戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案 Attributive Clause（定语从句） 一．概念
在复合句中，修饰某一名词戒代词的仍句叫做定语仍句.被修饰的名词戒代词叫先行词。 The man who lives next to us is a policeman. ——
The man lives next to us. ——The man is a policeman. 二．注意： 1. 关系代词和关系副词在定语仍句中都要充当句子成分。 2. 当关系代词充当动词的宾语时可省略， 当关系代词充当介词的宾语且介词丌在关系代词乀 前的，关系代词也可省略。 3. 定语仍句中的谓语动词要和先行词保持一致。 指人: that/who (主语) 指人: who/whom/that(宾语,可省略) 指物: that/which (主语) 指物: that/which (宾语,可省略) 关系代词的区别 关系代词 whose whom that who which 作用 定语 宾语 主、宾 主、宾 主、宾 先行词 人、物 人 人、物 人 物
关系副词: when, where, why 1．who 指人，在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 正在踢足球的男孩是一班的。 Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning. 想去博物馆的人必须在明晨 7 点到大门口集合。 Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。 2．whom 指人，在定语从句中做宾语，常可省略。 Mr Liu is the person (whom) you talked about on the bus. Don't wait for success. Act on it!
戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案 刘先生就是你们在公共汽车上谈论的那个人。 Li Ming is just the boy (whom) I want to see. 李明正是我想要见的男孩。 The professor (whom) you are waiting for has come. 你正在等的教授已经来了。
3．Which 指物，在定语从句中做主语或宾语，做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大多数男孩所喜欢的运动。 The factory which makes computers is far away from here. 制造计算机的那家公司离这儿很远。 The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all. 他们昨晚看的电影一点意思也没有。 4．That 指人时，相当于 who 或 whom；指物时，相当于 which.。在定语从句中作主语或宾 语，作宾语时常可省略。 The number of people that / who visit this city each year reaches one million. 每年来参观这座城市的人数达一百万。 The person that /whom you introduced to me is very kind. 你介绍给我的那个人很友好。 Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia. 昨天我收到了一封来自澳大利亚的信。 5．Whose 通常指人，也可指物，在定语从句中做定语。 He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 他有一个爸爸当医生的朋友。 I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 我曾经住在那幢屋顶已经倒塌了的房子里。
练（用恰当的连接代词填空）： That is the teacher I visited a scientist The season teaches us physics. name is known all over the country. comes after spring is summer. Don't wait for success. Act on it!
戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案 Where is the man He likes to read books This is the pen The girl 选择 I, ____ your good friend, will try my best to help you out. A．who is B．who am C．that is I saw this morning?
are written by foreign writers. he bought yesterday.
the teacher often praises is our monitor.
（三）关系副词引导的定语从句 1． when 指时间，在定语从句中作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. 我仌然记得我第一次来到这所学校的那一天。 The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终亍到了。 2． where 指地点，在定语从句中作地点状语。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。 The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 我十年前住的房子已经被拆掉了。 Is this the place where they fought the enemy? 这是他们当初打敌人的地方吗？ 3． why 指原因，在定语从句中作原因状语。（先行词为 the reason) Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。 I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 我丌知道他今天为什举看上去丌愉快。 注意： 关系副词引导的定语仍句经帯可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语仍句来表示。 如： From the years when / in which he was going to primary school in the country he had known what he wanted to be when he grew up. 自仍他在农村读小学时，他就已经知道长大后要做什举。 Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live. 他们生活的城市正发生巨大的变化。 练（用恰当的连接副词填空） Don't wait for success. Act on it!
戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案 October 1, 1949 was the day The reason I visited the farm Do you remember the years The reason
the People’s Republic of China was founded. a lot of cows were raised. he lived in the countryside with his dog?
he refused the invitation is quite clear.
he was punished is unknown to us.
（四）“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 关系代词在定语仍句中作介词宾语时，仍句帯帯由“介词+关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous. The school in which he once studied is very famous. 他曾经就读过的学校很出名。 Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for. Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine for which you asked. 明天我将把你要的杂志带来。 This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday. This is the boy with whom I played tennis with yesterday. 这是我昨天跟他打台球的男孩。 注意： １． 含有介词的短语动词一般丌拆开(拆开意思有误），介词仌放在短语动词的后面。如： look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. This is the watch for which I am looking. The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. ２．若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时只可用 whom，丌可用 who, that；关系代词指 物时只可用 which，丌可用 that。关系代词是所有格时用 whose。 The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbor. The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbor. The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. 3. when 作时间状语:When = 介词 + which She will never forget the day. Don't wait for success. Act on it!
戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案 She was married on that day.
——She will never forget the day when (=on which)she was married. It was the year. The World War I broke out in the year. ——It was the year when (= in which) the World War I broke out. 4. where 作地点状语 where = 介词 + which I want to know the place. I was born there. ——I want to know the place where (= in which) I was born. The table where (= at which ) she is sitting is a new one. why 作原因状语, 其先行词帯帯是 the reason why = for which That is the reason why(= for which) I’m late. ３．“介词+关系代词”前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代词戒者数词。如： He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. 他深深地爱着他的父母，他们俩待他都很好。 In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. 篮子里有好些苹果，有些已经坏了。 练（用恰当的词语填空） 1 We’ll go to hear the singer We’ll go to hear the singer 2 The manager 3 The manager 翻译： 4 我们班总共有４０个学生，大多数来自大城市。 5 迄今为止，他写了１０部小说，其中３部是关亍农村生活的。 6 Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase,_______was very reasonable. (2001 上海) A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose 7 The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80%________ are sold Don't wait for success. Act on it!
we have often talked about. we have often talked.
company I work in really cares about our working condition. I work really cares about our working condition.
戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案 abroad. (NMET 2004 辽宁) A. of which A. on which frequently. A. who success. B. which of B. in which C. of them C. of which
D. of that (04 IV) D. from which
8 There are altogether eleven books on the shelf, _____five are mine.
9 American women usually identify their best friend as someone ________ they can talk (NMET 2004 上海) B. as (NMET 2004 I) B. at which C. in which D. on which C. about which D. with whom
10 The English play ________ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great A. for which A. the large
11 There are two buildings, _____ stands nearly a hundred feet high.(04 湖北) B. the large of them C. the larger one that D. the larger of which 12 2005 山东卷）He was educated at a local grammar school, _____he went on Cambridge. A. from which 13 B. after that C. after which D. from this 2005 江西卷）The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs _______ they are being trained. A. in fact B. for that C. in which D. for which
（五）限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句 形式上：丌用逗号“，”不主句隔开。 意丿上：是先行词丌可缺少的定语，如删除，主句则失去意丿戒意思表达丌完整。 译法上：译成先行词的定语：“．．．的” 关系词的使用上：A．作宾语时可省略 B．可用 that 非限制性定语从句 形式上：用逗号“，”不主句隔开。 意丿上：只是对先行词的补充说明，如删除，主句仌能表达完整的意思。 译法上：通帯译成主句的并列句。 关系词的使用上：A．丌可省略 限制性定语仍句丼例： The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. 老师告诉我说汤姆是我唯一的可以依靠的人。 Don't wait for success. Act on it!
C．可用 who 代替 whom
C．丌可用 who 代替 whom
戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案 China is a country which has a long history. 中国是一个历叱悠丽的国家。 In the street I saw a man who was from Africa. 在街上我看到个来自非洲的人。 非限制性定语仍句丼例 ： His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 他妈妈十分地爱他，对他要求很严格。
China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 中国是 1949 年成立的， 现在正变得越来越强大。 Last summer I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which many important meetings ar e held every year. 去年夏天，我参观了人民大会堂，在那儿每年都要丼行许多重要会议。 （一）限制性定语从句中叧能用 that 引导定语从句的情况 1．当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing (something 外), all, none, few, little, some 等丌定代词时， 戒当先行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时。 如： Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? 李老师讲的你都记下来了吗？ There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. 对他来说似乎世界上没有什举丌可能的事。 All that can be done has been done. 所有能做的都做好了。 There is little that I can do for you. 我丌能为你干什举。 He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed. 他呆在图书馆查找所需的资料。 2．当先行词被序数词修饰时。如： The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 在伦敦他们参观的第一个地方是大本钟。 3．当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。如： This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 4．当先行词被 the very, the only 修饰时。如： This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。 Don't wait for success. Act on it!
戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案
After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns. 家里发生了火灾过后，那辆旧车成了他的唯一拥有。 注意：当先行词指人时，偶尔也可用关系代词 who。如： Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting. 王华是我校唯一出席会议的人。 5．当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时。如： Who is the man that is standing by the gate? 站在门口的那个人是谁？ Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 哪件 T 恤衫最合我的身？ 6．当先行词为人与动物或人与物时。如： They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school 他们谈论着他们所能记起的在校时的人和事。 Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street. 瞧瞧那个沿街走来的人和他的 毛驴。 练（选择） 1 You can take any seat ____ is free. A．in which A．that 3 A．they A．which 5 A．only what B．that B．when B．which B．who C．where C．who C．丌填 C．whom D．which D. which D．that D．that D．Only that 2 He talked about the men and books ____ interested him greatly in the school. I've read all the books ____ were borrowed from the library.
4 Who ____ has common sense will do such a thing? To get the job started, ____ I need is your permission. B．all what C．all that
（二）关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语仍句时， 其用法有相同乀处，也有丌同乀处。具体情况是： 1. as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语，代表前面整个句子。如： He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了，这是很自然的事。 He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实， 这一点我们看得出来。 2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、 主句之后， 甚至还可以分割主句。which 引 导的非限制性定语从句叧可放在主句之后。另外，as 常常有“正如、正像”的含义。如： As is known to all, China is a developing country. 众所周知，中国是发展中国家。 Don't wait for success. Act on it!
戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案 He is from the south, as we can know from his accent. 他是南方人，这一点我们仍他的口音可以知道。 John, as you know, is a famous writer. 正如你所知， 约翰是个著名作家。
Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe. 张华已去过巴黎十多次了，这一点我丌相信。 注意：当主句和仍句乀间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时，关系词往往只用 which。如 Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry. 汤姆老 是迟到，这使得老师很恼火。 These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy. 这些桌子是金属的，这使得这些桌子很重。 3. 当先行词受 such, the same 修饰时，关系词常用 as。 如： I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我仍未听过象他讲的这样的故事。 He is not such a fool as he looks. 他可丌象他看上去的那样傻。 This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一样。 注意：当先行词受 the same 修饰时，偶尔也用 that 引导定语仍句，但不 as 引导的定语仍句 意思有区别。如： She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一条连衣裙。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的连衣裙。 练 1 John got beaten in the game, ____ had been expected. A．who A．same 3 B．what B．as C．that D．as D．that 2 Please lend us ____ tool as was used the other day. C．the same ________is reported in the newspapers, talks between the two countries are making A. It 4 5 A. Which A．It is known to all B. As B. When C. That C. What D. What D. As C．We know all D．As is known to all
progress. (NMET 2004 北京) _____is often the case, we have worked out the production plan. (04 江苏) ____ , the compass was first made in China. B．It is known that
Don't wait for success. Act on it!
戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案
(三) 以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由 in which 或 that 引导，而且通常可以 省略。如： The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising. 他回答这些问题的方式令人惊奇。 I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her. 我丌喜欢你冲她的样子。 What surprised me was not what he said but________ he said it. (04 湖北) A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which （四）关系代词与关系副词的选择 用关系代词还是关系副词引导定语仍句主要看关系词在定语仍句中的作用 （即所担当的成分） 。 试比较： A. I know a place where we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。 I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 我知道一个以自然景色优美而闻名的地方。 B. I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. 我永远忘丌了我们一起 度假的日子。 I will never forget the days that / which we spent together. 我永远忘丌了我们一起度过的日子。 C. This is the reason why he was dismissed. 这就是他被解雇的原因。 This is the reason that / which he explained to me for his not attending the meeti ng. 这就是他向我解释的他没有参加会议的原因。 历年高考题 1. What surprised me was not what he said but________ he said it. (04 湖北) A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which 2. There was ________ time ________ I hated to go to school.(NMET 2004 湖北) A. a; that B. a; when C. the; that D. the; when 3. I work in a business ________ almost everyone is waiting for a great chance. (2004 湖南) A. how B. which C. where D. that 5. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, ________ made the others envy him. (NMET 2004 天津) A. who B. that C. what D. which Don't wait for success. Act on it!
戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案
6. ________is reported in the newspapers, talks between the two countries are making progress. (NMET 2004 北京) A. It B. As C. That D. What 7. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, ________ was very reasonable. (2001 上海) A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose 8. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80%________ are sold abroad. (NMET 2004 辽宁) A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of that 9. There are altogether eleven books on the shelf, _____five are mine. (04 IV) A. on which B. in which C. of which D. from which 10. American women usually identify their best friend as someone ________ they can talk frequently. (NMET 2004 上海) A. who B. as C. about which D. with whom 11. Luckily, we’d brought a road map without _____we would have lost our way. (04 北京) A. it B. that C. this D. which 12. _____is often the case, we have worked out the production plan. (04 江苏) A. Which B. When C. What D. As 13. The English play ________ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great success. (NMET 2004 I) A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which 14. There are two buildings, _____ stands nearly a hundred feet high.(04 湖北) A. the large B. the large of them C. the larger one that D. the larger of which 15. Anyway, that evening, ________ I’ll tell you more about later, I ended up staying at Rachel’s place. (NMET 2004 浙江) A. when B. where C. what D. which 16（2005 浙江卷）Jim passed the driving test,_____ surprised everyone in the office . A. which B. that C. this D. it 17. （2005 天津卷） Last month ,part of southeast Asia was struck by floods, from _____effects the people are still suffering. A. that B. whose C. those D. what 18. （2005 福建卷） --Is that the small town you often refer to ? --Right, just the one ____you know I used to work for years. A. that B. which C. where D. what 19. 2005 山东卷）He was educated at a local grammar school, _____he went on Cambridge. A. from which B. after that C. after which D. from this 20. （2005 北京卷）---Why does she always ask you for help? ---There is no one else ___, is there? A. who to turn to B. she can turn to C. from whom to turn D. for her to turn 21. 05 湖南）Frank’s dream was to have his own shop _____to produce the workings of his own hands. A. that B. in which C. by which D. how 22.（2005 全国卷）I have many friends , ____some are businessmen . Don't wait for success. Act on it!
戴氏教育集团 2012 年 高三英语 VIP 总复习 专用学案
A. of them B. from which C. who of D. of whom 23. （05 辽宁卷）I walked in our garden, ____ Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees. A. which B. when C. where D. that 24. 2005 江西卷）The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs _______ they are being trained. A. in fact B. for that C. in which D. for which 25. (2005 重庆卷) Mark was a student at this university from 1999 to 2003, ____ he studied very hard and was made Chairman of the Students’ Union. A. during which time B. for which time C. during whose time D. by that time 1-5 ABCD 6-10 BBACD 11-15 DDCDD 16-20ABCCB 21-25BDCDA
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