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单词讲解unit 2 Book 2


Book 2 Ⅰ.词汇短语过关 1. ancient adj. in ancient times (1) 古代的

Unit 2

(2) 古老的

We were deeply attracted by the ancient building. competitor n. 参赛者

< 归类> ancient (古代的)→ modern ( 现代的) → contemporary ( 当代的) 2.compete vi. 比赛;竞争 搭配:compete in 参加比赛 compete for 为……而竞争 in competition with ... competition n. 竞争 competitive adj. 竞争的;有竞争性的 compete to do sth. 竞争做某事 attend a competition 参加竞赛 compete with / against sb for sth 因…而与某人竞争

与…竞争

[即学即练 1](1)Over 1 000 athletes will _____________the race.将有 1 000 多名运动员参加赛跑。 (2)The two teams _____________ each other ______ the championship. 这两个队竞争冠军。 (3)Several advertising agencies are __________the contract. 几家广告公司在竞争这份合同。 Keys: 1. compete 3. take part in eg: Mr. Black took part in our conversation. 辨析 : take part in, join in, join , attend (1) take part in : 指参加会议或群众性活动等,重在说明主语参加该项活动并在其中 的作用。 (2)join in : 指参加正在进行的活动,如参加竞赛、娱乐、谈话等。 (3)join : 通常指参加某组织或团体,并成为其中的一员。 (4)attend : 正式用语,指参加会议或婚礼、葬礼、典礼或上课、上学、听报告等,强调的是这一动 作本身,而不是强调参加者在活动中所起的作用。 eg :1)They are playing basketball. Let's join in them. 2) Do you know how many people joined the organization? 3) They will attend an important meeting tomorrow. 4. stand for 代表;象征;倡导,支持;容忍,接受 [即学即练 7]写出下列 stand for 的意思。(1)Pine trees stand for courage and strength._________ (2)We stand for fair competition in the Olympic Games._____________ (3)No one can stand for the way he speaks to his mother.___________ Keys; 1。代表,象征 2。倡导,支持 3。容忍 eg: His red hair made him stand out in the crowd. 拓展:stand by 和…站在一起;袖手旁观 ;支持 eg: I'll always stand by you through thick and thin. stand out 突出,显眼,引人注目 5. volunteer 【C】 volunteer for sth / to do sth 发挥一定 in 2. competed against , for 3. competing to get

eg: 1) volunteers for the post of treasurer . 自愿任财务工作的人 2) Schools need volunteers to help children to read. Vt. Vi. adj. volunteer to do / volunteer sth 2) She volunteered the information. volunteer for sth pl. bases eg: She volunteered ( her services ) for relief work. 他自愿参加救济工作。 < 语法> [ 单] basis / sis/ → [复] bases / si:z / 分析 eg: 1) They volunteered to repair the house for the old lady. My sister is a volunteer teacher of this school. analysis → analyses

6. basis [ C] basic adj.

crisis → crises 危机 辨析:basis & base

基础的,根本的

eg:His research formed the basis of his new book.

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basis: 用来指非物质方面的基础。the economic basis

经济基础 (抽象)

base: 主要用于指物质方面的基础。the base of a building. 建筑物的基础 (具体) 7.admit vt.&vi. (admitted; admitted) 容许;承认;接纳 用法: (1)admit+(to)n./doing(having done)/that-clause 承认某事/(已经)做了某事 She admits to being strict with her children.她承认对自己的孩子很严厉。 A quarter of all workers admit to taking time off when they are not ill. 四分之一的工人承认他们没病的时候 休过假。 (2)admit sb./sth. to be 承认某人/某物是…… You must admit the task to be difficult.你必须承认这个任务很难。 (3)admit sb. to/into...准许某人进入(或加入)…… This ticket will admit three to the concert.这张票可使三个人进去看演唱会。 (4)It is (generally )admitted that... 人们(普遍)认为…… It was generally admitted that the government had acted too quickly. 普遍认为,政府行动过急。 (5)be admitted to/in/into 被录取;被接收;参加 You will not be admitted to the theatre after the performance has started. 演出开始后不许进入剧场。 He was admitted to the hospital Tuesday morning with stomachache. 他是星期二上午因胃痛被送进医院。 同义词 acknowledge 承认 confess 供认,承认 [即学即练 2](1)You must ______ the task __________difficult.你必须承认这项任务是艰巨的。 (2)He ________________ the bicycle. 他承认偷了自行车。 (3)The ticket will ______ three persons ______ the concert. 这张票可允许三个人参加音乐会。 (4)__________________ the plan is unreasonable. 普遍认为这个计划不合理。 Keys: 1.admit,to be 8.as well 也;又;还 (1)as well 相当于 too 和 also,用于肯定句中,表示“也,又,而且”,用于句尾。 (2)may/might as well 表示委婉的建议,一般是针对当时的情况提出另外的提议。意思是“我们不妨……, 我们还是……吧”。 (3)as well as 用做连词,连接两个相当的成分,如名词、形容词、介词、动词等,通常不位于句首。此时 as well as 强调的重点在前面,不在后面。连接两个主语时,谓语动词的数与前一个主语保持一致。 (4)as well as 做介词,相当于 besides, in addition to,意为“除…之外”,后接名词、代词、动名词。 (5)as well as 表示比较,意为“和……一样好”。 [即学即练 8](1)I'm going to London and my sister's going _______ 我要去伦敦,我的妹妹也要去。 (2)If you're going to the library, I _____________ go with you; I have to return this book. 如果你去图书馆,我不妨和你一起去,我得去还这本书。 (3)He was kind __________________ sensible. 他厚道又明白事理。 (4)He ______________his wife was invited to the party. 他和他妻子都被邀请参加那个聚会了。 (5)__________________ breaking his leg, he hurt his arm. 他除了摔断腿之外,还伤到了胳膊。 (6)The daughter cooks _________________ her mother does.女儿烧菜烧得跟她母亲一样好。 Keys: 1. as well 2. might as well 3. as well as 4. as well as 5. As well as 6. as well as 提示:(1)和 as well as 的用法一样,连接主语时,谓语动词和前面的主语保持一致的词或短语还有:with, along with, together with, but, besides, rather than 等。如: Mr Brown together with his wife and three children has been in China for three years. 布朗先生跟他的妻子和三个孩子已经来中国三年了。 (2)not only...but also...可连接各种结构,包括句子,但强调的重点在后面,连接主语时,谓语动词的数与 2. admitted stealing 3. admit , to 4. It’s admitted that

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后面的主语一致。如:Not only he but also we are fond of the song.不仅是他,我们也喜欢这首歌。 9. host (1) Vt. (2)n. v。主办,招待 n。主人,东道主 eg: 1) He is willing to host the visitors.2) London will host the 30th Olympic Games in 2012. eg: 1) He acted as host to his father's friends. 2) China is the host country of the 29th Olympic Games. 辨析:host 与 guest 相对应。hostess 10. responsibility n. responsible 女主人 adj. master 与 servant 相对应 mastress 女主人

eg: 1) It's my responsibility to take good care of you. 2) She feels a strong sense of responsibility towards her employees. 12.replace vt. 取代;替换;把…放回原处 take one's place=take the place of 代替 [即学即练 3] (1)_________ the book on the shelf. 把书放回书架上。 (2) I __________ the old tyres ______ new ones.我用新轮胎替换了旧轮胎。 (3) Can anything __________ a mother's love and care? 有什么东西能代替母亲的爱和关心吗? Keys; 1. Replace 2. replaced , with 用法: 3. replace n.费用;主管 13.charge vt. & vi.收费;控诉;充电 replace(=take the place of) sb./sth.取代某人/某物 in place of=instead of 代替,而不是 用法:replace sth. with/by sth. 用……替换……

(1)charge sb. with (doing) sth. 使某人承担……责任;控告某人做了某事

The man they arrested last night has been charged with murder. 昨晚他们逮捕的那人被控犯有谋杀罪。 (2)charge sb. money for (doing) sth. 向某人索价多少钱做什么 The restaurant charged us £40 for the wine.饭店收了我们 40 英镑的酒水钱。 (3)charge a battery 给电池充电 (4)free of charge 免费 (5)be on charge 在充电 父亲去世后他掌管了农场。 某事由某人负责/掌管 (6)sb. take charge of sth. (=be in charge of)某人负责/管理某事 He took charge of the farm after his father’s death. [即学即练 4] (1)How much do you __________mending a pair of shoes?你补一双鞋要多少钱? (2)Will you be ________the company when I am away?我不在的时候你负责公司事务好吗? (3)The company is _______Tom when the boss is away. 老板不在的时候由汤姆负责公司业务。 (4)My MP3 can't be used now, for it is ______________. 我的 MP3 现在不能用,正在充电。 (5)He __________________ murder.他被指控犯谋杀罪。 Keys: 1. charge for 2. in charge of 14.advertise v. vi advertiser n. 登广告者 ; advertising n. 广告,广告宣传 为征求… 登广告 登广告宣传某事物 (2)advertise for sb / sth advertisement n. (出)广告 ; 搭配:(1) advertise sth 3. in the charge of 4. being charged 5. was charged with (7)sth. be in (under) one's charge =be in (under) the charge of sb.

eg: 1) They advertise their new product on TV.

2) The company advertised goods for sale.

15. bargain vi. 议价;讨价还价;谈判 n. 成交的商品;廉价货 You should be able to pick up a few good bargains. 你应该能够买到几件不错的便宜货。 用法: 保留。 (2) bargain with sb. about/over sth. 与某人协商某事; 就……与某人讨价还价 In the market dealers were bargaining with growers over/about the price of coffee.在市场上商人正和种植者就 (1) make a bargain with sb. 与某人达成协议 He had made a bargain with his partner to tell each other everything.他和他的合伙人约定, 要互通信息, 毫无

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咖啡的价格进行商谈。 (3) strike a bargain with sb. 与某人成交 (4) It's a bargin. 这可是便宜货。(5) a bargain price (=a low price) [即学即练 5](1)These shoes are ________ at such a low price.这些鞋子价格这样低,真是便宜货。 (2)He ______ his wife,“You do the shopping and I will cook.”他和妻子达成协议:“你去买东西,我做饭。” (3)We ____________ her ______ the price. 我们跟她议价。 Keys: 1. a real bargain 16..one after another 2. made a bargain with 一个接一个地 3. bargained with , about one by one 一个一个地 (强调一次一个) 2) Write down your ideas one by one . (2) deserve well/ill of 应受到……之优(虐)待 ( 强调连续性)

eg: 1)The students came one after another. 17. deserve vi.&vt. 应受(报答或惩罚);值得 用法: (1) deserve sth. 应该得到;值得

(3) deserve doing/to be done 应该……;值得……(主语和动词之间是被动关系)如 The man deserves punishing/to be punished.那个人应该受到惩罚。 The two books deserve to be read.这两本书真值得读。 (4)deserve to do…(主语和动词之间是主动关系)如课本 P15. Ex. 6 Do you think Hippomenes deserved to win the race? [即学即练 6] (1)Guilin deserves _______.=Guilin deserves ________.桂林值得一游。 Keys: 1. a visit=to be visited 2. deserves well of (2)He ___ his country.他应得到国家的优待。 易 错 点 拨 自我完善· 误区备考 1. allow/permit/let/admit (1)allow 强调“默许”。用法:allow sb. to do/allow doing sth.。 (2)permit 有时可与 allow 通用,不过它的语气更强,也更正式,可表示“明文规定允许或不允许”,其用 法为:permit (sb’s) doing/permit sb. to do sth.。 (3)let 与上面两个可以通用,不过更口语化,而且用法不同,其用法为:let sb. do sth.。 (4)admit 其实只是表示“允许进入,接收(入学,入会等)”,其用法为:admit sb. to...,这里 to 是介词。除 此之外,admit 还可以解释为“承认”。 结构为 admit doing…承认做过某事;He admitted taking the money . 他承认拿了钱 adsmit … to be…承认…是…;they admitted him to be mad / You must admit this task to be difficult. [应用 1] (1)The policeman _________ him to park here.(2)We can’t stand by and ________ such a thing. 2. allow 3. admitted 4. Let (3)Women were only _________ into the club last year.(4)_________ me have a look ,will you? Keys: 1. permitted 2. join/join in/join sb. in (doing) sth./take part in/attend (1)join“参加”,指加入党派、社会团体、军队等并成为其中一员。(2)join in 表示“参加某种活动”,in 可 为介词,也可为副词。 (3)join sb. in(doing) sth.表示“参加某人所从事的活动”。 (4)take part in 指参加群众性活动、会议并在其中起作用。take an active part in 积极参与。 (5)attend 是正式用语,指参加会议、婚礼、典礼;听报告、讲座等。一般指成为观众或听众。 [应用 2](1)How many countries and areas_________ the 29th Olympic Games in Beijing? 有多少国家和地区参加了第 29 届北京奥运会? (2)Many young girls ______ aerobics classes to keep slim. 很多年轻的姑娘为了保持苗条身材而加入有氧健身班。 (3)The meeting was ___________ by 90% of share holders. 90%的股东出席了会议。 (4)I’m sure you’ll all _________________ wishing Ted and Lawra a very happy marriage. 我相信大家会愿 意与我一起共祝特德和劳拉喜结良缘。Keys: 1. took part in 3. as well/too/also/either 2. join 3. attended 4. join me in 这几个词都表示“也”,但用法不同: (2)

提示:(1)deserve 不用于进行时态。 (2) deserved adj. 应得的。 (3)deserving adj. 有功的,值得的。

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(1)as well 用于肯定句,置于句末。 (2)also 比较正式,位置通常在主要动词前面或系动词 be 后面,不放在句末。 (3)too 多用于口语,位置通常在句末,前面常有逗号;也可以在句中,前后都有逗号。 (4)as well, too, also 这三个词都不用于否定句,否定句中用 either。 [应用 3] (1)It won’t do them any good, but it won’t do them any harm _________________. (2)I surfed the Internet last night. He did, ______. Ⅱ .单项选择 1.-How can we get to the airport? It’s too far and too expensive to take a taxi. -Don’t worry. There is a ______ bus service to the airport. A.regular B.general C.normal D.usual 答案:A 解析:regular bus 定时的班车。general 普遍的,常规的;normal 正常的;usual 通常的。 2.(2010· 安徽皖南八校二联)-How much did the guy ______ you to fix your 3G mobile phone? -I don't remember, but it was quite a lot. 答案:C 解析:考查动词辨析。charge 在此作动词用,是“索价”的意思。charge sb some money to do sth“为做某事 向某人索价”。 3.______more effectively with others, more and more people equip themselves with a higher education. A.To compete B.Being competed C.Competing D.Competed 答案:A 解析:考查非谓语动词。A 项不定式做状语,表示目的“为了……”。 4.Many people expect that credit cards will eventually ______ paper money for almost every purchase. A.trade B.exchange C.replace D.reduce 答案:C 解析:句意为“很多人期望在买卖中信用卡将最终取代纸币”。 5.My doctor, who is kept ______ the nurse, has ______ ill since last week. A.in the charge of; fallen B.in charge of; been C.in the charge of; been D.take charge of; fallen 答案: C 解析: 从时间状语 since last week 可看出, 瞬时动词 fall 不能与之连用, 可排除 A、 D 项。 in charge of 负责,掌管;in the charge of 在……的负责/掌管下;be kept in the charge of sb. 一直处在某人看管下。 6.After much______, the shop owner agreed to cut down the price by 20%. A. debating 洽谈成交条件”的意思。 7.He certainly deserves ______ to prison. 答案:B A.to send B.to be sent C.sending D.being sent 解析:deserve “值得”,后接不定式 to do 做宾语,且表被动,选 B。 B.as possible C.so far D. if so B. talking C. discussing D. bargaining 答案:D 解析:由后半句 agreed to cut down the price by 20%可知,空白处应填入 bargaining n.[U]“讨价还价; A.cost B.spend C.charge D.take (3)This pen will do ___________. Keys: 1. either 2. too 3. as well 4. also (4)He ______ enjoys playing table tennis in his spare time.

8.—Dr White has got plenty of information about the UFO. He's promised to offer it to me. —I have as much. Would you like to have mine _____?A.as well 答案:A A.so did I 9.(2010· 福建六校三联)-You forgot your purse when you went out. B.so I did C.I did so D.I so did 解析:答语为:“我也有一些信息,你也需要我的吗?”故选 as well。 -Good heavens, ______.

答案:B 解析:考查倒装句。so did I 表示“我也这样做了(两句话的主语不一致时使用)”;so I did 表示“我 的确这样做了(两句话的主语是同一个人,不表示强调)”。I so did 是错误的表达方式。由语境可知,B 项 正确,即“我的确忘了带钱包”。 10.—Your job ______ open for your return. A.will be kept B.will keep —Thanks. D.had been kept C.had kept

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答案:A 解析:keep the job/the position open “使工作、职位等处于空缺状态”,由句意“随时欢迎你回来 工作”可知用将来时。 11.Children under six are not ______ to school except those of extraordinary intelligence. A.permitted receive 收到。 12. The father as well as his children ______ skating on the frozen river every Sunday afternoon in winter. A.is going B.go C.goes D.are going 答案:A 解析:as well as 连接并列主语时,谓语动词与前一主语在数上保持一致,排除 B、D 项。且句 中用进行时态表将来,故选 A。 13.In 2010 the Chinese people are always in high spirits, for pieces of exciting news come to China ______. A.step by step B.little by little C.day by day D.one after another 答案:D 解析:句意为“在 2010 年,中国人民总是情绪高涨,因为好消息一个接一个地传到中国”。A. 逐步地 B.一点一点地 C.日复一日地 D.一个接一个地。 14.In 1492 Columbus and his crew arrived ______ was so -called the New World by the westerners. A.in what 在从句中做主语。 15.The house rent is expensive. I've got about half the space I had at home and I'm paying ______here. A.as three times much 答案:D B.as much three times 英语倍数表达法 英语倍数表达法是高中英语教学的重点,也是历届高考的热点。 1. “A+倍数+形容词或副词的比较+than+B”,表示“A 比 B 大(长、高、宽等)多少倍”。如: This rope is twice longer than that one. 这根绳子是那根绳子的三倍长(比那根绳子长两倍) 。 This hall is five times bigger than our classroom. 这个大厅比我们的教室大五倍(是我们教室的六倍)。 The car runs twice faster than that truck. 这辆小车的速度比那辆卡车快两倍(是那辆卡车的三倍) 。 2.“A+倍数+as+形容词或副词的原级+as+B”,表示“A 正好是 B 的多少倍”。 如: Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲的面积是欧洲的四倍。 This big stone is three times as heavy as that one. 这块大石头的重量是那块的三倍。 The plane flew ten times as high as the kite. 那架飞机的飞行高度是那只风筝的十倍。 3. “A+倍数+the size/height/length/width, etc+of+B”,表示“A 正好是 B 的多少倍”。如: This street is four times the length of that one. 这条街是那条街的四倍长。 This hill is four times the height of that small one. 这座山的高度是那座小山的四倍。 4. “ ... times as many/much+名词+as+被比对象”。如: There is four times as much water in this pot as in that one. 这个壶里装的水是那个壶里的四倍。 There are six times as many students as we expected. 学生数量是我们预期的六倍。 5.“ ... times+over+被比对象”。如: The grain output in that village is twice over that of 2002. 那个村的粮食产量是 2002 年的两倍。 6. “ ... times+that+of+被比对象 ”。如: In this workshop, the output of July was 4.5 times that of January. 这个车间 7 月份的产量是 1 月份的 4.5 倍。 7. “...times+compared with+ 被比对象”。如: The number of the students in our school has increased 4 times compared with 1980. 我们学校的学生人数比 1980 年增加了三倍。 C.much as three times D.three times as much 解析:考查“倍数+as much as”表示倍数比较,其中省略了第二个 as 及比较对象。 B.in which C.what D.where 答案:A 解析:由搭配可知 arrive in 表示“到达”。介词 in 后面是由 what 引导的宾语从句,且 what B.admitted C.accepted D.received 答案:B 解析:be admitted to “允许进入”合题意。permit 表示“允许”的意思,但无此搭配。accept 接受;

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8. “...times+what+从句”。如: The production is now three times what it was ten years ago. 现在的产量比十年前增加了两倍。 第二单元 Topic __2__ standard English in the world. Dialects in America _____7___ dialects America for in 任务性读写 P13 Standard English and ______1_______ It is ____3____ that people working on TV and the radio use standard English to report news. 2) Believe it or not, no standard English __4__ in the world. There are many dialects in America. That is to say, many people in the US don’t use the ___5__ words or expressions as the “standard English” . Even two persons from towns ____6____ to each other speak a little differently. __8__ English has so many dialects because people have gone there From all over the world. __9__ plays a role in making dialects, too. Sometimes, people from different places speak the same dialect. People move from one place to another, but their dialects can still be __10__ and understood. 1._____________ 2._____________3._____________4._____________5._____________ 6._____________7._____________8._____________9._____________10.________ Key: 1. DIALECTS 6. next 2. No 7. Reasons 3.believed 8. American 4. exists 5. same 9. Geography 10. recognized the diversity of

词组搭配归纳 1 take part in/join in 参加 2 the spirit of 精神、宗旨、灵魂 3 used to 过去常常 4 find out 查明,找出 9 allow doing sth. 5 every four years 每四年,每隔三年 6 two sets of 两套,两组

7 allow sb. in(out) 允许进入(出去); 8 allow sb. to do sth.允许某人做某事(不用 allow to do) 允许干某事。10 be/get married(强调状态)+ to(不能用 with) sb 和…结婚 获准做某事 达到……水平、标准 感谢您(能抽空……) 有(没)做……的机会 11 a set of 一套,一组 12 compete in… 在某方面竞争 13 compete for… 为……而竞争 14 compete with/against 与……竞争 15 be admitted to 16 be admitted as 作为…被接受 17 reach the standard 19 as well as 和……一样 20 thank you for your time 21 come from the same root 26 run against…

18 play an important role/part in 在…方面扮演重要角色(起重要作用) 同根 22 have (no) chance of doing sth. 听说 28 make sure 确定 一个接一个 31 make sure +that clause 确定

23 go with 伴随,与……搭配 24 relate…to… 把……与关联起来 25 relate with 和…有关 和……赛跑 27 hear of 29 take turns 轮流 30 one after another

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