单元规则 本单元的话题是“地震基础知识(basic knowledge about earthquakes)”和“遇到灾难时如何 自救以及帮助别人(how to protect oneself and help others in disasters)”。具体涉及地震的成因、 预兆、地震造成的损失、
地震时的应急救生以及震后的救援等内容。语言知识和语言技能等 各项语言活动都是围绕这些话题展开的。 为了围绕话题开展听、 读、 说、 写活动， 本单元安排了八个部分： “热身(Warming Up)”“读 前 (Pre-reading)”“ 阅 读 (Reading)”“ 理 解 (Comprehending)”“ 语 言 学 习 (Learning about Language)”“语言运用(Using Language)”“小结(Summing Up)”和“学习建议(Learning Tip)”。 “热身(Warming Up)”部分通过两张图片引出话题“一旦大地震发生，将会造成怎样的危 害？”，为本单元的主题作了“热身活动”。 “读前(Pre-reading)”部分设置了两个开放性的问题，要求学生描述、讨论与地震有关的 话题。目的是增加学生的生活常识，提高他们的应变能力。这部分为接下来的阅读作了很好 的铺垫。学生可通过讨论，参阅有关地震的书籍，并运用一些生活常识来回答这两个问题。 “阅读(Reading)”部分是一篇新闻报道，详细介绍了 1976 年唐山大地震前的预兆、地震 造成的城市建筑和人畜损失以及震后人们勇敢面对现实并及时实施抢救和重建工作的情况。 文中关于地震的词汇较多， 教师可在课前布置学生查找新唐山的中英文资料和与地震相关的 词汇；文中还提及了很多孩子失去双亲成为孤儿，矿工在地震中的遭遇，救护人员和解放军 官兵不顾自身安危奋力抢险的事迹，灾难无情人有情，感人至深。教师可将这些作为素材， 设计多种任务，展开课堂教学活动。另外文中还出现了大量的定语从句，这对学生的语言阅 读能力提出了更高的要求。在阅读教学中教师还可指导学生通过各种渠道如报纸、杂志、图 书馆和网络等资源查找有关唐山的资料， 使学生进一步了解唐山大地震和如今的唐山， 形成 对比和强烈的震撼， 从而更好地了解学习唐山人民勇敢面对自然灾害， 积极进行灾后重建的 精神。最后，通过对文章的学习，了解新闻的特点，为后面的写作作准备。重点词汇和语法 的学习可结合文章进行，并配以适当的练习。 “理解（Comprehending）”部分包括五个练习：练习 1 要求连接句子的正确部分；练习 2 要求列出唐山地震中发生的事情和时间；练习 3 要求写出文章的段落大意，并概括文章大 意； 练习 4 要求学生用自己的话解释文章标题； 练习 5 要求学生就课文某一段落作采访活动。 主要目的是为了帮助学生更好地理解“阅读(Reading)”部分的文章， 尤其是练习 3 更突出了培 养学生整体把握文章的能力。 “语言学习(Learning about Language)”部分涉及本单元的重点词汇和主要语法项目。 词汇 部分设计了 4 个练习：练习 1 是从阅读材料中为下面的每一项释义找到正确的单词或短语； 练习 2 要求学生从阅读文章中找出尽量多的单词来分类描绘地震； 练习 3 是用课文中的一些 单词完成段落；练习 4 要求完成句子，考查 as if 的用法。这部分的目的是要求学生在整体 把握文章的基础上， 掌握重点词汇的词义及使用， 注重培养学生运用上下文猜测词义的能力。 语法项目是定语从句，设计了三个练习：练习 1 要求找出阅读文章中带定语从句的句子；练 习 2 要求用 that, which, who 和 whose 填空完成句子、翻译成汉语并作比较；练习 3 要求通 过游戏的形式造句并用定语从句扩展这些句子。 该部分主要通过阅读和句型练习帮助学生学 习由 that, which, who 和 whose 引导的定语从句，培养学生自主学习的能力。 “语言运用(Using Language)”部分分“读和说(Reading and speaking)”、“听力(Listening)” 和“读和写作(Reading and writing)”三个步骤：“读和说(Reading and speaking)”训练提供了一 封邀请函， 要求学生阅读后写一篇在地震纪念公园落成仪式上的演讲稿， 接着观察新唐山纪 念邮票然后以小组的形式讨论地震后城市重建的问题， 主要培养学生在实际生活中运用英语
的能力。在随后的“听力”(Listening)部分里，一位美国人以第一人称讲述了他在 1906 年旧金 山大地震中的可怕经历， 要求学生根据听力材料进行正误判断和回答问题， 旨在培养学生学 会获取听力材料中的细节要点的能力， 并通过听来模仿标准的语音和语调， 同时让学生了解 人们在自然灾害中的经历和感受。“读和写(Reading and writing)”部分要求学生先阅读一篇新 闻故事，然后为报纸写一篇新闻报道，描写家乡的一件不同寻常的事件，旨在培养学生按照 规范的步骤进行写作，如选择适当的标题、组织语言、清晰地表达等，学会拟定写作提纲。 “小结(Summing Up)”部分帮助学生整理、巩固本单元所学到的知识，其中包括学到的 关于地震的知识、有用的动词、名词、表达方式和新的语法项目。一个单元学完后，鼓励学 生进行一番归纳和总结是非常有用的，这样可以起到事半功倍的效果。 “学习建议(Learning Tip)”部分要求学生重视听的技能的训练，并就听英语方面给出了一 些建议，建议学生多听广播或多看电视里的英语节目。多听不仅能够提高听力水平，还能够 帮助学生改善语音、语调，从而提高说的能力。因此，听不仅是吸收信息的重要渠道，也是 学好英语的重要手段之一。 教师可鼓励学生常听英文广播或电视节目， 以扩大视野和增加英 语的词汇量。 知识目标： 本单元需要学习的重点单词为：shake well (n. ) rise crack smelly pond pipe burst canal steam dirt ruin injure destroy brick dam useless steel shock quake rescue electricity disaster army organize bury coal mine shelter freshpercent speech judge honor prepare Europe 本单元需要学习的重点词组为：right away at an end lie in ruins be trapped under sth. a (great)number of put up give out wake sb. up thousands of dig outprepare sb. for sth. think little of sb. /sth. 本单元需要学习的重点句型为： 1. But the one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, went to bed as usual that night. (the Attributive Clause) 2. It seemed that the world was at an end! (It seems/seemed that. . . ) 3. Bricks covered the ground like red autumn leaves. (Simile) 4. The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead. (those who. . . ) 5. Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed. (the Attributive Clause) 6. Never before in history has a city been so completely destroyed. (Inversion) 7. Man himself had to make ruins of some of the city’s best buildings so that they would not be a danger to those in the streets. (so that. . . ) 8. A list of buildings not destroyed was now only a few addresses. (the past participle used as attribute) 9. Amazing as it may seem, Wednesday night was a quiet night. (predicative/adverbial+as. . . ) 10. Never in all San Francisco’s history were her people so kind as on that terrible night. (Inversion) 本单元需要掌握的功能用语为：叙述过去的经历(Talking about past experiences) Strange things were happening in the countryside in Northeast Hebei. For three days the water. . . At about 3:00 am on July 28, 1976, people saw. . . At 3:42 am everything began to shake. 本单元需要掌握的语法为：定语从句（ I ） （由 that, which, who, whose 引导的定语从
句） A huge crack that was eight kilometers long and thirty meters wide cut across houses, roads and canals. The number of people who were killed or injured reached more than 400 000. It was heard in Beijing, which is one hundred kilometers away. Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed. 能力目标： 1. 能运用所学语言知识描述地震前兆、危害及震后援救。 2. 根据已知信息推测将要听取的材料的内容。 3. 提高阅读技能和用英语进行思维、推理、判断的能力。 4. 掌握演讲稿的格式及新闻报道的写作步骤和要点。 情感目标： 1. 使学生对灾难有正确的认识，用积极的态度去面对它。 2. 学习唐山人民勇敢面对自然灾害，积极进行灾后重建的精神。 3. 在教学活动中培养学生的合作精神和互助精神。 课时安排 Natural disasters occur throughout the world, and China has a particular problem with earthquakes. This unit keeps a positive tone or outlook. It can make students not only understand the dangers people face in a quake, but also realize that there are things that can be done to minimize the damage caused by quakes. It includes exercises and tasks that enable students to think about how to avoid quakes, or at least some of the damage they can cause. This unit also lets them role-play community work that deals with disaster relief. Thus, based on the theme, contents and teaching objectives, the whole teaching procedures can fall into seven periods as follows: Period 1:Warming up and Reading Period 2:Important language points Period 3:Grammar:the Attributive Clause (I) Period 4:Listening Period 5:Using language Period 6:Reading task and Speaking task Period 7:Revision (Summing up, Learning tip and Project)? Period 1 Warming up and Reading 整体设计
从容说课 This is the first teaching period of this unit. At the beginning of the class, the teacher can lead in the topic of the unit by showing students some pictures of natural disasters and talking about them. As to Warming Up, the teacher had better ask students to describe the two photos on Page 25. In a sense, the photos show two cities famous for their earthquakes during a period of calm. Students must imagine what an earthquake could do to the buildings, roads and bridges they see in the photos. When students try to express their ideas, they will probably have difficulty. This activity provides them with the chance to learn how to do this. It is also a good opportunity for the teacher to teach them the new words and phrases for the unit, such as cracks, cut across houses, roads and canals, fall down, lie in ruins and destroy.
Before reading the passage A Night the Earth Didn’t Sleep, the students should discuss the two questions in the part Pre-reading. For the first question, students must consider what is of most value to them materially. Perhaps the things students would take are expensive, or perhaps the things would have symbolic value. Would they take their camera or a photo album? Would they take their diary or a favorite sweater? The choices the students make and the reasons they give for making those choices should reveal something about them as people. The second question asks students to make guesses about what happens before an earthquake. Of course, the reading will describe to them what actually happened as the result of one terrible earthquake. So this question must precede the reading. Encourage students to think freely about the question and think of a reason why such and such might happen. This part prepares students for the reading passage. The reading passage titled A Night the Earth Didn’t Sleep recounts the terrible earthquake that nearly destroyed the city of Tangshan in Hebei Province in 1976. The earthquake caused a greater loss of life than any other in the last century. The teacher can ask the students first to read quickly to get the main idea or topic sentence of each paragraph, then read carefully to locate particular information for exercises in the part Comprehending or some other exercises, and finally have a discussion of style in order to understand the passage better. During the course of reading teaching, the teacher can not only develop students’ reading ability, including skimming, scanning and other reading skills, but also get the students to learn about basic knowledge about earthquakes and learn from the bravery of the people in Tangshan to face the reality and rebuild the city. Because there are too many new words in the reading passage, in order not to let students feel much difficult, the teacher should deal with any language problems while they are reading. To consolidate the contents of the reading passage, the students should be required to retell the passage in their own words at the end of the class. In order to arouse the students’ interest, the teacher can hold a competition between groups. 教学重点 1. Get the students to know basic knowledge about natural disasters. 2. Get the students to learn about Tangshan Earthquake. 3. Get the students to learn different reading skills. 教学难点 Develop the students’ reading ability. 教学方法 1. Task-based teaching and learning 2. Cooperative learning 3. Discussion 教具准备 The multimedia and other normal teaching tools 三维目标 Knowledge aims: 1. Get the students to learn the following useful new words and expressions in this passage:shake well (n. ) rise crack smelly pond pipe burst canal steam dirtruin injure destroy brick dam useless steel shock quake rescue electricitydisaster army organize bury coal mine shelter fresh right away at an end lie in ruins be trapped under sth. a (great)number of 2. Get the students to know basic knowledge about natural disasters.
Ability aims: 1. Develop the students reading ability and let them learn different reading skills. 2. Train the students’ ability to collect useful information from the Internet by themselves. Emotional aim: 1. Get the students know damages earthquakes bring about and the ways to reduce losses of earthquakes. 2. Get the students to know how to protect oneself and help others in earthquakes. 3. Get the students to be aware of terrible disasters, meanwhile get them to face it, treat it in a proper way, and never get discouraged. 教学过程 设计方案（一） →Step 1 Lead-in Show the students some pictures about natural disasters and ask them: 1. Have you ever experienced any natural disaster? Look at the pictures. Can you name all the disasters?
(volcano, fire, typhoon, flood, sandstorm, hailstone, thunderstorm, hurricane, earthquake) 2. Have you ever experienced an earthquake? Can you describe how terrible an earthquake is?
地震的破坏 (The earth is shaking; all the buildings will fall down; the roads will be destroyed; many people will be killed or injured; a lot of children will become orphans. . . ) →Step 2 Warming up Turn to Page 25. Ask the students to read and look at the photos of Tangshan and San
Francisco to describe what they see in the two photos to a partner. (beautiful cities; broad roads; tall building; large population. . . ) Imagine there has been a big earthquake in these two cities, what might happen to all the things in the photos? (If a big earthquake happened, the whole cities might be in ruins. Large quantities of tall buildings might collapse. The broad and busy roads might be destroyed. Many people might be killed or injured. . . ) →Step 3 Pre-reading 1. Imaging and sharing Imagine there is an earthquake now. Your home begins to shake and you must leave it right away. You have time to take only one thing. What will you take? Is it money, water, fruits, mobile phones, a torch light, or anything else? Why? 2. Talking and sharing What do you think may happen before an earthquake? Talk about the pictures on Page 25. (Cows, pigs and dogs become too nervous to eat. Mice run out of the fields looking for places to hide. Fish jump out of ponds. The water in the well will rise and fall. The well walls will have deep cracks in them. There will be bright light in the sky. . . ) →Step 4 Reading Tell the students:Today, we are going to read a news report about the strongest earthquake in China’s history, which happened in Tangshan, Hebei, in 1976. 1. Fast reading Ask the students to read the passage quickly and pay attention to the first sentence of each paragraph. 1)Answer the questions. Question 1:In what order was the passage written? Question 2:What is the general idea of the passage? (The text is written in time order. The general idea is the mixture of the first sentences of each paragraph, that is, the text tells us something that happened before the earthquake, during the earthquake and after the earthquake. ) 2)Fill in the table.
Type of writing Topic sentence of Paragraph 1 Topic sentence of Paragraph 2 Topic sentence of Paragraph 3 Topic sentence of Paragraph 4 General idea of the passage
Type of writing Topic sentence of Paragraph 1 Topic sentence of Paragraph 2 Topic sentence of Paragraph 3 Topic sentence of Paragraph 4 This is a news report. Strange things were happening in the countryside in northeast Hebei. Everything began to shake and it seemed that the world was at an end. Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed. All hope was not lost.
General idea of the passage
The passage tells us something that happened before the earthquake, during the earthquake and after the earthquake.
3)True or False? Ask the students to decide whether the following statements are true or false. If it is false, try to correct it. (1)People in Tangshan were warned of the earthquake and didn’t go to bed that night. (2)People in Beijing also felt the earthquake. (3)More than 400 000 people were killed in the quake. (4)Many rescue workers and doctors were trapped under the ruins during the aftershock. (5)People tried to get fresh water from under the ground in Tangshan. Suggested answers: (1)F People in Tangshan thought little of the signs of the earthquake and went to bed as usual that night. (2)T (3)F More than 400 000 people were killed or injured in the quake. (4)T (5)F Fresh water was taken to the city Tangshan by train, truck and plane. 2. Reading carefully Ask the students to read the passage carefully to locate particular information. 1)Do the exercises in the part Comprehending on Page 27. 2)Fill in the following form.
Time Before the earthquake:? three days before the earthquake? at about 3 am on July 28 While the earthquake:? At 3:42 am? Later that afternoon What happened Wells:? Animals:? Lights and sound:? Water pipes: Houses, roads and canals:? Hard hills of rock:? The large city:? The people:? Some rescue workers and doctors:? More buildings:? Water, food and electricity: All hope:? The army:? Workers:? Fresh water: Result People of the city thought______________ and______________ ______________ was destroyed.______________ hospitals, 75% of______________ and 90% of______________ were gone. More than______________ were killed or injured.
After the earthquake
3)Choose the best answer: (1)What is the mood of this passage? A. Sad. B. Serious. C. Serious and a bit sad. D. Calm. (2)What can be inferred from the passage? A. If mice run out of the fields looking for places to hide, there must be an earthquake. B. If some natural signs had not been ignored, all the people in Tangshan city might have had a chance to survive. C. There wouldn’t have been such a great earthquake, if people had paid enough attention to some natural signs. D. If some natural signs had not been ignored, more people might have had a chance to survive.
(3)Which of the following statements can not be part of the main reasons for the heavy loss of life in Tangshan earthquake? A. The earthquake happened in the deep night and people were sleeping in bed at the very movement. B. There weren’t enough rescue workers. C. The buildings were poorly constructed and most of them were destroyed in the earthquake. D. People were not careful enough to notice some natural signs before the earthquake. (4)How do you understand the real meaning of the idiom “It is always calm before a storm”? A. It is unusually quiet before a thunderstorm or hurricane hit. B. One should not trust situations that seem peaceful since bad things may happen. C. The weather is fine before a storm comes. D. You should stay calm before a storm. Suggested answers: (1)C (2)D (3)B (4)B 3. Language problems While checking the answers with the whole class, deal with any language problems that the students can’t understand. 4. Reading aloud Play the tape of the passage for the students to listen and follow. Then play the tape of Paragraph 1 of the passage once more; this time the students listen and repeat. →Step 4 Game Work in pairs. Suppose you are a newspaper reporter, and the other is a witness of the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake. Now the newspaper reporter is interviewing the witness. →Step 5 Extension Show the questions on the screen and have a discussion. 1. From whose point of view are events described? How do you know? 2. What is the mood of this passage? How is it created? 3. Why do you think the writer chooses to express his feelings about the quake rather than simply report what had happened? 4. Why does the writer use A NIGHT THE EARTH DIDN’T SLEEP as the title? 5. What does the sentence “Slowly, the city began to breathe again” mean? Suggested answers: 1. A writer’s who didn’t see the earthquake. He uses the third-person to describe the quake. His description is very objective. For example, in the second sentence of the third paragraph “Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed. ”, the writer uses “they” instead of “we”. 2. The mood is serious and a bit sad. It is created by giving details of how many people and animals were killed or injured and how many buildings were destroyed. 3. Although the writer was not there, he felt sad for the people of Tangshan. He knows that giving some personal feelings will make the reading more interesting. 4. I think the reason is that, as usual, night is the time to sleep, and night should be safe and quiet. But that night everything changed. The writer uses A NIGHT THE EARTH DIDN’T SLEEP as a title to show how terrible and how unusual that night was. 5. Here we can see that the writer compared the city to a person who suffered a lot in the
disaster. He felt her pain, and he worried about her. So when he said that people came to help her, we can feel his feelings to her. The city will not die, she has hope and she can recover from the pain. →Step 6 Consolidation Ask the students to read the passage again and try to retell it. One possible version: Strange things happened in Tangshan. For three days the water in the village wells rose and fell. The well walls had deep cracks and a smelly gas came out the cracks. The chickens, pigs and mice were too nervous. Fish jumped out of bowls and ponds. At 3:00 am on July, 1976, people saw bright lights in the sky and heard the sound of planes even when no planes were in the sky. The water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst. At 3:42 am everything began to shake. It seemed that the world was at the end! One-third of the nation felt it. A huge crack cut across the city. In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins. Two-thirds of the people died or were injured. Nearly everything was destroyed in the city. 75% of its factories and 90% of its homes were gone. Then later that afternoon, another big earthquake shook Tangshan. People began to wonder how long the disaster would last. All hope was not lost. The army sent 150 000 soldiers to help them. Workers built shelters for survivors. Slowly, the city began to breathe again. →Step 7 Homework 1. Learn the new words and expressions in this part by heart. 2. Read the text again and again and write a summary of the text. 设计方案（二） →Step 1 Lead-in Show the students some pictures about natural disasters and ask them: 1. Have you ever experienced any natural disasters? Look at the pictures. Can you name all the disasters? 2. Have you ever experienced an earthquake? Can you describe how terrible an earthquake is? →Step 2 Warming up Discuss the photos of Tangshan and San Francisco on Page 25 and imagine if there has been a big earthquake in these two cities, what might happen to all the things in the photos. →Step 3 Pre-reading 1. Imaging and sharing Imagine your home begins to shake and you must leave it right away. You have time to take only one thing. What will you take? Why? 2. Talking and sharing What do you think may happen before an earthquake? Talk about the pictures on Page 25. →Step 4 Reading 1. Fast reading Ask the students to read the passage quickly. 1)Answer some questions. 2)Find out the topic sentences of each paragraph and get the general idea of the passage. 3)Do some true or false exercises. 2. Careful reading
Ask the students to read the passage carefully to locate particular information. 1)Do the exercises in the part Comprehending on Page 27. 2)Do some multiple choices. 3. Language problems While checking the answers with the whole class, deal with any language problems that the students can’t understand. 4. Reading aloud Play the tape of the passage for the students to listen to and follow. Then play the tape of Paragraph 1 of the passage once more; this time the students listen and repeat. →Step 5 Game Work in pairs. Suppose you are a newspaper reporter, and the other is a witness of the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake. Now the newspaper reporter is interviewing the witness. →Step 6 Extension Show some questions on the screen and have a discussion about writing style. →Step 7 Consolidation Ask the students to read the passage again and try to retell it. →Step 8 Homework 1. Learn the new words and expressions in this part by heart. 2. Read the text again and again and write a summary of the text. 板书设计? Unit 4 Earthquakes A NIGHT THE EARTH DIDN’T SLEEP?
Type of writing Topic sentence of Paragraph 1 Topic sentence of Paragraph 2 Topic sentence of Paragraph 3 Topic sentence of Paragraph 4 General idea of the passage This is a news report. Strange things were happening in the countryside in northeast Hebei. Everything began to shake and it seemed that the world was at an end. Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed. All hope was not lost. The passage tells us something that happened before the earthquake, during the earthquake and after the earthquake.
活动与探究? Story-telling competition 1. Divide the class into groups of four. Each student should look for some unusual things that happened in the Tangshan earthquake. They can go to the library or surf in the Internet to search for useful information. 2. Work in groups and tell the students’ own story to other members of the same group. Then each group should choose the most unusual story in the group. 3. Choose one representative of each group who will tell the most unusual story to the whole class. 4. The teacher acts as the judge and choose the best story and the best story-taller. 5. The teacher gives the group that has the best story and the best storyteller a prize.