Method of the study studies on the issue through visiting homes, assessing children and 3.________ children.

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?In the UK,only about 60% of children have a secure attachment with their parents. Statistics of the study ?In other countries where the studies were carried out,the numbers are quite 4.________. ?A 6.________ of secure parental bonding may lead to poor language and behavior for preschool children. ?At the age of five,the 7.________ school Negative effects of insecure 5.________ readiness gap between children can be 19 months. ?Without secure attachment,future life difficulties such as quitting school,8.________ from work and other emotional issues would emerge. Better bonding between parents and babies could lead to a change in people’s social The significance of parental 9.________ because it narrows children’s attachment school readiness gap and it improves children’s life chances. A 10.________ effort is needed for strong Suggestion parent?child bonding. [2] Young people are definitely less courageous(勇敢的) than they were 30 years ago.Why is this?It’s because they are spoiled,and take for granted everything that they have or are given. Thirty years ago,there wasn’t nearly as much blatant(公然的) disrespect for elders,peers,or other people in general.At that time,young people were taught that to get anything or get anywhere in life,they’d have to work for it and earn it.

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If young people aren’t being taught the basics of respecting others,and aren’t being taught that they need to work to make a living,then where are they to learn courage? Courage isn’t necessarily about risking your life,for whatever reason.It is about being able to face any kind of hardship,and to make decisions and face the consequences of those decisions. Courage means being able to learn from hard times,and to take those lessons with you through life.It means having the resourcefulness(足智多谋) to find ways to deal with your problems yourself,and not being afraid to do so. Too many young people now rely on parents,siblings,older relatives and others to get them through life.Too often they turn to these figures whenever they get into trouble,and expect to have their problems solved for them. If we are to help our young people become more courageous, we should stop spoiling them,stop doing everything for them,and teach them the skills necessary to make basic life decisions on their own. Once these basic principles are instilled(灌输) in our young people,I think we’ll find that they are more courageous than we could have dreamed,and more like the young people of thirty years ago than we had ever imagined. It’s time to go back to older values and ideas,and to bring courage back into our young people and society. 11.________ with young people 30 years ago,those Theme are less courageous. ?They generally show 12.________ for elders and other people. ?They take for granted whatever they have or The behavior of young people today receive. ?Many of them are too 13.________ on their parents or other relatives to get them through life. 14.________ ?They are not 15.________ of the basics of

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respecting others. ?They are not taught to work hard to 16.________ their dreams. ?They don’t have the 17.________ to make wise decisions and overcome difficulties independently. ?They tend to expect others,such as their parents or siblings,to help them out when they are in 18.________. ?Never 19.________ them;only help them when necessary. Tips ?Teach them the skills they need to make basic life decisions by themselves. ?It’s time we went back to older values and Conclusion ideas, and 20.________ courage back into our young people and society.

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二轮专题强化练 强化练(二十四)强化练(二十四) (建议用时:13 分钟/篇) [1] (2015·淮安、宿迁、连云港、徐州四市高三第一次调研) While feelings of disgust can increase behaviors such as lying and cheating, cleanliness can help people return to ethical behavior,according to a recent study by marketing experts at Rice University,Pennsylvania State University and Arizona State University.The study highlights the powerful impact individual decision?making. As an emotion,disgust is designed as a protection.When people feel disgusted, they tend to remove themselves from a situation.The instinct is to protect oneself.People become focused on “self” and they’re less likely to think about other people.Small cheating starts to occur:If I’m disgusted and more focused on myself and I need to lie a little bit to gain a small advantage,I’ll do that.That’s the underlying mechanism. In turn , the researchers found that cleansing behaviors actually keep the self?serving effects of disgust to a minimum.If you can make people think of cleaning products,the likelihood of cheating also goes away.People don’t know it,but these small emotions are constantly affecting them. The researchers conducted three randomized experiments causing disgust through various means. The study involved 600 participants around the United States;both genders were equally represented.In one experiment, participants evaluated consumer products such as antidiarrheal medicine(止泻药),and diapers(尿布).In another, participants wrote essays about their most disgusting memory.In the third , participants watched a disgusting toilet scene from the movie emotions have on 任务型阅读(2)

“Trainspotting”.Once effectively disgusted,participants were willing to lie and cheat for financial gain.
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In another set of experiments , after falling into the state of disgust on participants,the researchers then had them evaluate cleansing products,such as household cleaners and body washes.Those who evaluated the cleansing products did not engage in deceptive behaviors any more than those in the neutral emotion condition. At the basic level,if you have environments that are cleaner,people should be less likely to feel disgusted.If there is less likelihood to feel disgusted, there will be a lower likelihood that people need to be self?focused and there will be a higher likelihood for people to cooperate with each other. The deeper meaning of the study’s findings is that these powerful emotions can be caused by a variety of small things when people are reading the newspaper or listening to the radio.What we found is that unless you ask people,they often don’t know they’re feeling disgusted.The question is how to make people more self?aware and more thoughtful about the decision?making process.

[2] You’ve just graduated from business school and you feel like the world is your oyster,only to find that job offers aren’t knocking at your door as expected.Many

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MBAs wonder why they’re not getting hired.This can be disheartening,but as an MBA, you know that perception(洞察力) is more important than reality.The key to getting hired is an employer’s perception of you.Many MAB graduates are guilty of unconsciously displaying signs that they are not the best fit for the job.Once you discover what these common mistakes are,you can put your MBA skills to use and try to turn things in your favor and land the job you’ve been looking for. Employers feel more comfortable hiring MBAs with experience because there is less need for training.Many MBAs mistakenly apply for jobs they are obviously not qualified for or which require more experience than they have.That will leave them scratching their heads at why they’re not getting interviews.Recruiters want MBAs who can prove their ability to increase revenues,decrease costs,and help their business succeed in some way.Show that you can help the company by providing concrete examples of relevant experience. MBAs often have great resumes showing all the right qualifications,but then blow the interview with inappropriate behavior , such as a lack of professional appearance,poor hygiene,or even a bad attitude.It’s necessary to be on your best behavior,dress appropriately,and not seem cocky,bored,or disinterested in the company.A little enthusiasm won’t hurt you,especially when it comes to a potential new job.Every business wants to put their most enthusiastic MBAs forward with important clients and customers,so be sure to show your passion for your work. Another mistake you may be making unknowingly is how you portray yourself on social media.As an MBA,you know how important networking is,and these days,most of it is done online.Don’t assume that employers aren’t interested in your online profiles.Many employers now use social networking sites and online searches to check up on potential hires.Inappropriate photos and information , such as annoying materials or implications of drinking and drug use are huge red flags to employers.Even discriminatory comments related to race,gender,or religion will leave employers with a bad impression.Make sure to remove any photos,content or links that can work against you in an employer’s eyes. Don’t forget that practice makes perfect when it comes to finding a great MBA
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job.Earning your MBA was a huge accomplishment , but there’s always room for improvement.Ask your classmates,peers family,and even past co?workers or managers for feedback.Show multiple,trusted resources the job posted,your cover letter and resume.Take constructive criticism on how it can be better.Do mock interviews to help relieve any tension and gain a better idea of how you’d like to present yourself.With a few minor changes to your resume and the way you interact with others, you’ll be hearing “you’re hired” in no time! Title Why MBA Graduates Are not Getting Hired? ·Many of MBA graduates unconsciously display unfavorable signs,and 12.________ to bring out the best in yourselves. ·While 13.________ for jobs,you do not take your Commonly made qualifications and experience into consideration. 11.________ ·You 14.________ inappropriately,thus losing a good opportunity to have an interview. ·You make the 15.________ that employers know nothing about your online profiles. ·You should make full use of your skills to take a turn for the 16.________. ·Try to show your 17.________ to help the company, providing concrete examples of relevant experience. Possible solutions ·Be well?behaved,and 18.______ to please the company. ·Remove from the Internet your inappropriate photos,information,and discriminatory comments that may 19.________ your employers unfavorably. You are bound to 20.________ in hunting a job if you Conclusion keep in mind that practice makes perfect and there is alwasy room for improvement.

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学生用书答案精析 第四部分 任务型阅读 真题体验 (一) 71.rewards/rewarded [本题对应首段首句“People select news in expectation of a

reward.”但该空需要变化词形,将 a reward 变为复数形式,或者用 reward 的过去分词。] 72.Explanations [此空需要综合右栏所给内容得出答案。与之对应的右栏内容是对两种 回报类别的“解释”。] 73.involvement [由第三段的“A reader can enjoy an indirect experience without any of the dangers or stresses involved.”以及空前的形容词 actual 可知这里应将 involved 变为名词形式。] 74.share [由第三段的末句可知他会把自己的感受和对方连在一起,即感同身受。这里应 该是“分享”相似的感情。] 75. threat [由第四段的“...when he reads of the threatening foreign situation...It has a kind of ‘threat value’.”可知这里应该是说带来“威胁”。] 76.prepare [本题对应倒数第二段中的“It is read so that the reader may be informed and prepared.”,且由空前的不定式符号 to 可知此处填 prepare。] 77.withdraw [本题对应倒数第二段末句:“When he selects news of the other kind, he usually withdraws from the world of threatening reality toward the dream world.” 由空前的 to 可知这里填 withdraw。] 78. profession(s)/intention [末段分别提到三个不同职业的人对阅读的不同期待, 所以 这里应该是“职业”或“意图”。] 79 . adapt [ 本 题 对 应 倒 数 第 二 段 中 的 “...he pulls himself into the world of

surrounding reality to which he can adapt himself only by hard work...”且空前的 and 连接两个并列成分,前后形式应一致,因此这里用动词原形 adapt。] 80. depends [由短文末句可知个人的倾向导致两个类别的转换, 换句话说后者取决于前者。 这里用短语 depend on。] (二)
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71. feeling [由文章的首句“The expression, ‘everybody’s doing it, ’ is very much at the center of the concept of peer pressure.”可知“同龄压力”的核心是“每个人 都在做这件事”。设空处是对 peer pressure 的解释:“同龄压力指强烈的________,即: 你必须用和你同样年龄的其他人的方式做事情。”由 must 可见语气的强烈,它表达的是一 种强烈的情感,故填 feeling。] 72.influences [由首段的第二句“It is a strong influence of a group...”可知同 龄压力是一种强烈的群体影响(influence)。设空处需要填写动词“影响”,和 works 一起 构成并列谓语。] 73.practical [由第二段中的最后一句“There is a practical aspect to this...”及 本框格所包含的右边框格中的内容可以判断此处是说同龄压力对社会的实用功能,故应填 “practical”。] 74.unconsciously [第二段说到人的天性促使人不由自主地做某些事,并且举例:陌生人 说“how are you?”,你自然会说“fine”,即使有时候这并不是事实。所有这些都是“无 意识的”,故此处填 unconsciously。] 75 . individuals [ 由 第 三 段 的 首 句 “For certain individuals , seeking social

acceptance is so important...”以及下面的内容,可以判断此句为该段主题句,说的是 同龄压力对个人的影响,故应填 individuals。] 76.moral [由第三段中的“...in order to satisfy the desire,they may go so far as to abandon their sense of right and wrong.”可知为了满足愿望,他们可能会不分对错, 也就是说缺乏道德感。] 77.spirit [由倒数第二段的第三句“Players on a sports team may feel driven to play harder in order to help the team win.”可知同龄压力的积极影响还包括团队精神。] 78.habits [由倒数第二段中的“...to help an adult take up a good habit or drop a bad one.”可知这里是说养成好的习惯。] 79. independent [由最后一段中的“They teach kids to stand up and be themselves...” 可知孩子们应该学会独立,即 independent。] 80.no [由最后一段中的“...encourage them to politely decline to do things that they believe are wrong.”可知对于那些他们认为错的事情要礼貌地拒绝,即对那些错的 或者不合法的事情说“不”。] (三)
22

71.strict [归纳总结题。第一段讲述了认真尽责的一些表现:being punctual,careful in doing work ,self?disciplined, and scrupulous ( 一丝不苟的 ) in attending to responsibilities 守时、工作细心、自律,在承担责任方面一丝不苟,这些都说明认真尽 责的人对自己要求很严格。] 72.helpful/good [信息转换题。第一段的“It’s the conscientious worker who helps newcomers or updates people...”说明认真尽责的人对别人是有帮助的(helpful)或是有 好处的(good)。] 73.Functions/Roles/Importance/Significance [归纳总结题。文章的第二、三、四段讲 述了认真尽责的好处和重要性。] 74 . running/working/going/operating/functioning [ 归纳总结题。由首段的“...the

people who keep things running as they should.”可知答案。] 75 . performance(s) [ 直接信息题。由第二段的“In studies of job performance,

outstanding effectiveness for almost all jobs...”可知答案。] 76 . fired/dismissed/jobless [ 信息转换题。由第三段的“Conscientiousness also

offers a buffer(缓冲) against the threat of job loss in today’s constantly changing market...”可知,认真尽责的人不容易失去工作,此处应转化为动词或形容词,这样便可 得到答案。] 77. problems/troubles [直接信息题。 由第五段的第一句“But conscientiousness in the

absence of social skills can lead to problems.”可知,这里讲的是认真尽责所产生的 一些问题等。] 78 . higher/subjective/unfair/unjust/prejudiced [归纳总结题。由第四段的

“...giving them higher evaluations than objective measures of...”可知答案。] 79 . tense/damaged/poor/bad [ 归 纳 总 结 题 。 由 第 五 段 的 “...overly

judgmental...tended to criticize co?workers...”可知,他们对同事要求过严,容易批 评同事,从而造成关系紧张。] 80 . discourage/affect/damage creativity.”可知答案。] [ 直 接 信 息 题 。 由 第 六 段 的 “...it can discourage

23

二轮专题强化练答案精析 强化练(二十三) 任务型阅读(1) [1] 1.largely/greatly 2.analyzed/analysed 3.observing 4 . close 5.attachment 6.lack 7.biggest 8.hiding/escaping 9.status

10.combined/joint [2] 11 . Compared 12.disrespect 13.dependent 14.Reasons/Causes 15.aware

16.realize/live/fulfill 17.ability 18.trouble/difficulty 19.spoil 20.brought

24

二轮专题强化练答案精析 强化练(二十四) 任务型阅读(2) [1] 1.impact(s)/influence(s)/effect(s) 2.others 3.purpose/intention 4.reduce/minimize 5.tendency 6.willing/ready/likely 7.behaviors 8.meanings 9.cooperation 10.various [2] 11.mistakes 12.fail 13.applying 14.behave 15 . assumption 16.better 19.impress 17.ability/capacity/qualifications

18.enthusiastic/passionate 20.succeed

25



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