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“情态动词+have done”的用 法

一、 “must have done” 一定做过某事
? 表示对过去事情的肯定推测,该结构只用 于肯定句。 ? 1. It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 昨晚一定下雨了,因为地面 还是湿的。
2. You must hav

e been mad to speak to the servant. 你和仆人说话,一定是发疯了。

二、 “can‘t have done” “couldn’t have done” 不可能做过某事
? 表示对过去事情的否定推测,“couldn’t have done”较少使用。 ? 1. Mr. Smith can‘t have gone to Beijing, for I saw him in the library just now. 史密斯先生不 可能去北京了,我刚才还在图书馆见过他。 ? 2. Mary can't have stolen your money. She has gone home. 玛丽不可能偷你的钱,她回家 去了。

三、 “could have done”

? 有两种用法,一种表示猜测,“过去可能 做过某事”;另一种是虚拟语气,表示对 过去事情的假设,意思是本来能够做某事 而没有做。 ? What could have happened? 难道是发生 了什么事吗? ? He could have passed the exam, but he was too careless. 本来他能够通过考试, 但是他太粗心。

四、 “can have done” 较少使用到此结构
? 表示对过去行为的怀疑,用于疑问句,译成“可 能做过……吗?”。 ? 1. There is no light in the room. Can they have gone out? 屋里没有灯,他们可能出去了吗? ? 2. There is nowhere to find them. Where can they have gone? 到处找不到他们,他们可能到 什么地方去呢?

五、 “may have done”
? 表示对发生过的事情的推测,意思是“可 能已经”或“也许已经”,用于肯定句中。 ? ? ? ? —What has happened to George? —I don't know. He may have got lost. —乔治发生了什么事? ——我不知道,他可能迷路了。

六、 “might have done”
? 表示对过去事情的推测,might与may意思相同, 但可能性更小。多用于虚拟语气结构中。 ? ? 1. He might have given you more help, even though he was busy. (MET90) 他或许会多给你一 些帮助,即使他很忙。 ? 2. She might have achieved greater progress, if you had given her more chances. 如果你多给她 点机会,她可能已经取得更大的成绩。

七、 “would have done”
? 虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思 是“本来会做”。 ? 1. I would have told you all about the boy's story, but you didn't ask me. 我本来会告诉 你这个小男孩的故事,但是你没有问我。 ? 2. Without your help, I wouldn't have achieved so much. 没有你的帮助,我是不 会取得如此大的成绩。

八、 “should have done” 本来应该做某事,而实际没做
? 否定式为“shouldn‘t have done”表示本来不 应该做某事,而实际做了。含有指责对方或自责 的含意。 ? ? 1. Tom, you are too lazy. The work should have been finished yesterday. 汤姆,你太懒惰了,这 项工作本来应该昨天就做完的。 ? 2. Look, Tom is crying. I shouldn't have been so harsh on him. 看,汤姆哭了,我本来不应该对他 如此严厉。

九、 “ought to have done”
? 表示过去应该做而实际并没有做,译成 “理应做……”,往往表示遗憾。与 “should+have+done”用法基本一样。
I ought to have gone home last Sunday. 我理应上星期日回家。 ? You ought not to have given him more help. 你不应该帮助他那么多。

十、 “need have done” 本来需要做某事而没有做
? 否定式为 “needn‘t have done” 表示“本来 不需要做某事而做了”。
? I needn‘t have bought so much wine—only five people came. 我本来没有必要买这么多酒,只来 了五个人。

? He need have hurried to the station. In that case, be wouldn't have missed the train. 他本来需要快 点去车站,那样的话,他就不会误了火车。

? 1.---You didn’t wait for Mr. Smith last night, did you? ---Actually,we ______. He didn’t return home at all. A. couldn’t have waited B. needn’t have waited C. didn’t need to wait D. should wait ? 2.Harry ______ have won the Physics competition easily yesterday, but he gave up. A. could B. might C. should D. must

? 3.---May I speak to your manager Mr. Smith at six o’clock tonight ?” ---“I’m sorry, Mr. Smith to a conference before then.” A. will have gone B. had gone C. would have gone D. has gone
? 4.---Tom took away our teacher’s cell phone without being permitted. --- Really? I can’t imagine that he _______ have done such a thing. A. must B. may C. can D. should

? 5.--- Was it you that made the suggestion? --- It have been. I can’t remember. A. need B. must C. should D. may ? 6.The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I_________ the trouble to carry my umbrella with me . A. should have taken B. could have taken C. needn't have taken D. mustn't have taken

? 7.He paid for a seat, when he ______ have entered free. A. could B. would C. must D. need ? 8.I didn’t see her in the meeting room this morning. She at the meeting . A. mustn’t have spoken B. mightn’t have spoken C. can’t have spoken D. shouldn’t have spoken

? 9.--- Hi, is that Peter Brown? ---Sorry. You ______ the wrong number . A. must call B. must have called C. should call D. should have called ? 10.I was on the highway when this car went past followed by a police car . They ______ at least 150 kilometers an hour . A. should have been doing B. must have been doing C. could have done D. would have done

? 11. He is not poor. You ____ have lent him the money. A. can’t B. needn’t C. couldn’t D. mustn’t ? 12. There was plenty of time. You ___ have hurried. A. won’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. couldn’t ? 13. They ____ have finished the work yesterday, but it was raining hard.

? 14. I ____ here in time, but I met an old friend of mine. I stopped and talked with him for some time. A. shouldn’t have come B. must have come C. needn’t have come D. could have come

? 15. I didn’t hear the phone. I ____ asleep. A. must be B. must have been C. should be D. should have been



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