Learning about language
Discovering useful words and expressions
1 Find the word or expression for each of the
following meanings from the text. 1. to choose carefully-- select 2. not seen or found very often-- rare 3. welcome area in a hotel --- reception 4. to surprise somebody very much --- amaze
5. no more than-- less than
6. made of wood-- wooden 7. trying to find something; looking
carefully for something--- in search of
8. to manage to live or continue in
9. to take something away -- remove
10. person who creates things which
can be considered works of art -- artist 11. of an earlier period or time;
happening before -- former
12. in a situation in which two sides
fight each other --- at war
2. Complete the passage with the words below. rare designed decorated style doubt fancy dynasties amazing worth jewels
Chen Lei studied art history and the early ________ of China in a dynasties university. He was able to recognize the _____ of different cultural relics style from former times,
especially the Tang and Song dynasties.
One day he was looking in a second-hand
furniture shop when he saw an _______ amazing object among the many different vases and ______. It was a mirror ________ in jewels designed the Song Dynasty and decorated in the _________ ______ style of that time. fancy
He recognized that it was a _______ rare cultural relic, but at a price he could afford, so he bought it at once. Later he gave it to his local museum. The people there were very happy and without ______ consider it one of the doubt treasures of their collection. To them, it was ______ much more than Chen Lei worth paid.
The Restrictive and Non-Restrictive
a) She has two brothers who are working in the city. (She has more than two brothers.)
b) She has two brothers, who are working in
the city. (She has only two brothers.)
下面两个句子只有一个逗号之差，意义大相径庭。 a)He will wear no clothes which will make him
different from others.
他不会穿一些使他显得与众不同的衣服。 b) He will wear no clothes, which will make him different from others. 他不穿衣服, 这会使他显得与众不同。
She has two brothers, (who are working in the city).
指人 指物 在定语从句中的作用
Which 指代整个主句 √ whose √ √
指地点 指时间 在定语从句中的作用
地点状语 √ 时间状语
that, why不能在非限制性定语从句中使用。 As引导非限制性定语从句常位于句首, 指代 整个的主句。常译为“正如”。
限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 1.限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少 的定语, 如果去掉, 主句的意思就不完整或 失去意义。这种从句和主句的关系十分密切， 写时不用逗号分开。限制性定语从句中作宾语 的关系代词常可省略。如: a) What is the name of the tall woman who is standing there? 站在那边的那个女人叫什么名字? b) Toronto is a city (that) I' ve always wanted to visit. 多伦多是我常想去参观的一个城市。
2. 非限制性定语从句和主句关系不十分密切, 只是对先行词作些附加的说明, 如果去掉, 主句 的意思仍然清楚。这种从句和主句之间往往用 逗号分开, 一般不用that引导。非限制性定语 从句中, 关系词不可省略。如： a)Rome, which is the capital of Italy, has a very long history. 意大利的首都罗马历史非常悠久。
b) Yesterday I met Professor King, who
came from the University of London.
c) He lent me a dictionary, which was just what I needed. 他借给我一本词典, 这正是我所需要的。
3.大多数限制性和非限制性定语从句的先行词 往往为某一个词或短语, 而特殊场合非限制性 定语从句的先行词也可为整个主句, 此时非 限制性定语从句常由which引导。 eg. A middle-aged woman killed her husband, which frightened me very much.
析: 从语境可知，令我恐惧的内容应为中年 女子杀害了其丈夫这整个一件事， 因此 先行词为整个主句，此时应由which引导 定语从句。
eg. A five-year-old boy can speak two
foreign languages, which surprises all
the people present. 一个五岁的男孩会讲两门外语, 令所有在场 的人感到非常惊讶。 析: 从语境可知, 令所有在场的人感到惊讶 的内容是一个五岁男孩会讲两门外语这整个 一件事，因此先行词为整个主句，此时应由 which引导非限制性定语从句。
1. Her brother who is now a soldier always encourages her to go to college. 她那当兵的哥哥总是鼓励她上 大学。(意含: 她还有其他哥哥)
Her brother, who is now a soldier, always encourages her to go to college. 她哥哥是当兵的, 他总是鼓励她
2. All the books that have pictures
in them are well written.
All the books, which have pictures
in them, are well written.
Tom found the ancient book, which was broken.
As is said in the newspaper, two farmers saw the UFO in the field.
As 引导的非限制性定语从句, 常位于 句首, which不可以。
I like the house, whose windows face the sea.
先行词在从句做定语, 用关系词 whose
Cindy is a lovely girl, with whom many people like to make friends.
People will remember August 8th, 2008, when 29th Olympic Games was held in Beijing.
先行词在从句中作时间状语, 用when或介词 +which。
1. People are excited to meet Zhai Zhigang, he
was the first Chinese to walk in space . who
2. Many Chinese will never forget May 12th,
2008, when a big earthquake happened in
then去掉 Sichuan then. Which 3. Which is shown on TV, many children As
suffered a lot from the polluted milk.
from whom 4. Lin Hao is a hero, who we should learn. who we should learn from
5. China got the most gold medals in the
Olympics, that makes people excited. that
6. I dream of going to Beijing, which the 29th which Olympic Games was held. where/ in which
where/in which 1. Hangzhou is a beautiful city, _____________ people visit the famous West Lake.
which 2. Beijing, _________ is the capital of China,
has a very long history.
As 3. ______ is known to all, he is the best student.
4. The young man had a new girl friend, who ________ is a pop star.
5. I should thank my teacher, with ______ whose
help, I solved the problem.
6. He once worked on the Bird’s Nest, of which ____ _______ his son is proud.
Fill in the blanks with proper link words
The doctor lives downstairs
“Doctor,” she said loudly, breaking into the room, where there was a man, “I want you to _____ tell what is wrong with me.” He looked at her from head to foot, then said, “____ is As shown in the mirror, I've just three things to tell you.
First, I suggest you, my lady, _________ whose
weight needs reducing by nearly fifty pounds.
Second, you may use 1/10 as much lipstick
(口红), by ______ you will be prettier. which
And third, I’m an artist---the doctor,
______ you are looking for, lives downstairs." whom
What does the woman look like?
She must be the _____ lady, who is…; first whose…
Guess who he/ she is
According to the notes, each group try
to make as many sentences as you can
so as to describe a famous person we know.
Other students try to guess who he/she is.
Try to use non-restrictive attributive clause,
use different relative words.
惜 时 再 现
关系代词 which, whose, whom, who;
禁用: _____, ______
1. (10福建24) Stephen Hawking believes that earth is unlikely to be the only planet _____ life B has developed gradually. A. that B. where C. which D. whose 2. (10湖南28) I’ve become good friends with several of the students in my school _____ I met A in the English speech contest last year. A. who B. where C. when D. which
3. The Beatles, ___many of you are old enough to remember, came from
Liverpool. (2007 天津)
A. what B. that C. how D. as
解析: D 本题考查非限制性定语从句, as可
4. _____ is known to everybody, the moon travels around the earth once every month. (NMET2001) A. It B. As C. That D. what 解析: B 本题考察非限定性定语从句。 as引导的非限定性定语从句修饰整个句子， 意思是“正如??” ，as在从句中充当主语 时常用结构: as is known, as is said, as is reported等，所以答案是B。
5. Alice received an invitation from her
boss, ___came as a surprise.
解析: C 此为非限定性从句, 不能用
that引导, 而用which。it 和he 都使
后句成为句子, 两个独立的句子不能 单以逗号连接, 况且选he句意不通。
6. The weather turned out to be very good,
___ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it 解析: B which可代替句子，用于非限定 性定语从句，而what不可。that 不能用于
7. By nine o’clock, all the Olympic torch bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma, ____ appeared a rare D rainbow soon. (2008 福建) A. of which B. on which C. from which D. above which
8. The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, _____ are beyond our control. B (2008 湖南) A. most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that
9. The Science Museum, ______ we A visited during a recent trip to
Britain, is one of London’s tourist
attractions. (2008 江苏)
10. The road conditions there turned out to be very good, ____ was more C than we could expect. (2008 全国) A. it B. what C. which D. that
11. The man pulled out a gold watch, _____ were made of small diamonds. D (2008 陕西) A. the hands of whom B. whom the hands of C. which the hands of D. the hands of which
12. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread out further, _______ New York is an example. C (2008 四川) A. for which B. in which C. of which D. from which
13. Yesterday she sold her car, ______ D she bought a month ago. (2008 浙江) A. whom B. where C. that D. which 14. I’ll give you your friend’s home address, ____ I can be reached most D evenings. (2008 北京) A. which B. when C. whom D. where
15. They will fly to Washington, ____ they A plan to stay for two or three days. (2008 重庆) A. where B. there C. which D. when 16. All the neighbor admire this family, ______ the parents are treating their B child like a friend. (2008 安徽) A. why B. where C. which D. that
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1. She was always speaking highly of her
role in the play, of course, _____ made A
the others unhappy.
A. which B. who C. this D. what
2. After living in Paris for fifty years he
returned to the small town _______ he D grew up as a child. A. which B. when C. that D. where
3. The gentleman ______ you told me B
yesterday proved to be a thief.
A. who B. about whom
C. whom A. which
C. in which
D. with whom B. where
4. Please take any seat ____ is free. D
5. The old man has two sons, _______ A is a soldier. A. one of whom B. both of them C. all of whom D. none of them 6. New York is famous for its sky-scrapers (摩天大楼)_____ has more than B 100 storeys. A. the higher of them B. the highest of which C. the highest of them D. some of which
7. My home village is no longer the same
_____ it used to be. B
A. which B. as
8. In the office I never seem to have time
until after 5:30 p.m., ______ many D
people have gone home. A. whose time C. at which B. that D. by which time
9. The boy ______ composition won the B
first prize is the youngest in the group.
A. who B. whose C. that D. which 10. The weather turned out to be very good, ______ was more than we could B expect.
A. what B. which C. that
11. Mr. Wang is a boss, ______ factory A
Li Ping worked.
A. in whose B. whose C. in whom D. of which 12. I don’t like the way _____ you speak D to her. A. / C. in which B. that D. All A, B, and C
13. I shall never forget the years _______ B I lived in the country with the farmers, ______ has a good effect on my life. A. that, which B. when, which C. which, that D. when, who 14. _____ is known to all, China will be an C advanced and powerful country in 20 or 30 year’s time. A. What B. That C. As D. It
15. Is this book _____ you want to C
borrow from the library?
A. that B. which C. the one D. /
16. Such a book ______ you showed me C
is difficult to understand.
A. that B. which C. as D. like
17. The speaker spoke of some writers
and some books _____ were popular then. B A. / B. that C. which D. who
18. This is the store ____ we visited the A famous shop assistants.
19. I’m going to spend my holiday in
Beijing, _____ my old parents live. C
20. If a shop has chairs ______ women D
can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop. A. that B. which C. when D. where
1. 不懂装懂, 一事无成。
He who knows nothing but pretends to know everything, is indeed a good-for-nothing. 2. 甘当小绵羊, 迟早要喂狼。 He that makes himself a sheep shall be eaten by the wolf. 3. 万事开头难。 It’s the first step that costs.
4. 千里之行, 始于足下。
He who would climb that ladder must
begin at the bottom.
He who is full of himself is very empty. 6. 闪光的未必都是金子。 Not all that glitters is gold.
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1. Review the grammar points;
2. Finish exercises 1, 2, 3 and 4 on
3. Preview using language.