1．定语从句：在一个主从复合句中修饰某一个名词、代词或修饰整个主句的从句叫定语从 句。换句话说，定语从句就是用来作定语的句子。 2．先行词：被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。先行词前一般用 the ，但在指“一个” 概念时可用 a , an 。 3．关系代词 / 关系副词：连接先行词和定语从句的词叫关
系词，根据其在从句中作用分为 关系代词或关系副词。若先行词在从句中作主语、宾语和定语等，应用关系代词引导定语从 句；若先行词在从句中作时间状语、地点状语和原因状语等，应用关系副词引导定语从句。 4．定语从句的位置：一般紧跟在先行词后面。但有时因句子结构的需要，定语从句和先行 词被某些成分隔开。 5．引导定语从句的关系词分为二类： 关系代词：that, which ,who, whom ,whose , as 关系副词：when, where, why
1．关系代词的基本用法（见下表） ： 关系代词 从句中作用 who 指人 例句
作主语 1．This is the girl who / that teaches us English. 宾语（可省略） ( who / that 指人，修饰先行词 the girl，在从句 中作主语) 2 ． He is the boy whom / who / that I met 作宾语（可省略） yesterday. ( whom / who / that 指人，修饰先 行词 the boy 在从句中作宾语，whom / who / that 可省略。) 3．This is the girl whose father is an engineer. （whose 作定语，用来修饰人） 4．I live in a room whose windows face the south. （whose 作定语，用来修饰物， whose windows = the windows of which 或 of which the windows） 6．This is the book which / that I lost yesterday. (which/ that 指物，作宾语，可省略) 7． The clock is an instrument which / that can tell time. （which / that 指物，作主语） 8．Do you know the woman that / who lives next door? (that / who 指人，作主语) 9．This is the same pen as I bought yesterday. (as 指物，在从句中作宾语) 10．As we all know, Taiwan is part of China. (as 指代整个主句的内容)
作主语 宾语（可省略） 作主语 宾语（可省略）
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a. 在以下几种情况下只使用 that 不用 which。
1.先行词是不定代词时，如: all, anything, everything, nothing, something, little, few, much。 1.I told him all (that) I know. 2.He gave her everything (that) he had. 2.先行词被 all, every, any, the very, the only, the just 等修饰时。 1.I have read all the books (that) you gave me. 2.You can take any book (that) you like. 3.先行词被序数词和形容词的最高级修饰时。 1. This is the best book (that) I have ever read. 2. The second place (that) I want to visit is Shanghai. 4.先行词既有人又有物时。 1.We talked about the persons and things (that) we remember in the school. 2.The people and the animals that were killed in the earthquake have all been found. 5.在 Who, Which 引起的疑问句中。 1. Who is the boy that helped you? 2. Which is the book (that) you bought yesterday? 6. 若有两个定语从句，一个用 which 引导，另一个须用 that 引导。 He bought a book which could give him knowledge and that could help to kill the time. 7. 当先行词在定语从句中作表语时。 Mary is no longer the girl (that) she used to be.
b.在以下几种情况下只使用 which 不用 that。
1. 引导非限制性定语从句时。 I have lost my pen, which I like very much. (which 作宾语，指代主句中的 pen) New concept English is intended for foreign students, which is known to all of us. (which 作主语，指代整个主句) 2. 若有两个定语从句，其中一个关系代词是 which，另一个须用 that。 The book (that) he bought yesterday was the one (which) he liked best. 3. 先行词在句中作介词宾语且介词前置时。 This is the house in which Lu Xun once lived.
c.当先行词为指人的关系代词时,引导词只用 who 不用 that。
1. 先行词为 all, anyone, one / ones, those, people 时，须用 who。 1. Anyone who knows how to do it can do it now. 2. Those who want to see the film please put up your hands. 3. He, who does not reach the Great Wall, is not a true man. 2. 在非限制性定语从句中，须用 who。 Tom’s father, who is over sixty, still works hard. 3. 在被分隔的定语从句中，须用 who。 A new teacher will come tomorrow who will teach you German. 4. 在以 there be 开头的句子中，多用 who。 There is a stranger who wants to see our headmaster. 5. 若有两个定语从句，其中一个关系代词是 that，另一个须用 who。 The student who was praised at the meeting is the monitor that studies very hard.
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d. as 和 which 的使用场合。 as
引导的非限制性定语从句 在句中含义 常用的搭配 “～ + be + 过去分词” 结构 可放在句首或句中 修饰“积极的”方面 意为“正如” 、 “就像” 常和 such， so， the same 等连 用 “be”可以省略 as is said above, as already mentioned above as is often the case as it is as is known to all
不能放在句首 修饰“消极的”方面 无此意 无此用法 “be”不能省略
都能引导非限制性定语从句，指代整个句子的内容 如： As we all know, he studies very hard. 比较：He studies very hard, as / which we all know. I’ve never seen such a clever man as he is. He has to work on Sundays, which he doesn’t like. He was late, which made the teacher angry. The bridge is really wonderful, as (is) shown in the picture. The experiment is very important, as indeed it is.
e. the same?as ?和 the same? that?的不同。
This is the same book as I lent you yesterday. 这本书和我昨天借给你的相似。 （相似物） This is the same book that I lent you yesterday. 这正是我昨天借给你的那本书。 （同一物）
【小试牛刀】 I．用关系代词 who, whom, that, which, whose, as 填空。
1. The earthquake ________shook the city in 1906 was the biggest in American history. 2. We don’t know the number of people __________lost their homes in the earthquake. 3. The house ___________they built in 1937 is still in very good condition. 4. The house __________is built on sand may fall down in an earthquake. 5. The boy ___________ father is a teacher is very clever. 6. A clock is a machine ____________tells people the time. 7. Our village is no longer the one __________ it used to be. 8.The house __________ he is looking for is very expensive. 9. Do you know the man __________ houses are all broken? 10. ________ is known to all, the moon travels round the earth once very month.
【答案】1. that/ which 6. that / which 2. who/ that 7. that / 不填 3. that/ which / 不填 8. that / which / 不填 4. that/ which 9. whose 5. whose 10. As
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1. The girl is not here. 2. The school is a big one. 3. The girl works very hard. 4. My uncle bought the bike last week. 5．The pen is very old. She is going to sing a song. The school stands near the river. Her father is a doctor. The bike has been stolen. I lent it to you this morning.
1．刚才作演讲的那个教授已经走了。 ____________________________________________________________ 2．你认识那个母亲是老师的女孩吗? ______________________________________________________________ 3．鸟是一种能飞的动物。 ______________________________________________________________ 4．我上周买的那支钢笔很便宜。 ______________________________________________________________ 5．门朝北开的那间房子已经被卖了。 ______________________________________________________________
【答案】 1. The professor that / who made the speech just now has left. 2. Do you know the girl whose mother is a teacher? 3. A bird is an animal which / that can fly. 4. The pen (that / which) I bought last week is very cheap. 5. The room whose door faces north has been sold.
关系副词 when where why 从句中作用 作时间状语 作地点状语 作原因状语 例句 I remember the days when I stayed there. This is the room where I lost my pen. This is the reason why he was late.
思考：同样是表示地点的先行词，为何有时候用关系代词 that, which，有时候用关系副词
where？同样是表示时间的先行词，为何有时候用关系代词 that, which，有时候用关系副词 when？请对比以下几组句子： I have found the factory that / which he visited last week.
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I have found the factory where he stayed last week. The days that / which I spent there are unforgettable. The days when I stayed there are unforgettable. The reason that / which he told me for his being late is that he got up late. The reason why he was late is that he got up late.
示原因的名词, 我们仍然使用关系代词 that, which。这主要根据从句中的谓语动词是及物的 还是不及物的。
1． 当用作关系副词， 若修饰表示的名词 time， day， moment， way 时， 用 that 代替 when / why 等。 如：It happened on the day that/ when I was born. I don’t like the way (that / in which) you speak to your mother.
4．由介词+which / whom 引导的定语从句
介词一般由定语从句的动词而定。 He is the boy whom / who / that we are talking about = He is the boy about whom we are talking. The pen which /that I wrote the article with is gone. = The pen with which I wrote the article. 几种特殊的情况： a. 由 when, where, why 引导的定语从句常常可以替换成“介词 + which / whom 的形式” ： when = in / on / at which, where = in / on / at +which, why = for which b. whose+ n.= the+ n. + of whom / which = of whom / which + the + n. 如： whose father = the father of whom = of whom the father whose window = the window of which =of which the window c. 由介词短语+whom/which 引起的定语从句 This is our classroom, in front of which there is a garden. The building at the back of which is a lake is our chemistry lab building. He lives on a mountain on top of which there is a temple. d. 数词/代词+介词+which/ whom 引起的定语从句 I have some books, one of which is in English. She has many friends, all of whom are in the same class. (比较：She has many friends. All of them are in the same class.) 但有些短语动词中的介词不能提前，因为其短语拆开后完全改变了原来的意思。 This is the book that / which I’m looking for There are many patients that the nurses look after.
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What 在它所引导的主语从句、宾语从句或表语从句中作主语、宾语或表语外，还可作 定语。如： Don’t worry. I will give you what help I can. 别担心，我会近我所能帮你。 = any help that 或 as much help as What 在从句中作定语时，还可于 few，little 连用修饰名词，表示“尽管不多，但已经 全部” 。如： I will lend you what few books I can spare. 我愿把为数不多的书全部借给你。 = all the few books that We contributed what little money we had towards the flood-stricken area. = all the little money that
【小试牛刀】 IV．用关系副词 when, where, why 填空
1. Do you still remember the place _______ you were born? 2. I don’t remember the date _______ my father were born. 3. Yesterday we went to visit the house ________ the great writer used to live. 4. Do you know the reason ________ he killed himself? 5. He was born in the year __________ the Second World War broke out. 6. He always wants to go to his hometown and visited the place _________ he grew up. 7. Kunming is a beautiful city ________ flowers are seen all the year round. 8. The children today are lucky as they are living in a time ________ our country is open to the outside world. 9. Please tell me the reason ________ he is angry. 10. This kind of programme will be well received in the countries _________ many Chinese are living.
【答案】1. where 8. when 2. when 9. why 3. where 4. why 5. when 6. where 7. where 10. where
1．我已经找到了我朋友居住的那间房子了。 2．你记得你妈妈出生的日期吗？ 3．请告诉我你买到那块手表的地方。 4．我不喜欢他的原因是他太笨了。 5．上海是个大城市，在那里你可以见到许多外国人。
【答案】1. I have found the room where my friends once lived. 2. Do you still remember the date when your mother was born? 3. Please tell me the place where you bought the watch. 4. The reason why I don’t like him is that he is too stupid. 5. Shanghai is a big city, where you can see many foreigners.
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1. The first lesson ___________ the old professor taught was not easily forgotten. 2. Mr. White told his wife the persons and things __________ he saw in China. 3. Who is the girl ___________ shook hands with our headmaster? 4. The report __________ they are listening to is very important. 5. Do you know the reason __________ he didn’t come to school last week? 6. Did you understand the last report __________ was made by the foreigner? 7. Would you please lend me the same book ___________ he has borrowed? 8. Please tell us the days __________ we are going to have our exams. 9. The factory __________ makes bikes was built in 1930. 10. He told me everything __________ he had seen in the accident. 11. The camp was full of people __________ homes had been destroyed. 12. Tom is the student with ____________ I want to have a talk. 13. Do you remember the village __________ we worked last summer? 14. Do you remember the village __________ we visited last summer? 15. Do you remember the days _________ we spent together last summer?
【答案】 1. (that) 7. as 13. where 2. (that) 3. that 4. (that / which) 10. (that) 15. (that / which) 5. why 11. whose 6. which / that 12. whom 8. when 9. which / that
14. (that / which)
【强化练习】 I. 不定项选择
1. The old lady _____is his grandmother. A. you talked B. that you talked about C. you talked to her 2. A man ______Jack went to Qingdao for a holiday yesterday. A. who’s name is B. who his name is C. whose name is 3. He lives in a room ______door is broken. A. whose B. which C. its 4. We visited the factory _____makes toys for children. A. where B. which C. in which 5. The film _____last night was wonderful. A. which we saw B. that we saw C. which was shown 6. I’ll never forget the place _____I visited ten years ago. A. where B. that C. in which 7. Sep. 18, 1995 is a day _____we’ll never forget. A. when B. in which C. that 8. The girl ____ you met just now is very interesting. A. which B. that C. whom 9. The factory ____you visited yesterday was built in 1930. A. who B. which C. that 10. There is a mountain ____top is always covered with snow. A. of which B. whose C. it’s
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D. you talked to D. his name is D. that D. that D. that was shown
D. what D. for which D. who D. whom D. its
11. The car ran over a boy and a dog _____were just crossing the street. A. who B. whom C. that D. which 12. The lessons _____were not easily forgotten. A. which he taught B. which were taught C. that were taught D. that he taught 13. The student _____is a three-good student. A. whose parents died B. who you met C. whom you met D. who we were talking about 14. I want to go and thank the woman ______helped me. A. who B. that C. which D. whose son 15. The man ____was a friend of mine. A. that you just talked to B. whom you just talked to him C. who you just talked to him D. which you just talked to him
【答案】1. BD 11. C 2. C 3. A 4. BD 13. ABCD 5. ABCD 14. ABD 6. B 15. A 7. C 8. BCD 9. BC 10. B 12. ABCD
1. This is Mr. White, ________ I think has something interesting to tell you. (海淀 4 月卷) A. which B. whom C. that D. who 2. Sales of CDs have greatly increased since the early 1990s, ________ people began to enjoy the advantages of this technology. ( 东城 5 月卷) A. and B. when C. which D. because 3. I’d like to live somewhere _________ the sun shines all year long. (西城 5 月卷) A. which B. that C. where D. in which 4. In Wasdale there is a mysterious dark lake, _________ depth has never been measured. A. that B. where C. which D. whose (海淀 5 月卷) 5. Is it the years __________ you worked in the factory _________ have a great effect on your literary works? (湖北八校一模卷) A. that; where B. that; that C. when; where D. when; that 6. He won’t want to eat it unless he’s really hungry, in _______ case he’ll eat almost anything. A. what B. that C. whose D. which (苏锡常镇一模卷) 7. Government reports, legal papers and most business letters are the main situations _______ English is used. ( 黄冈卷) A. when B. that C. how D. where 8. Europe has achieved more in controlling the AIDS virus than Asia in the past ten years, _______ the number of people infected with the virus is going up sharply. (南京二模卷) A. when B. that C. so that D. where 9. The soldiers soon reached _______ was once an old temple _____ the villages used as a school. (汕头卷) A. which; where B. what; which C. where; which D. what; where 10. This is an unpleasant subject _________ we might argue for a long while. (广州二模卷) A. in which B. with them C. about which D. with it 11. After all, with the help of my computer brain _________ never forgets anything, IQ is _________ I’m all about. ( 湖北宜昌三模卷)
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A. that; what B. what; what C. what; that D. that; where 12. It was the third night ________ we were staying in our seaside but ________ the tsunami (海 啸) struck the whole village. ( 苏锡常镇二模卷) A. when; when B. when; what C. what; that D. that; that 13. I usually enjoy these dinners, unless I have to make speech, in _________ case I worry through the meal. ( 烟台三模卷) A. that B. this C. which D. any 14. The small mountain village ___________ we spent our holiday last month lies in _______ is now part of Hubei. ( 湖北八校二模卷) A. which; where B. where; what C. that; which D. when; which 15. The president stood by a window inside the room, __________, looking over the square. A. where I entered B. into which I entered C. which I entered D. that I entered (成都三模卷) 16. Barbara went to the States a couple of years ago, by _________ time she had learned to dance and act in comedies. (福建卷) A. which B. that C. what D. whose 17. The girl ______ everybody had thought would win a gold medal failed at last. (东北四市卷) A. who B. whom C. what D. / 18. Society is a building, to the construction of _____ everyone brings a brick. (黄冈 4 月卷) A. what B. that C. which D. where 19. The newcomer is from Tibet, _____ I can tell from his appearance. (南通二模卷) A. which B. what C. where D. who 20. Mr. Green will come to the party on Sunday, _________ he promised to every one of us. A. when B. that C. where D. which (山西卷)
【答案】 1．D 2．B 3．C 4．D 5．D 6．D 7．D 8．D 9．B 10． C who 引导定语从句， 对 Mr. White 进行补充说明。 when 引导定语从句，对先行词 the early 1990s 进行补充解释说明。 此题中 where 引导定语从句且在从句中作状语。 whose 引导定语从句，对先行词 lake 进行解释说明。 后一空 that 与前面的 It was 构成强调句型，前一空 when 引导定语从句修饰 years。 此题考查“介词+关系代词”引导非限制性定语从句的用法。 先行词 situations 在定语从句中充当地点状语，因此引导词应用 where。 where 引导非限制性定语从句，对 Asia 进行补充说明。 前一空 what 引导的是宾语从句，作 reach 的宾语；后一空中 which 引导的是定语从句， 并在从句中作 temple 的宾语。 argue about 意为 “为??而争论” 。 argue with 意为 “与??争论” ， 由先行词 an unpleasant subject 可知，此处意为“为某事争论” 。 about which 引导定语从句。 11．A 前一空中 that 引导定语从句修饰先行词 brain。后一空中 what 引导表语从句，同时又作 从句中 about 的宾语。 12．A 前一空的 when 引导定语从句修饰先行词 the third night，后一空中的 when 引导的从句是 句子的真正主语。 13．C 14．B 介词 in + 关系代词 which 引导非限制性定语从句。 该句是一个复合句，首先把句子的主干找出： The small mountain lies in， 第一空所缺
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少的是定语从句的引导词，分析从句结构可知，从句中缺状语，所以填 where，第二空应 是谓语 lies in 的宾语。what 相当于 the place that。 15．C which 引导非限制性定语从句，同时在从句中 entered 的宾语。 16．A 此题考查定语从句，介词 by + 关系代词引导非限制性定语从句。 17．A 此句只要分析句子结构即可。此句的主句结构为 The girl failed at last.其中 who 引导定语 从句修饰先行词 the girl， 并且从句中 everybody had thought 作插入语。 18．C 20．D 关系代词 which 指代 a building 并引导一个非限制性定语从句。 which 引导非限制性定语从句，同时又在从句中充当 promise 的宾语。 19．A which 引导非限制性定语从句。
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