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情态动词+have


“情态动词+have done”的用 法

一、 “must have done” 一定做过某事
? 表示对过去事情的肯定推测,该结构只用 于肯定句。 ? 1. It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 昨晚一定下雨了,因为地面 还是湿的。
2. You must have been mad to speak to the servant. 你和仆人说话,一定是发疯了。

二、 “can‘t have done” “couldn’t have done” 不可能做过某事
? 表示对过去事情的否定推测,“couldn’t have done”较少使用。 ? 1. Mr. Smith can‘t have gone to Beijing, for I saw him in the library just now. 史密斯先生不 可能去北京了,我刚才还在图书馆见过他。 ? 2. Mary can't have stolen your money. She has gone home. 玛丽不可能偷你的钱,她回家 去了。

三、 “could have done”
过去可能做某事;本来能够做某事但没做

? 有两种用法,一种表示猜测,“过去可能 做过某事”;另一种是虚拟语气,表示对 过去事情的假设,意思是本来能够做某事 而没有做。 ? What could have happened? 难道是发生 了什么事吗? ? He could have passed the exam, but he was too careless. 本来他能够通过考试, 但是他太粗心。

四、 “can have done” 较少使用到此结构
? 表示对过去行为的怀疑,用于疑问句,译成“可 能做过……吗?”。 ? 1. There is no light in the room. Can they have gone out? 屋里没有灯,他们可能出去了吗? ? 2. There is nowhere to find them. Where can they have gone? 到处找不到他们,他们可能到 什么地方去呢?

五、 “may have done”
? 表示对发生过的事情的推测,意思是“可 能已经”或“也许已经”,用于肯定句中。 ? ? ? ? —What has happened to George? —I don't know. He may have got lost. —乔治发生了什么事? ——我不知道,他可能迷路了。

六、 “might have done”
? 表示对过去事情的推测,might与may意思相同, 但可能性更小。多用于虚拟语气结构中。 ? ? 1. He might have given you more help, even though he was busy. (MET90) 他或许会多给你一 些帮助,即使他很忙。 ? 2. She might have achieved greater progress, if you had given her more chances. 如果你多给她 点机会,她可能已经取得更大的成绩。

七、 “would have done”
? 虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思 是“本来会做”。 ? 1. I would have told you all about the boy's story, but you didn't ask me. 我本来会告诉 你这个小男孩的故事,但是你没有问我。 ? 2. Without your help, I wouldn't have achieved so much. 没有你的帮助,我是不 会取得如此大的成绩。

八、 “should have done” 本来应该做某事,而实际没做
? 否定式为“shouldn‘t have done”表示本来不 应该做某事,而实际做了。含有指责对方或自责 的含意。 ? ? 1. Tom, you are too lazy. The work should have been finished yesterday. 汤姆,你太懒惰了,这 项工作本来应该昨天就做完的。 ? 2. Look, Tom is crying. I shouldn't have been so harsh on him. 看,汤姆哭了,我本来不应该对他 如此严厉。

九、 “ought to have done”
? 表示过去应该做而实际并没有做,译成 “理应做……”,往往表示遗憾。与 “should+have+done”用法基本一样。
I ought to have gone home last Sunday. 我理应上星期日回家。 ? You ought not to have given him more help. 你不应该帮助他那么多。

十、 “need have done” 本来需要做某事而没有做
? 否定式为 “needn‘t have done” 表示“本来 不需要做某事而做了”。
? I needn‘t have bought so much wine—only five people came. 我本来没有必要买这么多酒,只来 了五个人。

? He need have hurried to the station. In that case, be wouldn't have missed the train. 他本来需要快 点去车站,那样的话,他就不会误了火车。

? 1.---You didn’t wait for Mr. Smith last night, did you? ---Actually,we ______. He didn’t return home at all. A. couldn’t have waited B. needn’t have waited C. didn’t need to wait D. should wait ? 2.Harry ______ have won the Physics competition easily yesterday, but he gave up. A. could B. might C. should D. must

? 3.---May I speak to your manager Mr. Smith at six o’clock tonight ?” ---“I’m sorry, Mr. Smith to a conference before then.” A. will have gone B. had gone C. would have gone D. has gone
? 4.---Tom took away our teacher’s cell phone without being permitted. --- Really? I can’t imagine that he _______ have done such a thing. A. must B. may C. can D. should

? 5.--- Was it you that made the suggestion? --- It have been. I can’t remember. A. need B. must C. should D. may ? 6.The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I_________ the trouble to carry my umbrella with me . A. should have taken B. could have taken C. needn't have taken D. mustn't have taken

? 7.He paid for a seat, when he ______ have entered free. A. could B. would C. must D. need ? 8.I didn’t see her in the meeting room this morning. She at the meeting . A. mustn’t have spoken B. mightn’t have spoken C. can’t have spoken D. shouldn’t have spoken

? 9.--- Hi, is that Peter Brown? ---Sorry. You ______ the wrong number . A. must call B. must have called C. should call D. should have called ? 10.I was on the highway when this car went past followed by a police car . They ______ at least 150 kilometers an hour . A. should have been doing B. must have been doing C. could have done D. would have done

? 11. He is not poor. You ____ have lent him the money. A. can’t B. needn’t C. couldn’t D. mustn’t ? 12. There was plenty of time. You ___ have hurried. A. won’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. couldn’t ? 13. They ____ have finished the work yesterday, but it was raining hard.

? 14. I ____ here in time, but I met an old friend of mine. I stopped and talked with him for some time. A. shouldn’t have come B. must have come C. needn’t have come D. could have come

? 15. I didn’t hear the phone. I ____ asleep. A. must be B. must have been C. should be D. should have been


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