tceic.com
简单学习网 让学习变简单
相关标签
当前位置:首页 >> 政史地 >>

AEI


Research on China?s National College Entrance Examination (the Gaokao)

About this report
This report aims to explain to Australian international education providers, peak bodi

es and government, how China?s National College Entrance Examination system wo rks in practice – and identifies opportunities to streamline the admission of high performing undergraduate students from China. Australian Education International commissioned Strategy Policy and Research in Education Limited, www.spre.com.hk (SPRE Limited), an Australian owned company in Hong Kong, to carry out this research in 2009. SPRE Limited allocated its Australian Director, Alan Olsen to the report. The research in China was carried out by Cathryn Hlavka, an Australian living and working in China. There was enormous support for this research initiative by the Chinese officials and the institutions visited during this research. Acknowledgments are due to officials and personnel from: Ministry of Education; Beijing Provincial Education Examination Authority; Shanghai Municipal Education Commission; Shanghai Municipal Education Examination Authority; Shanghai University, Student Admission Office; Fudan University Student Admission Office; Jiangsu Provincial Education Examination Authority; Guangdong Provincial Education Examination Authority; Middle School attached to the Southeast Normal University, Guangzhou; Guangdong University of Technology, Student Admissions Office who were all extremely generous in their explanations and willingness to provide details and open opinions on all aspects of the Gaokao, including insights on the future directions of education reform in China. The 38 university members of Universities Australia were generous in their contribution of views to the study in a series of one-on-one discussions about this research.

Page 1

Research on China?s National College Entrance Examination (the Gaokao)

Copyright notice
? Commonwealth of Australia 2009 This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General?s Department, Robert Garran Offices, National Circuit, Barton ACT 2600 or posted at www.ag.gov.au/cca.

Research on China?s National College Entrance Examination (the Gaokao)

Page 2

Contents
List of acronyms ............................................................................................................................. 4 Executive summary........................................................................................................................ 5 Background .................................................................................................................................... 7 The Chinese education system .................................................................................................... 10 Chinese undergraduates globally................................................................................................. 16 Chinese undergraduates in Australia ........................................................................................... 18 A new cohort: Gaokao as gold standard ...................................................................................... 19 A new cohort: principles ............................................................................................................... 20 The Gaokao ................................................................................................................................. 25 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................. 33 Attachment 1: Project 211 Institutions .......................................................................................... 34 Attachment 2: Top 10 Universities in China 2002 to 2009 ........................................................... 38 Attachment 3: Fields of education of Chinese undergraduates .................................................... 39 References .................................................................................................................................. 40

List of Tables
Table 1: Provincial cut-off points for entry to Tier One and Two Universities ............................... 30 Table 2: Top ten universities in China 2002 to 2009 .................................................................... 38 Table 3: Chinese undergraduates in China: new enrolments 2007.............................................. 39 Table 4: Chinese undergraduates in Australia: new enrolments 2008 ......................................... 39

Research on China?s National College Entrance Examination (the Gaokao)

Page 3

List of acronyms
ACT AEI ATAR DEEWR GCSE HSC IELTS MoE NCEE NSW OECD SAT TEE TEI TOEFL UAI UK UK NARIC UNESCO US UWA WA ACT test for college admission in US (previously American College Testing Program) Australian Education International Australian Tertiary Admission Rank Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (United Kingdom) General Certificate of Secondary Education (New South Wales) Higher School Certificate International English Language Testing System Ministry of Education People?s Republic of China National College Entrance Examination New South Wales Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development SAT Reasoning Test (previously Scholastic Aptitude Test) (Western Australia) Tertiary Entrance Examinations Tertiary Education Institution Test of English as a Foreign Language (New South Wales) Universities Admission Index United Kingdom National Recognition Information Centre for the United Kingdom United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization United States The University of Western Australia Western Australia

Research on China?s National College Entrance Examination (the Gaokao)

Page 4

Executive summary
In China, the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE or Gaokao) is undertaken at the completion of secondary schooling for admission to higher education. This research on Gaokao for Australian Education International (AEI) seeks to provide an easily understandable explanation on how China?s NCEE system works in practice, and to provide recommendations to Australian universities on best practices for admission of undergraduates from China. Many undergraduate students from China study outside China, including 28,500 in Australia in 2008, 22,565 in UK in 2007/08 and 16,450 in US in 2007/08. How did these students meet the academic entry requirements for undergraduate study overseas? There tends to be a global divide, along the lines of number of years of undergraduate education in destination countries. But this divide does not explain all the differences. From a survey of the 38 university members of Universities Australia, 18 universities currently accept students from senior secondary school in China into undergraduate programs. The other 20 universities require students from senior secondary school in China to undertake a year of foundation studies prior to commencing an undergraduate program, or to complete a year of tertiary study in China. There is some evidence that this requirement, for foundation studies or a year of tertiary study in China, is having a perverse effect. Universities in Australia who require foundation studies or a year of tertiary education in China appear not to be attracting Chinese undergraduates who perform academically at the same levels as Australian undergraduates or other international undergraduates. Is it possible to attract to Australia, directly from senior secondary school in China, through Gaokao, a different cohort, a new cohort, with high entry cut-offs? Some Australian universities already do this. In a centrally planned economy, the Chinese Government regulates the number of university graduates based on China?s economic and social needs. A matrix of provincial quotas, university quotas, and subject quotas is negotiated annually between universities and national and provincial authorities. These national and provincial university recruitment plans are targeted so that the top 10% of Gaokao candidates are eligible for admission to Tier One universities and the next 20% of candidates are eligible for admission to Tier Two universities. By province, these cut-offs are in Table 1 Provincial cut-off points for entry to Tier One and Tier Two universities. Even in a centrally planned economy, actual intakes are determined in a market for places in courses demanded by students with actual Gaokao scores, subject to regional variations as well as issues of access and opportunity. But the important outcome is the targeting, across all provinces, to find the top 10% and the next 20% of candidates. From the detail in this report on Gaokao cutoffs at universities in China, and from the analysis of Gaokao cut-offs in terms of percentiles of students attempting Gaokao, universities in Australia will be able to set Gaokao cut-offs at levels which will produce students with outstanding ability. With Tier One cut-offs set to find the top 10% of Gaokao candidates, and with half the age cohort attempting Gaokao, overwhelmingly the most able half of the age population, Tier One cut-offs find the top 5% of the age population. In Australian terms, a student in the top 5% of the age

Research on China?s National College Entrance Examination (the Gaokao)

Page 5

population has a Universities Admission Index (UAI) or an Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR) of 95.0. Across the 31 provinces, the Tier One cut-offs provide cut-offs equivalent to a UAI or ATAR of 95.0. Similarly, with Tier Two cut-offs set to find the next 20% of Gaokao candidates, those who, along with Tier One, make up the top 30% of Gaokao candidates, students in the top 30% of Gaokao candidates are in the top 15% of the age population. In Australian terms these students have a UAI or ATAR of 85.0. Across the 31 provinces, the Tier Two cut-offs provide cut-offs equivalent to a UAI or ATAR of 85.0. Armed with this matrix of cut-offs equivalent to UAIs or ATARs of 95.0 and 85.0, universities in Australia will be able to