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Modal verbsⅡ 情态动词

By Jerry

Tell the functions of the modal verbs.
You must go. (an internal need or obligation) You have to go . (an external need or obligation) You mustn’t go . (prohibition 禁止) You don’t have to go . (an absence of obligation or need). You can use my phone if you want . (permission)

Paris can be very hot in summer. (possibility)

The chicken must be cooked thoroughly.(Necessity You have to book in advance. (Necessity ) Visitors must remove all footwear before entering. (stating formal rules and regulations ) I will see you tomorrow. (willingness or prediction) That may/might be a better thing to do. ( Possibility) Calculators may not be used in the examination. (Permission)

May I be excused? (requests for permission) The children shouldn’t/oughtn’t to drop litter on the floor. (Obligation) He should/ought to cycle to work, the exercise would be good for him.
(Suggestion, saying what is the best or a good thing to do)

The letter should/ought to arrive by Friday.
(Probability, indicating that someone expects something to be true or to happen)

? POSSIBLE ? IMPOSSIBLE ? CERTAIN We go out. (CERTAIN) We’ll go out. We stay at home. (IMPOSSIBLE) We can’t stay at home. We go to the cinema. (POSSIBLE) We might go to the cinema. 1.I have a drink. (CERTAIN) 2.I have coffee. (IMPOSSIBLE) 3.I have tea. (POSSIBLE) 4.We work tonight. (POSSIBLE) 5.You work tonight. (IMPOSSIBLE) 6.I work tonight. (CERTAIN)

Modal Verb Drill

7.I go home. (necessity) 8.We look after the old. (duty/obligation) 9.We do the work right now. (suggestion) 10.We are late. (prohibition)

Reformulate(改写) the following sentences using modal verbs
It is necessary that you wear shoes.
You must/have to wear shoes. It is not necessary that you wear shoes. You don’t have to wear shoes. It is necessary that you do not wear shoes. You mustn’t wear shoes. It is possible that he went to the dentist. He may have gone to the dentist.

Match the Answers to the Questions and study the modal verbs.

Modal verbs+have+past participle
? May/might + have + past participle can be used to talk about a possible event in the past, e.g. 1.Do you think Amy might have arrived by now? sometimes be used to talk about a possible event occurring before a time in the future, e.g. 2.It might have been sold by the time we get there.

? Must + have + past participle is used to draw a conclusion(得出结论,推论) about something that happened in the past, e.g. 1.I heard that your dog died. It must have been very upsetting.

? Should/ought to + have + past participle is often used to talk about something that didn’t happen and the speaker feels sorry that it didn’t happen, e.g. 1.We should/ought to have stood in the other queue, it went down quicker. ? Should/Ought to + have + past participle can be used to talk about something that was expected to happen in the past, e.g. 1.He should/ought to have arrived earlier this morning. ? or that is expected to happen in the future, e.g. 1.The builders should/ought to have finished the work by the end of this month.

? shouldn’t/oughtn’t to + have + past participle is often used to talk about an event or action that happened but which the speaker regrets, e.g. 1.He shouldn’t /oughtn’t to have bought that car, it’s always breaking down.

Complete the sentences, telling your regrets which you don’t mind.
? I should have ? I shouldn’t have ? I really should have Then compare your sentences with your partner.

An instant roleplay (即兴角色表演)

You are the monitor candidate for your class. You have just lost the election. You are speaking to one of your assistant.

Jump to conclusions(结论)
? work in pairs and make as many sentences as possible as to what may have happened, using modal verb + have + past participle . e.g. When I arrived at school today, there were papers all over the floor in the classroom. Possible conclusions: There may have been a break-in. X (a student’s name) might have gone crazy and thrown the papers around. Some students may have played a joke. The headteacher must have been furious(狂怒的).

Possible situations:
1.You were stuck in traffic for two hours. 2.You heard loud dance music coming from the staff room(教研室). 3.No students came to class. 4.When you walked in, all the students started laughing. 5.Y (a student’s name) was fifteen minutes late.

Choose one situation and jump to your conclusions.

1. Do exercise USING STRUCTURES on page50. 2. Finish the last 28 questions on the exercise sheet about modal verbs handed out two weeks ago.



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