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高中语法填空


第十讲,语法填空

一. 语填特点 语填分两种题型:提示词,纯填空。从历年高考题分析来看,语法填空 10 个空中提示 题 3-4 个,纯填空 6-7 个。提示题中有 2-3 个是考查动词的变形,1-2 个考查其他词性 的转换。纯填空只考四种词性:介,连,冠,代。 二. 纯填空习题讲解 介词,冠词,连词,代词统称虚词,其中介词,冠词,部分连词不能独立作为成分,

必须依附实词或者句子才能成立。 1. 冠词: a, an, the 条件:冠词+(adj)+n A, an 一个,第一次提到 The 那个,至少第二次提到,或者独立用法: (世界独一无二,最高级,钢琴,专用地名, 代指一类) 例: 1)Take me as 21 example: being a disciple of free education 2)He became 4 ____________ most popular star of American television 3)Five policemen were also killed in a separate roadside bomb burst in Helmand, 21 region is a known Taliban stronghold(据点) 4)The young may need more sleep than _____3_____ old 5)My friend Vernon Davies kept birds. One day he phoned and told me he was going away for a week. He asked me to feed 16 birds for him 2. 介词 条件: 介词+(冠词+adj)+n 固定搭配 介词+doing 1)He asked me to feed 16 birds for him and said that he would leave the key his front door in my mailbox. 2)Schooling, 8 the other hand, is a basic experience. 3) British soldiers are engaged 23 major anti-insurgency operations. 4) A woman and a yougn boy sat down 2___________ the next table. 3.代词 挖掉代词,句子的结构受到破坏,句子间出现不连贯。常常考的是挖空:主,宾 常考代词有:人称,物主,It, 反身,不定,指示 17

1) 人称代词: 主格充当主语;宾格充当宾语和表语.
我 主格 宾格 I me 你 you you 他 he him 她 she her 它 it it 我们 we us 你们 you you 他们 they them

2) 物主代词: 形容词型物主代词作定语; 物主+n
我的 形容词型 名词型 my mine 你(们)的 your yours 他的 his his 她的 her hers 它的 its its 我们的 our ours 他们的 their theirs

3)It : 表天气,时间
It is/was +….that 强调句/主从 It is/was +adj+to do sth

3)反身代词:用作宾语、表语、同位语.
单数 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 myself(我自己) yourself(你自己) himself(他自己), herself(她自己), itself(它自己) 复数 ourselves(我们自己) yourselves(你们自己) themselves(他/她/它们自己)

4)指示代词:it, this, that, these, those 起指代作用;such/so(如此…),others, another. 5)不定代词:one, each, all, both, none, neither, either; much, many, little, few,
every, everyone, everybody, everything; some, someone, somebody, something; any, anyone, anybody, anything; no, nobody, nothing;others, other+[pl.](其他的), another+[sing.](另一); 跟踪练习 1) …I patiently walked to the library, took my seat and did some deep breathing to help relax__________ . (广州二模) 2). The little boy pulled__________ right hand out of the pocket and studied a number of coins in it. (深一模) 3). …the driver did__________ to help and even stopped once to pick up more passengers.(汕头 二模) 4). If you give your children ? that they can never do anything quite right, then they will regard__________ as unfit or unable persons. (深圳罗湖) 5). Some 134,000 Chinese students went to study abroad, and 120,000 of__________ were self-funded students,? 6) .Firstly, we must understand the language when we hear__________ spoken.(佛山一模)

Keys: 1. myself 2. his 3. nothing 4. themselves 5. them 6. It

4.连词
1) 并列连词: (常放在句中,连接两个句子或放在句首,连接上下文;有中文意思) 并列连词 并列或递 进关系 转折关系 因果关系 选择关系 and, not only…but also…(不仅…而且…) , both…and…(两者 都…), neither…nor…(两者都不…) but(但是,然而), while (而,表对比) for (因为,表原因),so (所以,表结果) or(或者; 否则), otherwise(要不然,否则), not…but...(不 是…而是), either…or…(或者…或者…) 跟踪练习 however(然而) therefore(所以), thus 并列副词 then(然后,那时)

We 18__were told___(tell)that our rooms hadn’t been reserved for that week, 19_____ for the week after. Pay a fair price for it: neither too much 17 too little 2)从句连词 定从关系代词:___which, that, who, whom , as________________________ 定从关系副词:___when, where, why, _______介词+which/whom______________________ 名从关系代词:______what, who__________________________________ 名从关系副词:___that, how, when, where, why ,whether_____________________ 状从联系副词: 时间状语从句:when, until, before, after, since,until 地点状语:where 原因状语,because ,since, as 条件状语:if, unless 让步状语:although ,though, even if/even though 1.I didn’t understand 20____ this would happen 2. _20__ he thought he cloud escape attention by sitting at the back, he was wrong. I 3. he could bring some back to an elder ____32____ had been his teacher 4. Jane paused in front of a counter _35_ some attractive ties were on display. 5. One day, he came up with an idea 35 he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches. He did so the next day.

总结: _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________ 三. 变形题的解题方法

1.动词考查形式:谓语,非谓语 动词提示词的“三步” :判断动词-----确定非谓/谓语---谓语变时态,语态/非谓 (三选一) 【注 1】判断括号提示词为动词的方法.请牢记如下三个公式 a) n/pron_____(v) +n/pron
b) _______(v)+n/介词结构, S 或者 S________(v)+n c) ____(v)+介词结构 跟踪练习:判断下列提示词符合上面的哪一个公式 ① Ms Chen__________ (teach) me English since Junior 1, and to show my appreciation I decided to get her a present. (广州一模) ② I had to leave work to take him to the hospital because he __________ (break) his finger. ③ We must also consider the reaction of the person__________ (receive) the gift. ④ __________ ( compare) with the previous year, the number of students who went abroad for study was increased by 15 ,000, or a rise of 13%. (茂名二模) ⑤ but it is not enough only__________ (memorize) rules from a grammar book. 【注 2】非谓/谓语的辨析 请一定牢记:一个句子只能有一个谓语动词,除非有连词。这样才能准确无误地判断谓与 非谓 跟踪练习:请判断下列提示词,作谓语还是非谓

① (2012) He suddenly appeared in class one day, __________(wear) sun glasses. ② . (2011) I noticed a man _________(sit) at the front. ③ . (2010) He spit it out, ________(say) it was awful. ④. (2009) She wished that he was as easy was always delighted with perfume. ⑤(2007) I was on my way to the Taiyetos Mountains. The sun was setting when my ______ (please) as her mother, who

car __________ (break) down near a remote village. ⑥. (2008) Being too anxious to help an event develop often ________(result) in the contrary to our intention. ⑦. (2009)...people stepped on your feet or _________(push) you with their elbows (肘部), hurrying ahead to get to a bargain. ⑧ . (2009) Her mother was excited, “Your father has at last decided to stop smoking, ” Jane ____________(inform).
I. 谓语动词的考查:时态,语态

1) 如果动词在句中充当谓语,考查时态和语态、主谓一致或虚拟语气(*)。 先判断谓语动词和主语之间是主动关系还是被动关系,然后根据时间状 语和上下文谓语动词的提示判断时态(熟记 v+“-s”、v+“-ing ”、v+“-ed” 的规则) 。时态和语态表如下: 时态 一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去将来时 一般现在时 现在进行时 现在完成时 现在完成进行时 一般将来时 跟踪练习 1. (2007) I was on my way to the Taiyetos Mountains. The sun was setting when my car __________ (break) down near a remote village. 2. (2008) Being too anxious to help an event develop often ________(result) in the contrary to our intention. 3. (2009)...people stepped on your feet or _________(push) you with their elbows (肘部), hurrying ahead to get to a bargain. 4. (2009) Her mother was excited, “Your father has at last decided to stop smoking, ” Jane ____________(inform). 5. (2010) After a four-day journey, the young man __________ (present) the water to the old man. His teacher took a deep drink 6. (2011) He ______________ (pretend) that a tiger toy was real and giving it a voice. 7. (2012) He walked in as if he __17__ (buy) the school. II.非谓语动词的考查 主动语态 was/were; did was/were doing had done would do is/am/are; do/does is/am/are doing have/has done have/has been doing will do 被动语态 was/were done was/were being done had been done would be done is/am/are done is/am/are being done have/has been done -----will be done

非谓语动词的考查,常考的是:非谓作状,定,补,宾,主。当非谓作状,定,补时我们可 以利用非谓“三步曲”来解题。非谓作主语时常常考 it 的形式主语:it is+adj/n +to do sth 。 It is no use/ useless /no good doing sth…. 非谓作宾语一定要下去多记固定搭配。 【复习】 1)非谓“三步曲” 第一步:确定位置:状在句首,尾;定在名左右;补在宾后 第二步:找对象:状找逻辑主;定找修饰的名词;补找宾语 第三步:确定非谓: Ving :主动,正在,令人…的 Ved: 被动,已经,感到/受到….的 To do : 目的(in order to),结果(so as to,only to) ,将(be to,be about to) 2)非谓作宾语的固定搭配 finish doing sth.完成做某事; enjoy doing sth. 喜欢做某事; practice doing sth. 练习做某事; imagine doing,想象做某事;avoid doing sth.避免做某事;consider doing sth.考虑做某事; suggest doing sth.建议做某事;mind doing sth.介意做某事; keep doing sth.持续做某事 feel like doing sth.喜欢做某事;be busy doing sth.忙于做某事;be worth doing 值得做某事; spend time (in) doing sth.花费时间(金钱)做某事; have difficult/trouble in doing sth 做某事 有困难;have fun doing.做某事高兴 跟踪练习

(2012) He suddenly appeared in class one day, __________(wear) sun glasses. (2011) I noticed a man _________(sit) at the front. (2010) He spit it out, ________(say) it was awful. (2009) She wished that he was as easy always delighted with perfume. (2008) For example, the proverb, “plucking up a crop ________ (help) it grow”, is based on the following story. (2007) While she was getting me ________ (settle) into a tiny but clean room, the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car. 2. 其他词性的变形题 词中题为最基础但也是最容易出错的题;一定要记住每种词性的功能
名词:作主,宾,表,adj+n,介+n

______ (please) as her mother, who was

形容词:adj+n. be + n 。在语填中常常变副词,比较级,反义词 介:介+n/ving/代词宾格 副词:副词修饰整个句子,adj,adv,v 数词:数词变序数词

跟踪练习

1)He was determined to change the _______(direct) of the business. 2)This theory goes against the______(believe) of most current political thinkers 3)The ______(govern) has announced plans to raise the minimum wage next year. 4)Trade and industry require good _________(communicate). 5)London is still the ______(culture) center of the country 6)How does your department’s ______(actually) performance compare with your plan and budget. 7)We are seeing a _____(rapidly) growth in the use of the Internet. 8)The queen made a wonderful ________(speak) in reply 9)He was never _____(proper) trained, so you can’t blame him too much 10)The project requires huge investment, so it is a very_______(bravely)venture in the current economic climate. 11)She was always _____(plain) dressed, in a way that gave her an air of elegance. 12)my father ______(final) agreed to let me go on the trip. 13) I’m not _____(entire) sure I like the tone of your question. 14) Their cat lives _____(main) outdoors. 15)It is ______(usually) to ask permission before borrowing any equipment. 16)Smoking is _____-(harm) to your health. 17)It’s only ____(nature) to worry about your child’s diet. 18)We are told to stay________(calmly) and that help was on the way. 19)We are ____(honor) to join with you in this celebration. 20)It is usual to ask permission before _____(borrow) any equipment. 21)We achieve much money by______(persuade) than by brute force. 22)After _____(graduate ) from his university, he went abroad. 23)He‘ s the ______(one) student who was admitted by Beijing University. 24)Mengfei was the _____(five) guest to rise to speak.

总结:

四,课后习题

Last year, my brother and I went to Miami for a vacation. Some of my friends who had been there before said_16_____ was a wonderful holiday destination. Before we went, we had planned for months. When the day came, we were ready. After our plane landed, we went to the hotel. We had made our reservation six months__17____ (early), but the man at the front desk said there had been a mistake. We 18_____(tell)that our rooms hadn’t been reserved for that week, 19_____ for the week after. I didn’t understand 20____ this would happen and my credit card had already been charged______ the reservation. What’s worse, the hotel had been fully b ooked. When we were wondering what to do, the manager came out. She was 22_____(surprise)helpful. She apologized for the mistake and gave us a spare VIP room on 23_____ top floor. We had never stayed in such an amazing room, and we weren’t charged extra. The next day, my brother and I went to the beach 24____ we watched some people play volleyball. We got a little_____ (sunburn) , but the day had been so relaxing that we didn’t mind. 1.it 2. Earlier 7.surprisingly 3.were told 8. The 4.but 5.why 6.for

9.where

10,sunburnt

13 年 One day, Nick invited his friends to supper. He was cooking some delicious food in the kitchen. Suddenly, he 16 (find) that he had run out of salt. So Nick called to his son, “Go to the village and buy some salt, but pay a fair price for it: neither too much 17 too little.” His son looked surprised. “I can understand why I shouldn’t pay too much. Father, but if I can pay less, 18 not save a bit of money?” “ That would be a very 19 (reason) thing to do in a big city, but it could destroy a small village like ours,” Nick said. Nick’s guests, 20 had heard their conversation, asked why they should not buy salt more cheaply if they would. Nick replied, “ The only reason a man would sell salt 21 a lower price would be because he was desperate for money. And anyone who took advantage of that situation when showing a lack of respect 22 the sweat and struggle of the man who worked very hard to produce it. “But such a small thing couldn’t 23 (possible) destroy a village. “In the beginning, there was only 24 very small amount of unfairness in the world, but everyone added a little, always 25 (think) that it was only small and not very important, and look where we have ended up today.

16. found 21. at

17. nor 22. for

18. why 23. possibly

19.reasonable 24. a

20. who 25. thinking


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