The Violence of Nature
技能目标 Skill Goals Talk about the violent natural disasters. Learn to use the Indirect Speech and learn to use the Past Perf
ect Passive. Write about a natural disaster. Write a passage using everyday English that indicate the good or bad things to happen. Learn to give definitions of a word with Attribute Clause. Ⅱ. 目标语言 功 词义释义（Giving definitions） 能 A flood is a lot of water in an area which is usually dry. 句 暗示下文内容的描述词 式 luckily, fortunately, thankfully, hopefully, unfortunately, badly. 1. 四会词汇 disaster, flood, hurricane, lightening, thunderstorm, tornado, column, experience, cause, current, furniture, bury, feather, fur, occur, 词 violent, wave, strike, cemetery, rotating, coffin, previous, eruption, ruin, ash, lava, tidal, volcano, possibility, earthquake, terrifying, luckily, thankfully, hopefully, sadly, fortunately, warning,
worldwide, active, damage. 汇 2. 认读词汇 latitude, tropical, equator. 3. 词组 per hour, pick up, put…down, take off, on average, tropical storms, in a population of, tiny island, tidal wave, pour down, set fire, volcanic eruption, take place, move from side to side, be windy, be situated in, Central China, in all, lose one’s life, do the most damage, a total of, affected areas, push…out of, fall down, medical care,
drinking water, flow over, manage to do, be homeless, end up. The Past Perfect Passive Sb had done sth. Sth had been done. 结 Indirect Speech 1. Statements “I’m still working because there is a lot to do.” he said. He said that he was still working because there was a lot to do. 2. Questions “Does this mean that the danger is over?” he asked. 构 He asked if this meant that the danger was over. “When will people be able to return home?” asked he. He asked when people would be able to return home. 1. They can destroy houses, but leave the furniture inside exactly where it was. 2. On average, there are 800 tornadoes in the US each year, causing about 80 deaths and 1,500 injuries. 3. By the time it ended, more than 700 people had been killed and 重 2,700 had been injured. 4. The disaster killed 6,000 people in a population of 37,000 and 点 destroyed 3,600 buildings. 5. When the lava reached the sea, there was the possibility of a huge 句 tidal wave which could flood half the island. 子 6. Fires caused by the California Earthquake did the most damage. 7. The earthquake has left tens of thousands of people homeless. 8. My family had just finished breakfast when the house started shaking and we heard a loud noise. 9. At night it is very cold in the region with temperatures falling
below zero. 10. This is not the first time there are floods in Conway.
Ⅲ. 教材分析与教材重组 1．教材分析 本单元以“自然灾害”（The violence of nature）为话题， 旨在通过单元教学， 让学生运用书中的 Useful expressions 编对话，描述人物，事件和人物的感情， 了解人们在自然灾害中的经历、感受，提高学生的自我保护意识；培养学生对定 语从句的运用能力， 词汇部分训练学生在语境中理解词汇的能力，学习对词语进 行解释，以及如何运用 useful expressions 暗示之后的语言内容。 本单元的话题是“自然灾害”， 其中包括“龙卷风”、 “飓风”、 “火山爆发”、 “地 震”、 “洪水”等。 1.1 导入部分（Introduction）通过三幅图片引出与自然灾害相关的词语，并 对其进行释义。然后通过问题讨论自然过渡到本单元话题“自然灾害”。 1.2 阅读与词汇部分（Reading &Vocabulary） 包括两方面的训练。词汇部分 训练学生在语境中理解词汇的能力。阅读部分是三篇有关龙卷风和飓风的文章。 文章中解释了什么是龙卷风和飓风，并对其对人们带来的危害进行了描述。教材 还设计了相应的问题， 旨在培养学生学会通过阅读获取材料中的细节要点，同时 让学生了解自然灾害的危害。 1.3 语法部分（Grammar）包括两方面的训练。第一部分旨在训练学生对过 去完成式的被动语态的理解，掌握和运用。在练习前列出两个句子，让学生通过 回答两个问题来理解这个语法项目的结构和运用。第二部分是间接引语。与第一 部分一样，让学生通过自主学习和探究，归纳语言的功能和基本结构。其后设计 的练习体现了操练模式。 1.4 听力部分（Listening）是一段有关火山爆发的对话。在听对话前，设计 了一段材料，以便学生了解有关火山的词汇以及其间的关系。另外，设计的听前 回答问题帮助学生了解相关知识，为听力部分做准备。听力之后的回答问题的练 习旨在训练学生获取听力材料中的具体细节， 同时让学生们了解人们在自然灾害 中的经理和感受。
1.5 口语部分(Speaking)主要描述事件和人物的经历与感受。教材设计了一 个采访对话,通过一些问题启发学生组织对话内容. 1.6 功能部分（Giving a definition）设计了三个例句，让学生模仿例句用定 语从句进行词意释疑。 1.7 写作部分（Writing）训练学生对自然灾害进行描述。教材提供了一篇范 文，帮助学生如何描写自然灾害中的经历。 1.8 日常用语（Everyday English）提供了一些有暗示下文内容功能的词语。 练习一通过学生回答问题以训练他们的自主学习探究的学习方法。 练习二进行操 练以帮助学生巩固积累语言知识。 1.9 文化部分（Cultural corner）是一篇有关地震的阅读材料，讲述了中国 和美国的两次最严重的地震。 文章之后设计了三个问题。前两个问题旨在培养学 生阅读文章获取信息的能力。第三个问题旨在培养学生理解文章深层意思的能 力。另外，教材设计了两个讨论问题以提高学生思考问题，解决问题的能力，同 时培养学生思维条理性以及语言表达的逻辑性。 2．教材重组 2.1 从话题内容上分析，将 Introduction, Function, Reading 中的 Vocabulary 整合在一起，设计成一堂词汇“口语课”。 2.2 把 Listening 和 Workbook 中的 Listening 整合在一起，上一节“听力课”。 2.3 将 27 页的 Speaking 和课后 Listening and Speaking 中的 activity17 整合在 一起放在 post-listening 中。 2.4 将 Reading 与 Cultural Corner 中的 Reading 整合在一起，上一节“阅读 课”。 2.5 将两个语法项目整合在一起上一节“语法课”。 2.6 将 Everyday English 与 Workbook 中的 Reading 整合在一起， 上一节“阅 读课”。 2.7 将 Writing 与 Workbook 中的 Writing 整合在一起，上一节“写作课”。 3．课型设计与课时分配（经教材分析，根据学情，本单元可以用六课时完 成） 1st period: Speaking 2nd period: Listening
3rd period: Reading 4th period: Grammar 5th period: Reading 6th period: Writing Ⅳ. 分课时教案 The First Period Speaking Teaching goals 教学目标 1.Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 flood,hurricane,lightening,thunderstorm,tornado,column,current,latitude,bury,disast er,feathers, furoccur,tropical,luckily,thankfully,hopefully,dadly,fortunately,violent,equator b. 重点句型 sth. is ...that/which... 2. Ability goals 能力目标 a. Revise the Attributive Clause. b. Using the Attributive Clause to explain words. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Improve the students' ability to give definition of words. Teaching important points 教学重点
Learn how to definite words, using the Attributive Clause. Teaching difficulties 教学难点 Using the Attributive Clause to define a word. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector& a computer. Teaching procedures &ways 教学过程与方式
Step 1 Warming up (Remind the students of the tsunami in 2004 with a picture and talk about it.) T: As we know, at the end of last year, a massive earthquake sent tsunami smashing into Indian Ocean coastlines. Many heavily populated disasters from it. (Ask the students to talk about the pictures in coast areas, such as Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand, India, Malaysia and East Africa was destroyed by the monster waves, causing millions of deaths. We human beings saw the violence of natural disasters from it. (Ask the students t6o talk about the pictures in Introduction, page 21.) T: Now, please turn to page 21. Here are some pictures of disasters. What can you see from the pictures? S: From the first picture, I can see a truck trapped in the floods. T: Good! How about picture2? T: Now, please look at the pictures on the screen. What can you see from the pictures? S: From the first picture, I can see many houses are trapped in the flood. T: Good! How about picture2? S: It looks like a strong wind blowing the trees. T: Well done. And the last picture? S: It’s wind. T: Not bad. It is called tornado, which can cause damage to people and villages. Well, do you know what a flood is, what a hurricane is and what a tornado is? If not, let’s come to page 21 to find out the definitions. Step 2 Speaking (Part 1, Page 21) (Get the students to match the words in the box with the definitions below .Then ask individuals to show their answers.) T: Now, you please match the words with the definition below. And tell me what they are. Make sure to give whole sentences. (Allow the students some time to do the task. Collect the answers.) Suggested answers for Task 1: A flood is a lot of water in an area which is usually dry.
A hurricane is a very strong wind or storm. Lightening is the flash of light which occurs during a thunderstorm. A thunderstorm is a lot of rain falling quickly, with loud noises and flashes of light. A tornado is a column of air that turns very quickly. (The underlined three sentences are shown on the screen.) T: Now, let's pay attention to these three sentences on the screen. Please find out the common characteristics in all of them.) S: The sentences all give a definition of something. T: Very good. Each sentence gives a definition of a word. Any other opinions? S: The Attributive Clause appears in each sentence. T: Well done! That is right. When we give a definition of a word, the Attributive Clause is usually necessary and helpful. We'd better learn to use the structure “A is B that/which…”. Now let's come to Part 3 on page 22. (Let the students match the words in the box with the sentences below and then check the sentences.) T: Ok, we can see it is the same form as the one we did just now on page 21.You please give a definition of each word with a whole sentence, using the Attributive Clause if necessary. And you can also add some words to help you. Cooperate with your partners to work them out. (After discussing for a while, collect the answers.) Suggested answers for Task 2: To bury means to place in the ground or tomb. A disaster is a terrible event. Feathers are something that you can see on a bird. Fur is the thing that you see on an animal. To occur means
to happen. word the hottest parts of the earth, north
that we use to describe
and south of
the equator. (Show the sentences on the screen and ask the students to focus on the underlined two sentences.) T: Look at these two sentences: To bury means to place in the ground or tomb. To occur means to happen. What should you pay attention to? Ss: To bury and to occur. T: Good. Verbs can not be used as Subject directly. We have to use "to do" or "doing". And have a look at the last sentence. There’re three different ways to express it. From it, we can know that the functions of the three forms are the same: attribute. But difference does exist. We’ll talk about it later. Now, please read the sentences altogether. (Allow the students some time to read.) Step 3 Word study (Workbook Page 80) (Ask the students to turn to page 80 and begin the task in vocabulary.) T: Now, let’s come to the exercises on page 80. In activity 5, you should finish the short paragraph with the words given above, making sure that all the sentences have proper meanings. (Choose one student to read out the answers and check them with the whole class. Then the students read the sentences together.) Keys for Task 3: Volcano, eruption, ash, lava, tidal wave, flood. (Let the students do the task of activity6.) T: In activity6, you’re asked to group the words according to the speeches of the words. Put them into three groups of Adjectives, Verbs and Nouns. Some words can go in two groups. (Choose volunteers to present the answers orally.) Suggested answers for Task 4: Adjectives: tropical, violent. Verbs: bury, destroy, flood, kill, rain, wind.
Nouns: disaster, equator, feather, flood, injury, rain, storm, tornado, wind. (Do task in activity7.) T: These words can help us finish the sentences in activity7. Please complete the sentences with proper words from activity6 in the correct form. (Let volunteers to read out the answers.) Keys for Task 5: Violent, buried, killed, injuries, tropical. (Do task in activity 8.) T: Let’s take a look at activity 8. Match the two parts to make complete sentences with correct meanings. (A few minutes for the students to do the task, and check the answers.) Keys for Task 6: There was a violent thunderstorm in my town last week. I saw a flash of lightening in the sky. The lightening struck several houses in the center of the town. The houses caught fire immediately. It took all night to put the fires out. Fortunately, no one was killed or injured. (Lead in the next content of this unit by revising what we have learnt.) T: Ok, what have we learnt up to now? Ss: We have learnt how to give a definition of a word and done some exercises about the words. T: That’s good. What are these words and exercises about? Ss: Some disasters. T: Right. All of the words are related to natural violence/disasters. (Talk about natural disasters.) T: Can you list out the names of some natural disasters? Ss: Thunderstorm, flood, hurricane, tornado, volcanic eruption, earthquake, drought. (The teacher shows some pictures of natural disasters on the screen. Draw the students’ attention to pictures of tsunami and fault.)
(3) (1) (2)
T: Here are some disasters you have put forward. Look at the last two pictures, what are they about? S: It looks like a typhoon. T: Not bad. Actually it’s a tsunami. And the great damage was caused by a violent earthquake. It affected so many heavily populated coastal areas. How about the other picture? S: Drought. T: Have you ever experienced one of the disasters on the screen? S: Yes, I’ve been in an earthquake. T: Can you describe it? S: Ok. I was sleeping in my bedroom when a strange noise woke me up. It sounded like a train was passing under our house. It was too late for me to rush out of the house. Everything began to shake and some things fell down. But luckily, it only lasted a few seconds. (The teacher asks another student.) T: Have you ever experienced a hurricane? S: No, I haven’t.
T: Have you ever read a news story about it? S: Yes, I have. T: Please describe it to the class. S: I once read about a hurricane called Blas. It moved over cooler waters in the Pacific Ocean to the west of Mexico. Blas formed off southwest Mexico during the previous week, killing four people when their wood and cardboard home collapsed. (Ask another student.) T: Very good. Have you ever experienced a tornado? S: No, I haven’t. (Invite another student to answer the question.) T: Have you experienced a flood? S: No, I haven’t. T: Do you know anyone who has experienced one? S: Oh, yes. One of my relatives lives in the south. He suffered a lot from it. T: Do you know anything about that flood? What caused it? S: One summer, heavy rains caused huge floods which killed over 100 people. Actually. The scientists said, it was mainly due to deforestation and soil erosion. T: Perfect. We know that many things that humans have been doing, such as deforestation and sending greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, have changed the climate of the earth. It will lead to more extreme weather patterns, such as floods and droughts. Although we can’t stop a disaster taking place, we can do something to avoid suffering a lot from it. So, it is high time for us to take action to live in harmony with nature. We humans should try to balance economic growth and development with environmental sustainability. Step 5 Homework Surf the Internet for ways to avoid much damage from disasters. Make three sentences to define the words earthquake, volcanic eruption and plane crash, using the Attributive Clause. Suggested answers: An earthquake is a sudden violent movement of the earth’s surface that can cause
great damage to people. Volcanic eruption is a sudden occurrence of steam and material that come out of the volcano. A plane crash is a violent fall or breaking that a plane come across when flying.
The Second Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 词汇和短语
ash, erupt, lava, tidal wave, volcano, drive away, on foot, pour down, set fire, catch fire, take place. b. 重点句型 The Past Perfect Passive: sb. had done sth. sth. had been done. Indirect Speech: She said that… She asks if /what/when/… 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Train the students to focus on specific words and details from the listening material. Meanwhile, help the students learn about people’s experiences and feelings in a natural disaster. 3. Learning ability 学能目标 By discussing and listening to the stories, lead students to learn about the rescue skills once a tornado happens. Teaching important points 教学重点 Do pre-listening to help the students learn about volcanic eruption. First listening to find specific facts. Carefully listen for details about the questions.
Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Train the students to listen for specific facts and details. Teaching approach 教学方法 Eliciting, discussing, talking, induction, task-based, student-centered. Teaching aids 教具准备 A tape recorder, a computer. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step 1 Revision Check the students’ homework for the definitions of the words. Step 2 Pre-listening (Ask the students to do the task in activity1 and activity2. Show the definitions of the words in activity1 on the screen.) T: You have several minutes to read the passage in activity1 on page 25. And with the help of the definitions of the words in the box on the screen, do activity2 to explain the connections between the words in activity 1 with your partners. (Allow the students some time to do the task. Then the teacher shows a sample after the students present their work.) Suggested answers for Task 1: Once a volcano erupts, ash and lava can come up through the volcano. And when the lava reaches the sea, it’s very likely to see a huge tidal wave which can cause a great damage. T: We’ll listen to a tape about a volcanic eruption. Before listening, please answer the questions in activity 3. (The teacher leads the whole class to do the task together.) Keys for Task 2: A fire started. A natural event. A difficult thing to do. Have finished. Step 3 Listening (Tell the students to read the questions for the listening.) T: We’ll hear a conversation about an eruption of a volcano. Before you listen to the tape, read through the questions that you have to answer after listening.
(Play the tape for the students to listen and then check how well they can understand by answering the questions in activity4. Remind the students of taking notes if necessary.) Suggested answers for Task 3: Step 4 Workbook (Page 83, Listening) (The teacher will move to workbook listening.) Pre-listening: (Let the students read through the instruction in activity13.) T: Turn to page 83 to have a look at activity13. You’ll listen to material about tornadoes. The first time, listen for the specific information: number the speakers in the correct order. Listening: (After listening, check the answers with the whole class.) Keys for Task 4: …… (Get the students to read through activity14 to be familiar with their task.) T: Please read through the sentences in activity14. Listen to the tape again and decide which statements are false and correct them as well while listening with the help of taking notes. (The teacher will play the tape part by part according to different speakers. Check the answers with the whole class after listening.) Keys for Task 5: …… Post-listening: (The following role-play activity will help the students practice talking about past experiences with words and useful expressions related to the natural violence.) T: Suppose you are one of the speakers. After the tornado you talk about your experience with a journalist. Please cooperate with your group members. One is a journalist and the others are three speakers. You can make up a dialogue according to Speaking on page 27. The journalist should make a list of questions to ask first. And
the speakers should talk about the event you saw. After writing, act them out. (The rest of the time is for the students to prepare for their dialogues.) Step 5 Homework Finish the dialogue. Preview the texts. The Third Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1． Target language 目标语言 a. 词汇 tornado, rotate, thunderstorm, violent, feather, destroy, occur, disaster, hit, strike, bury, San Francisco, homeless. b. 短语 pick up, put down, take off, on average, tropical storms, the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, in a population of, end up, be situated in, Central China, in all, lose one’s life, do a damage, a total of. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Improve the students’ ability to read for specific facts. Learn how to describe natural disasters with useful expressions and sentences. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 By discussing some natural disasters and reading the passages, lead the students to learn about the rescue skills once a disaster happens. Teaching important points 教学重点 Discussing to help the students learn about natural disasters. Scanning to look for specific information. Skimming to get the general idea of the reading materials. Careful reading to help the students focus on some useful expressions and sentences. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Learn to look for the general idea and specific information. Teaching methods 教学方法 Talking, discussing, eliciting, induction, task-based, students-centered Reading
Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and a computer Teaching procedures& ways 教学过程与方式 Step 1 Revision (Check the students’ dialogue. Choose several groups to present their dialogues.) Step 2 Pre-reading (Tell the students what they’ll learn in this period.) T: In the first period we talked about some disasters. Today we’ll learn more about tornadoes, hurricanes and earthquakes by reading passages. Step 3 Reading (Ⅰ) (Ask the students to turn to page 23 to search the first paragraphs of the first two passages for the definitions of a tornado and a hurricane.) T: Turn to page 23. Here are passages about hurricanes and tornadoes. Please read the first paragraphs of the first two passages to find out the definitions. (Allow the students some time to do the Task and let them read the sentences aloud together.) Keys for Task 1: A tornado is a rotating column of air from a thunderstorm to the ground. Hurricanes are strong tropical storms, and they usually occur in the southern Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. (Second reading for the students to find out the specific information about the questions on page 22 by scanning the passages.) T: This time, please scan the passages to answer the questions on page 22. You can discuss with your partners. (A few minutes for the students to do the task. Then ask the volunteers to show their answers orally and check them with the whole class. At the same time, help the students to understand some difficult sentences.) T: Are you done? Ss: Yes. T: The first four questions are about the first passage “What is a tornado?” Look at the
first question. How strong are tornado winds? S: The most violent have winds of more than 400 kilometres per hour. T: Wonderful! The most violent tornado winds can reach over 400 kilometres per hour. What about the second one? S: They can destroy houses, but leave the furniture inside exactly where it was. T: That’s right. They can destroy houses or put them down in the next street or even in the nest town without destroying the furniture inside. And Question3? S: There are 800 tornadoes in the US each year. T: Ok. On average, there are 800 tornadoes in the US each year, causing about 80 deaths and 1,500 injuries. (Analyze the structure of the sentence above.) T: What is the function of the word “causing”? S: The Present Participle is used as Adverbial of Result. T: Well done. (Let the students read out the sentence.) T: Let’s come to the next question. How many people died in the worst tornado of all time? S: More than 700 people died. T: Good. By the time it ended, more than 700 people had been killed and 2,700 had been injured. The rest of four questions deal with the last two passages about “hurricane”. Question1: What happens at sea during a hurricane? S: Huge waves, heavy rain and floods happen. T: Right. Hurricanes often occur near the ocean. When a hurricane comes, there are violent winds of 120 kilometres per hour or more, which cause huge waves, heavy rain and floods. When was the worst hurricane of all time? S: The worst hurricane disaster of all time occurred on the 8th September 1900 in Galveston, Texas. T: Very good. Was the actor Charles Coghlan killed in it? S: No, he wasn’t. He died a year before the hurricane struck. T: Good. What happened to him after the hurricane?
S: His coffin was flown to the sea near his home. T: Right. The cemetery where he was buried was destroyed by the hurricane and his coffin ended up in the sea (It was flown to the sea.). And it was found in the sea near his home in the east of Canada 8 years later. (Show the suggested answers on the screen one by one when the students answer the questions.) Suggested answers for Task 2: 1. The most violent have winds of more than 400 kilometres per hour. 2. They can destroy houses, but leave the furniture inside exactly where it was. 3. On average, there are 800 tornadoes in the US each year, causing about 80 deaths and 1,500 injuries. (Analyze the structure of the sentence.) T: What is the function of the word “causing”? S: The Present Participle is used as attribute. T: Well done. So we can rewrite the sentence with the Attributive Clause like this: There are 800 tornadoes in the US each year which cause about 80 deaths and 1,500 injuries. (Let the students read it out.) 4. More than 700 people died. (By the time it ended, more than 700 people had been killed and 2,700 had been injured.) 5. When a hurricane comes, there are violent winds of 120 kilometres per hour or more, which cause /causing huge waves, heavy rain and floods. 6. The worst hurricane disaster of all time occurred on the 8th September 1900 in Galveston, Texas. 7. No, he didn’t. He died a year before the hurricane struck. The cemetery where he was buried was destroyed by the hurricane and his coffin ended up in the sea. (It was flown to the sea.) And it was found in the sea near his home in the east of Canada 8 years later. (The third reading to let the students focus on the verbs used when talking about disasters’ happening.)
T: Now, you please scan the passages once again to find out verbs that are used when we talk about a disaster happens. (After a while, check the answers.) T: Who have found out the verbs? S: Occur, hit and strike. T: Good. Any other word? S: Take place. T: You’re right. Thank you. Step 4 Reading (Ⅱ) (Come to the passage on page 29: Cultural Corner.) (First reading to let the students work out which earthquakes are talked about by skimming the passage.) T: Let’s come to page 29 “Earthquakes Around the Pacific”. Please read through the passage to find out which earthquakes are mentioned. (After a while, check the answer.) Suggested answer for Task 3: The Chinese earthquake of the 1556 in Hua County in Shaanxi province. The California Earthquake of the 18th of April 1906 in the United States. (Second reading to deal with the questions shown on the screen and deal with language points meanwhile.) T: This time, you read the passage aloud to answer the questions on the screen. Questions for Task 4: 1. What is the situation of earthquakes in China? 2. What was the damage of Hua County Earthquake? 3. What was the most dangerous thing about the California Earthquake of 1906? 4. Is it possible that there could be another earthquake there? Suggested answers for Task 4: 1. China is situated in (is located in, lies) one of the most active earthquake regions in the world and there have been many terrible earthquakes. The earthquake affected 8 provinces in Central China. It covered an area of 800
square kilometers. In some communities, 60 percent of the population were killed. In all, 830,000 people lost their lives. 2. The most dangerous thing about the California Earthquake of 1906 was fires caused by it, which did the most damage. The fires burned for 3 days, destroying a total of 25,000 buildings. About 500 people were killed in San Francisco and 250,000 were made homeless. In all of California, the earthquake and fires caused about 3,000 deaths. 3. Yes, it is. There is the San Andreas Fault there moving from time to time. One hundred years later, movements on the Fault continue to cause problems for the whole of California. Step 5 Post-reading (Let the students discuss the second question in activity2.) T: Now, let’s have a discussion. If you were in Hua County in 1556 and were in the earthquake, what would you do? How would you stay safe? Please discuss it in groups of 4.) (After a while， the students present their thoughts. And then show a passage about dealing with an earthquake on the screen for the students to read.) Step 6 Homework
Read the passages to be familiar with the good sentences and useful expressions.
Listen to the radio for important information and instructions. Remember that aftershocks, sometimes large enough to cause damage in their own right, generally follow large quakes.
If you leave home, leave a message telling friends and family your location. The Fourth Period Grammar
Teaching goals 教学目标 1． Target language 目标语言
a. 词汇和短语 ruin, bury, inhabitant, extremely, pass through, volcanic eruption, medical care, fall down, turn over b. 语法 The Past Perfect Passive Indirect Speech 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enlarge the students’ vocabulary by learning some useful phrases. Learn how to report what others said. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Learn how to combine a pair of sentences, using the Past Perfect Passive. Teaching important points 教学重点 Learn how to use the Past Perfect Passive. Learn how to change Direct Speech into Indirect Speech. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Learn to use the Past Perfect Passive and Indirect Speech. Teaching methods 教学方法 Task-based, students-centered, eliciting, induction Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer Teaching procedures &ways 教学过程与方式 Step 1 Revision Check the students’ homework. Dictate the following sentences in activity1 on page 24 and activity 2 on page79 to set the students’ mind to the focus on this period: the Past Perfect Passive. One student will be invited to write on the blackboard to make the check easier and draw their attention to the grammar that is going to be learned. T: Boys and girls, please take out a piece of paper and get ready for a dictation of some sentences. 1. By the time the tornado ended, more than 700 people had been killed. 2. He traveled back to Canada after his friend had been buried in Texas.
3. The earthquake happened after people had already left home for work or school. 4. We went to live in another town after the tornado had destroyed our house. 5. We had left our home before the hurricane hit the town. 6. I phoned my parents after I had heard about the hurricane disaster in the news. Step 2 Grammar 1 (After the check, ask the students to read aloud to get familiar with the new structure.) T: Ok, let’s read the sentences together. (Students read the sentences.) T: Now, pay attention to the first sentence. Which event happened first? The tornado ending or 700 people dying? Ss: 700 people dying. T: Good. How about the second sentence? Traveling back to Canada or being buried in Texas? T: Analyzing the sentences, how can you show that one event happened before another? Ss: We use “had done sth.”. T: Quite good. What is the name of it? Ss: The Past Perfect. T: That’s right. The Past Perfect Passive is used in the first two sentences: had been done, while the Past Perfect Active is used in the rest of the sentences: had done. (Ask the students to do some exercises about the Past Perfect.) T: Please turn to page 24. You have 5 minutes to do the task in activity2 and activity3. Make sure you use the correct tense and voice to complete each sentence. (After the students finish the task, choose individual students to read out the sentences. And check the answers with the whole class.) Keys for Task 1: 2 .saw, had disappeared returned, found, had been ruined arrived, had taken had left, finished
tried, had passed 3. had been killed had fallen had been flooded had been destroyed had died (Let the students turn to page 79, Workbook.) T: Now let’s turn to page 79, activity 1. (Ask the volunteers to read the sentences out orally. And then check the answers.) Step 3 Grammar 2 (The students will learn the use of Indirect Speech in this part. Get the students to read the sentences aloud together and discuss the questions below.) T: Look at activity1 on page 26. Please read aloud the sentences in activity1. (Students read the sentences. Ask them to discuss the questions in groups of 4. The teacher divides the class into 3 groups, each of whom deals with one question.) T: You have some time to answer the questions in groups of 4 according to the sentences above. (Let three groups choose 3 representatives to answer the questions.) T: Time is up. Each group chooses one to answer the question. Suggested answers for Task 2 (a chart): Sentence structure Statement 一般疑问句 特殊疑问句 Say/tell sb (that)+从句 Ask+wh-word+ 陈 述 句 语 序 Ask+whether/if+陈述句语 序 Tenses Present tense Past tense Present continuous tense Present perfect tense 一般过去时 过去完成时 过去进行时 过去完成时
Future tense pronouns 第一人称 第二人称 this these Adverbials of time and Now place Toady Yesterday This week/ month Last week/ month Three days ago Tomorrow
过去将来时 第三人称 第一或第三人称 that those Then That day The day before That week/ month The week/ month before Three days before The next day/ the following day
(Present the chart on the screen to the students. And tell the students Indirect Speech is used to report what others said. After dealing with the chart with the students together, ask them to do some practice about Indirect Speech.) T: Let’s come to activity 2. Rewrite the sentences using reporting expressions, that’s, to use Indirect Speech. (For this activity, choose individual students to do them orally.) Keys for Task 3: 1. A scientist said that volcanic eruptions didn’t happen very often on the island. 2. A local journalist said that no one had been on the island during the volcanic eruption. 3. Local people said that the thunderstorm would put out the fires. 4. The governor said that the residents could go back to their homes. 5. A local radio station said that several eruptions have taken place in the last twenty years. 6. A local journalist said that the residents would travel back to the island when the
danger was over. (Ask the individual students to rewrite the sentences in activity3 on page 80 on the blackboard. Check the answers with the whole class.) Keys for Task 4: 1. A local man said that the storm had been extremely violent. 2. A journalist said that there had been 19 earthquakes in the last ten years. 3. A rescue worker said that there were thousands of homeless people. 4. An inhabitant said that many of the homeless were living in tents. 5. A resident said that they couldn’t go back to their homes because they weren’t safe. 6. An inhabitant said that his house had fallen down and he had nowhere to live. 7. The woman said that nobody believed that a tornado could take the feathers off a chicken. Step 4 Homework Finish the activity 4 on page 80. Show the students a short passage to rewrite it with Indirect Speech. Task 5: (The following is from Sarah’s diary. She writes about her first day in senior high school. Underline the Indirect Speech in the text below and change those parts into Direct Speech.) Sept1, Monday It’s my first day in senior high school. Mother told me to get up early, Father asked me to tie up my hair. I told myself not to worry too much. When I arrived at school, I ran into my friend Joanna. She said I looked great. I asked her where she had spent her holiday. She said that she had gone to Shanghai and it had been wonderful. She also asked me if I had enjoyed my holiday. We went to the classroom for our first lesson. Mr Li asked if we had had a pleasant holiday. Then he said that he wanted to get to know us, and he asked us to write a short description of ourselves. I wrote it in English. When MR Li read it, he said it was well-written. After school I went back home. I told my parents about my first day in school.
They told me that they were proud of me. The Fifth Period Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 词汇 shake, affect, homeless, fortunately, luckily, ceremony, thankfully, b. 短语 Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, affected area, Red Cross, take part in, push…out of, fall down, the injured, drinking water. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 a. Talk about the Qongkurqak Earthquake. Improve the students’ ability to read for the general idea of the story. b. Learn to use the useful expressions which can indicate that the following sentences contain good or bad news. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Enable the students to talk about an earthquake, and lead them to learn about the severe damage caused by earthquakes. Help the students learn how to protect themselves. Teaching important points 教学重点 Skimming to get the general idea of the passage. Scanning to look for specific information. Discussing how to protect oneself in an earthquake. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Learning to use the words indicating good and bad things. Learn to look for the general idea of the passage. Teaching methods 教学方法 Talking, discussing, eliciting, task-based, students-centered. Teaching aids 教具准备 A tape recorder, a projector and a computer. Reading
Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step 1 Revision Check the students’ homework. Call out some students to read their passages to the class. Step 2 Pre-reading (Show some pictures about earthquakes and discuss the pictures.)
T: Now, look at the pictures. What are the pictures about? (Collect the students’ ideas, then the teacher summarizes the pictures.) T: The first picture is about an earthquake. From the picture we can see an apartment was destroyed and it crushed a car. In the second picture is a homeless quake
survivor who camped out. In the third picture, we can see water is coming out of a pipe. The earthquake damaged waterlines and caused fires. Seawater was pumped to put out the fires. The last picture is about a Red Cross shelter where coffee was served. Today, we’ll read a passage about the earthquake in China. Please turn to page 81. Step 2 Reading (Ask the students to read the passage quickly to do two tasks.) Task 1: Find out which type of writing it is. Task 2: Search for words which can indicate that the following sentences contain good or bad news. (A few minutes later, invite them to present their answers.)
Keys for Task 1: Report Keys for Task 2: Luckily, fortunately, thankfully-----good news Badly-，hopefully----bad news (Brainstorming for more such words. After the students present their answers, the teacher summarizes.) T: Yes, we’ve got luckily, fortunately, thankfully, hopefully, sadly, unfortunately, generally, etc. Can you find out the characteristic of these words? Ss: They are all adverbs. (Draw their attention to the two words.) T: Look at these two words: generally and surprisedly. Do they indicate good or bad news? S: It’s hard to say. It depends on different situation. T: Good. (Let the students make sentences with these words. Ask volunteers to write down the sentences on the blackboard separately.) Suggested sentences: 1. Unfortunately, we had plenty of warning. 2. Thankfully, there were several villages in its path. 3. Luckily, no one was killed. 4. Hopefully, it won’t be too long. 5. Sadly, hundreds of houses caught fire when the lava reached them. 6. Fortunately, we put all the fires out quite quickly. 7. Surprisedly, he had got everything ready. 8. Generally, it’s a good class. (These sentences are shown on the screen.) (The students read the passage once again for details, and check their reading by doing the task in activity 12.) T: Please read it again. But this time careful reading is necessary. Some questions are
for you to answer. (Let the students do the task in activity 12 orally.) Suggested answers for Task 3: 1. It was the most serious disaster in the area since 1949. 2. Many people died because they were indoors when the earthquake struck.. 3. A lot of children were saved because they were taking part in a ceremony in the street. 4. One woman saved her grandchildren because she pushed them out of the door to safety. 5. Fortunately, rescue workers arrived very quickly. 6. Unfortunately, the weather was cold. 7. By Wednesday, tents, camp beds and warm quilts had arrived and all the survivors had somewhere to sleep. 句式：At night it is very cold in the region with temperatures falling below zero. Step 3 Post-reading (Ask the students to read the passage by themselves, and fill in the blanks. This step helps the students be more familiar with the passage and memorize good sentences and words related to disasters.) Task 4: A violent earthquake struck Qongkurqak which was the most serious disaster there since 1949. It caused as many as 240 deaths and over 600 injuries. As a result, tens of thousands of people became homeless. But luckily many people were saved outside. Fortunately, rescue workers arrived very quickly. At night it is cold with temperatures falling below zero. Thankfully, by Wednesday all the survivors had got necessary articles and had place to sleep. The most important thing is about safe drinking water and electricity supply. Earthquakes are frequent in the region. They created a serious economic situation with thousands of houses and businesses destroyed. Step 4 Homework Memorize the short passage. Retell the passage using their own words.
Surf the Internet to find out how to protect ourselves and reduce the damage. Suggested answers for Homework 3: People suffer a lot when a disaster occurs, especially a severe one. They are natural and we can not stop them from coming, but with the modern technology we can take steps to reduce the risk that our home will be damaged.
The Sixth Period Writing Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 terrifying, homeless, flow, damage, 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Learn how to organize a passage about a natural disaster (What to write.) 3. Learning ability 学能目标 Improve the students’ ability of writing about a natural disaster. Learn to express the experiences and feelings. Teaching important points 教学重点 Discuss and help the students work out what to write. Learn to write about experiences, using the Attributive Clauses. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Discuss and work out what to write. Teaching methods 教学方法 Task-based, talking, discussing, induction, students-centered. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and a computer. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step 1 Revision （Check the students’ homework. Choose individual students to retell the previous text.） Step 2 Reading (Ask the students to turn to page 28.)
T: please turn to page 28. Read the short paragraph in activity1 to find out what it is about. (After a while, collect the students’ answers.) Suggested answer for Task1: It’s about a terrifying hurricane. (The eye-witness talks about his experience----what happened/what he saw when a hurricane started.) (Move to the reading material on page 84. Get the students to do activity 18 in pairs.) T: Ok, let’s come to another passage about floods. Please turn to page 84. Have a look at the picture. What is happening? Ss: There is a flood and houses are drowned. T: Good. How was it caused? S: Heavy rain leads to flood. S: The most important reason is deforestation and soil erosion. So heavy rain can’t be controlled. T: Well done. Now, please discuss with your partner and write down five words you expect to find in the following newspaper article. (Give the students a few minutes to do the task and let them show their work.) T: Ok, it’s time to present your work. Any volunteers? S: flood, drown, trap, damage, destroy T: Excellent! (Read the passage to answer the questions in activity19.) T: Now, you have several minutes to read the newspaper article and find out the answers to the questions above. (Allow the students a few minutes to do the task. And then check the answers with the whole class.) T: Who’d like to answer Question1? S: It’s reporting about a flood. T: Good. When and where did it happen? S: It happened in the town of Conway on Wednesday.
T: Right. Homes and shops in the town of Conway were hit by floods on Wednesday. And Question 3? S: It was caused by rain which had lasted for four days. T: Ok. What was the result? S: The river finally flowed over its banks and flooded the town: the houses, and the streets. Hundreds of residents left their homes. Fortunately, no one died but it has caused a lot of damage and many people are now homeless. Farms were destroyed. Sadly, many farm animals died as the water rose. Five schools are badly damaged and the railway line is closed. T: Good. The last question? S: Yes, it has happened before. Suggested answers for Task 2: 1. A flood. 2. Homes and shops in the town of Conway were hit by floods on Wednesday. 3. It was caused by rain which had lasted for four days. 4. The river finally flowed over its banks and flooded the town: the houses and the streets. Hundreds of residents left their homes. Fortunately, no one died but it has caused a lot of damage and many people are now homeless. Farms were destroyed. Sadly, many farm animals died as the water rose. Five schools are badly damaged and the railway line is closed. 5. Yes, it has happened before. Step 3 Writing (It’s time for writing on page 84. Let the students write about a natural disaster according to the passage on page 84. Like the passage on the book, prepare some questions before writing.) T: Now, write a passage about the tsunami taking place in Asia. I will show you some information and a picture about it. You write a passage according to the information. (The information is shown to help them.)
When and where did the tsunami happen? Dec26,2004,in the Indian Ocean What caused the tsunami? How strong was it? What damage was caused? The Indian Ocean Earthquake The deadliest disaster in modern history Many countries such as Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand. At least 155,000 people died. There will be more deaths to happen.
(If it is a rush, just leave it as homework. If time permits, ask one student to write on the blackboard.) Sample composition: The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 on December 26, 2004. The earthquake generated tsunamis that were among the deadliest disasters in modern history. The earthquake originated in the Indian Ocean, The resulting tsunamis devastated the shores of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, and other countries with waves of up to 15 m high, even reaching the coast of east Africa. At least 155,000 people are known to have died as a result of the tsunamis and the count is still taking place. The true final toll may never be known due to bodies swept out to sea, but it is likely to be higher than the current estimate. Relief agencies warn of the possibility of more deaths to come as a result of epidemics because of poor sanitation, as well as starvation. The plight of the many affected people and countries prompted a widespread humanitarian response.
Step 4 Homework Finish your composition. 附 课文注释与疑难解析 1. A tornado is a rotating column of air from a thunderstorm to the ground. 龙卷风是 指一个从空中的雷暴延伸到地面而生成的旋转气柱。 2. Tornadoes can pick up cars, trains and even houses and put them down in the next street----or even in the next town. 龙卷风能卷起汽车，火车，甚至房子，把它们卷 到旁边的街道----甚至能卷到临近的城镇。 pick up sth. 把某物拿起来 件
3. They can destroy houses, but leave the furniture inside exactly where it was. 它们 能毁掉房子，却把房内的家具留在原处。 4. The fires burned for three days, destroying a total of 25,000 buildings. destroying 引导的现在分词短语在句中作结果状语，它的逻辑主语是句中的主 语，该短语相当于一个结果状语，且用主动语态。分词在句中作结果状语时，通 常位于句末，中间有逗号。有时为了加强语气，就在分词前加 thus. 如： On average, there are 800 tornadoes in the US each year, causing about 80 deaths and 1,500 injuries. 平均来说， 美国每年发生大约 800 次龙卷风， 造成大约 80 人死亡， 1500 人受伤。Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus causing the delay.=Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus it caused the delay. 他们的车遇上交通阻塞，因此 耽误了。 5. By the time it ended, more than 700 people had been killed and 2,700 had been injured. 等到风停时，已有 700 多人死亡，2700 多人受伤。
by the time 到了……的时候，引导时间状语从句，相当于 when。如： By the time he was twelve years old, he had set up a chemistry lab of his own. 他 12 岁时，已经建立了自己的化学实验室。 6. The cemetery where Coghlan was buried was destroyed by the hurricane and Coghlan’s coffin ended up in the sea. 掩埋科格伦的公墓被飓风所摧毁，他的棺材 最后被卷入了大海。 They had nowhere to stay and ended up sleeping in the railway station. 他们无处可 呆，最终睡在了火车站。 7. The Gulf Stream had carried it 3,000 kilometres up the eastern US coast to Prince Edward Island. 墨西哥湾流沿着美国东海岸把它 （棺材） 一直带到爱德华王子岛， 行程 3000 公里。 up a place 沿着某个地方，常常是由南向北，由下游至上游。假如方向相反，则 用 down。