Learning about language
Discovering useful words and expressions
1 Find the word or expression for each of the
following meanings from the text. 1. to choose carefully-- select 2. not seen or found very often-- rare 3. welcome area in a hotel --- reception 4. to surprise somebody very much --- amaze
5. no more than-- less than
6. made of wood-- wooden 7. trying to find something; looking
carefully for something--- in search of
8. to manage to live or continue in
9. to take something away -- remove
10. person who creates things which
can be considered works of art -- artist 11. of an earlier period or time;
happening before -- former
12. in a situation in which two sides
fight each other --- at war
2. Complete the passage with the words below. rare designed decorated style doubt fancy dynasties amazing worth jewels
Chen Lei studied art history and the early ________ of China in a dynasties university. He was able to recognize the _____ of different cultural relics style from former times,
especially the Tang and Song dynasties.
One day he was looking in a second-hand
furniture shop when he saw an _______ amazing object among the many different vases and ______. It was a mirror ________ in jewels designed the Song Dynasty and decorated in the _________ ______ style of that time. fancy
He recognized that it was a _______ rare cultural relic, but at a price he could afford, so he bought it at once. Later he gave it to his local museum. The people there were very happy and without ______ consider it one of the doubt treasures of their collection. To them, it was ______ much more than Chen Lei worth paid.
The Restrictive and Non-Restrictive
a) She has two brothers who are working in the city. (She has more than two brothers.)
b) She has two brothers, who are working in
the city. (She has only two brothers.)
下面两个句子只有一个逗号之差，意义大相径庭。 a)He will wear no clothes which will make him
different from others.
他不会穿一些使他显得与众不同的衣服。 b) He will wear no clothes, which will make him different from others. 他不穿衣服, 这会使他显得与众不同。
She has two brothers, (who are working in the city).
指人 指物 在定语从句中的作用
Which 指代整个主句 √ whose √ √
指地点 指时间 在定语从句中的作用
地点状语 √ 时间状语
that, why不能在非限制性定语从句中使用。 As引导非限制性定语从句常位于句首, 指代 整个的主句。常译为“正如”。
限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 1.限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少 的定语, 如果去掉, 主句的意思就不完整或 失去意义。这种从句和主句的关系十分密切， 写时不用逗号分开。限制性定语从句中作宾语 的关系代词常可省略。如: a) What is the name of the tall woman who is standing there? 站在那边的那个女人叫什么名字? b) Toronto is a city (that) I' ve always wanted to visit. 多伦多是我常想去参观的一个城市。
2. 非限制性定语从句和主句关系不十分密切, 只是对先行词作些附加的说明, 如果去掉, 主句 的意思仍然清楚。这种从句和主句之间往往用 逗号分开, 一般不用that引导。非限制性定语 从句中, 关系词不可省略。如： a)Rome, which is the capital of Italy, has a very long history. 意大利的首都罗马历史非常悠久。
b) Yesterday I met Professor King, who
came from the University of London.
c) He lent me a dictionary, which was just what I needed. 他借给我一本词典, 这正是我所需要的。
3.大多数限制性和非限制性定语从句的先行词 往往为某一个词或短语, 而特殊场合非限制性 定语从句的先行词也可为整个主句, 此时非 限制性定语从句常由which引导。 eg. A middle-aged woman killed her husband, which frightened me very much.
析: 从语境可知，令我恐惧的内容应为中年 女子杀害了其丈夫这整个一件事， 因此 先行词为整个主句，此时应由which引导 定语从句。
eg. A five-year-old boy can speak two
foreign languages, which surprises all
the people present. 一个五岁的男孩会讲两门外语, 令所有在场 的人感到非常惊讶。 析: 从语境可知, 令所有在场的人感到惊讶 的内容是一个五岁男孩会讲两门外语这整个 一件事，因此先行词为整个主句，此时应由 which引导非限制性定语从句。
1. Her brother who is now a soldier always encourages her to go to college. 她那当兵的哥哥总是鼓励她上 大学。(意含: 她还有其他哥哥)
Her brother, who is now a soldier, always encourages her to go to college. 她哥哥是当兵的, 他总是鼓励她
2. All the books that have pictures
in them are well written.
All the books, which have pictures
in them, are well written.
Tom found the ancient book, which was broken.
As is said in the newspaper, two farmers saw the UFO in the field.
As 引导的非限制性定语从句, 常位于 句首, which不可以。
I like the house, whose windows face the sea.
先行词在从句做定语, 用关系词 whose
Cindy is a lovely girl, with whom many people like to make friends.
People will remember August 8th, 2008, when 29th Olympic Games was held in Beijing.
先行词在从句中作时间状语, 用when或介词 +which。
1. People are excited to meet Zhai Zhigang, he
was the first Chinese to walk in space . who
2. Many Chinese will never forget May 12th,
2008, when a big earthquake happened in
then去掉 Sichuan then. Which 3. Which is shown on TV, many children As
suffered a lot from the polluted milk.
from whom 4. Lin Hao is a hero, who we should learn. who we should learn from
5. China got the most gold medals in the
Olympics, that makes people excited. that
6. I dream of going to Beijing, which the 29th which Olympic Games was held. where/ in which
where/in which 1. Hangzhou is a beautiful city, _____________ people visit the famous West Lake.
which 2. Beijing, _________ is the capital of China,
has a very long history.
As 3. ______ is known to all, he is the best student.
4. The young man had a new girl friend, who ________ is a pop star.
5. I should thank my teacher, with ______ whose
help, I solved the problem.
6. He once worked on the Bird’s Nest, of which ____ _______ his son is proud.
Fill in the blanks with proper link words
The doctor lives downstairs
“Doctor,” she said loudly, breaking into the room, where there was a man, “I want you to _____ tell what is wrong with me.” He looked at her from head to foot, then said, “____ is As shown in the mirror, I've just three things to tell you.
First, I suggest you, my lady, _________ whose
weight needs reducing by nearly fifty pounds.
Second, you may use 1/10 as much lipstick
(口红), by ______ you will be prettier. which
And third, I’m an artist---the doctor,
______ you are looking for, lives downstairs." whom
What does the woman look like?
She must be the _____ lady, who is…; first whose…
Guess who he/ she is
According to the notes, each group try
to make as many sentences as you can
so as to describe a famous person we know.
Other students try to guess who he/she is.
Try to use non-restrictive attributive clause,
use different relative words.
惜 时 再 现
关系代词 which, whose, whom, who;
禁用: _____, ______
1. (10福建24) Stephen Hawking believes that earth is unlikely to be the only planet _