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2015高考一轮复习讲义:必修1 Unit 4 Earthquakes

Unit 4


1.burst(vi.) 爆裂;爆发(n.) 突然破裂;爆发 2.event(n.)事件;大事 3.ruin(n.) 废墟;毁灭(vt.) 毁灭;使破产 4.extreme(adj.) 极度的 5.destroy(vt.)破坏;毁坏;消灭 6.shock(vt.& vi.)(使)震惊;震动(n.)休克;打击;震惊 7.rescue(n.& vt.) 援救;营救 8.trap(vt.)使陷入困境 (n.)陷阱;困境 9.disaster(n.) 灾难;灾祸 10.bury(vt.)埋葬;掩埋;隐藏 11.shelter(n.) 掩蔽;掩蔽处;避身处 12.damage(n.& vt.) 损失;损害 13.judge(n.) 裁判员;法官 (vt.)断定;判断;判决 14._injure(vt.)损害;伤害→injury(n.)伤害;损害→injured(adj.)受伤的 15.electricity(n.)电;电流;电学→electric(adj.)用电的;带电的 →electrical(adj.)与电有关的;电学的 16.frighten(vt.)使惊吓;吓唬→frightened(adj.)受惊的;受恐吓的→frightening(adj.)令人恐惧的 17.congratulation(n.)祝贺;(复数)贺词→congratulate(vt.)祝贺 (vt.)表示;表达;(n.)快车;速递→expression (n.)表达→expressive (adj.)有表现力的 19. earthquake (n.)地震 20. crack (n./vi.) 裂缝,劈啪声;开裂/破裂 21. smelly (adj.)发臭的/有臭味的 22. farmyard 农家,农场 23. pipe 管,导管 24. event 事件,大事 25. nation 国家;国民;民族 26. canal 运河,水渠 27. steam 水汽,蒸汽 28. dirt 污垢,泥土 29. ruin (n./vt.) 废墟; 毁灭; 使破产 30. suffering (n.)苦难, 痛苦 31.brick 砖 32. dam 大坝,堰堤 33. track 轨迹/足迹/痕迹 34. electricity 电(学/流) 35. mine 矿山/矿井 miner 矿工 36. title 标题;头衔;资格 37. sincerely 真诚地/ 真挚地 38. outline 要点/大纲/轮廓 39. headline 报刊的大字标题 40. cyclist 骑自行车的人 1.right_away 立刻,马上 3.dig_out 掘出;发 5.lose_hope 失去希望 7.in_ruins 严重受损;破败不堪 9.tens_of_thousands_of 数以万计的 2.at_an_end 结束;终结 4.think_little_of 考虑得少,满不在乎 6.as_if 仿佛;好像 8.a_(great)__number_of 许多,大量的 10.be_proud_of 以……而自豪

1.In the farmyards,the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat. 在农家大院里,鸡,甚至连猪都紧张得不想吃食。 意为“太……而不能……”,表示否定意义。 仿写:那不是个好主意,冰太薄了承受不了你的重量。 That’s not a good idea;the ice is too_thin_to_bear_your_weight. 2.Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed. 人们无论朝哪里看,那里的一切都几乎被毁了。 everywhere 相当于 wherever 或 no matter where,引导让步状语从句。 仿写:无论他去什么地方,他忘不了那次可怕的经历。 Everywhere_he_goes,he will never forget that terrible experience. 1.burst vt.& vi.(使)爆裂;(使)裂开;(使)炸开;突然出现;爆发;n.突然破裂;爆发 The other two boys jumped up with fright, staring at Tom.Suddenly, they burst out laughing.其他两

个男孩吓得跳了起来,盯着汤姆。突然,他们一阵大笑。 burst out crying/laughing? ? ? 突然哭起来/笑起来 (1) ? burst into tears/laughter ? (2)burst in/into 闯入,突然破门而入 (3)burst with anger/pride 勃然大怒/充满自豪感 ① Scarcely had she heard the news about the death of Luo Yang when she burst_out _crying/burst_into_tears.她一听到罗阳死亡的消息,就失声痛哭起来。 ② He burst_into_the_room without knocking at the door, which made me very angry.他没敲门就闯 进房间,这使我非常生气。 ③ He had great difficulty in controlling the car because a tyre burst during the first run. 他很难把汽车控制住,因为在开始的行程中爆了一只轮胎。 2.injure vt.损害;伤害 原句:Twothirds of them died or were injured during the earthquake.他们中有 2/3 在地震中伤亡。 ?injured adj.受伤的,受委屈的 ?injury n.伤,伤口;伤害 (1)? (2)? ?the injured伤员 ?do an injury to sb.伤害某人 ① Believe it or not,what you said just now injured_her_pride. 信不信由你,你刚才说的话伤了她的自尊心。 ② A terrible accident happened at the crossing and an ambulance rushed the injured to the hospital. 在十字路口发生了可怕的交通事故,救护车把受伤者火速送到医院。 辨析:injure,hurt 与 wound 意为“伤害”,一般用于由于意外或事故而受伤,也可指损害名誉,伤害 injure 感情等 hurt 受伤的一般用词,既可以指肉体上的伤害,也可以指精神上的伤害 wound 通常是指武器的伤害,如刀、枪等的伤害,尤其是指战场上的伤害 巧思妙解 用 injure,hurt,wound 填空 ③ What really hurt me was that he ignored me on purpose.使我确实伤心的是他故意不理睬我。 ④ He retired from the army because of being wounded in a fight.他因在战斗中受伤而退伍。 ⑤ It is obvious that this could seriously injure the company’s reputation. 显而易见这会严重损害公司的声誉。 3.ruin n.[U] 毁坏;毁灭;崩溃;n.[C](pl.)废墟;遗迹;v.(使)破产;(使)堕落;毁灭 She was afraid that classical study would ruin his jazzinfluenced style. 她担心对古典音乐的学习会毁了他受爵士影响的风格。 (1)be in ruins 成为废墟 ruin 使……毁灭;使……没落 (2)ruin oneself 自取灭亡 ruin one’s health/fame/future 毁坏某人的健康/名誉/前途 ① The strong earthquake left the city in_ruins merely in several seconds. 强烈的地震仅在几秒的时间里就使这座城市成了废墟。 ② The ancient temple has fallen into ruin and needs repairing. 这座古老的庙宇已经是破败不堪,需要修理。 ③ Drunk driving not only ruined_himself but also killed several passersby.醉驾不仅毁掉了他自己 还导致几名路人死亡。 4.bury vt.埋葬,掩埋;隐藏;使沉浸,使专心;插入,刺入 原句 The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead. (1)bury oneself in 专心于…… (2)be buried in 专心于 be absorbed in 专心于 (3)bury one’s face in one’s hands 双手掩面 ① The girl was sitting on the bench in the park,burying_herself/buried/absorbed in the book in her hands.女孩坐在公园的长凳上,埋头读着手里的那本书。 ② He stood on the sidewalk with his hands buried in the pockets of his dark overcoat.

他站在人行道上,双手插在黑色外套的口袋里。 表示“专注于某事”的动词短语还有以下几个: be absorbed in,be devoted to,be lost in,focus on,concentrate on 等。 ③ Lost in thought,he almost ran into the car ahead of him.陷入沉思,他几乎撞上前面的小汽车。 5.judge v.断定;判断;判决;n.裁判员;法官;评判员 原句 Your speech was heard by a group of five judges,all of whom agreed that it was the best one this year.五个裁判听你的演讲,他们都同意这是今年最好的演讲。 (1)judge...from/by...从……来判断 judge between right and wrong 判断是非 as far as I can judge 据我判断;我认为 (2)judging by/from 从……上看;根据……判断 ?judgement n.判断,审判,意见,判断力 (3)? ?in one’s judgement 依某人看来,按某人的看法 ① It is true that we can’t judge a book by its cover.我们不能以貌取人,此话没错。 ② Judging_from/by_his_expression,he was satisfied with my work. 从他的表情判断,他对我的工作很满意。 ③ As far as I can judge,it is he rather than you is to blame.据我判断,是他而不是你该受责备。 judging from/by 表示“从……上看,根据……来判断”,用在句首时,为一个独立 成分,不受句子主语和时态影响,只用现在分词作状语,而不采用过去分词的形式。 Ⅰ .完成句子 1 . However , some of the texts have too many___________( 对 我 们 而 言 难 以 理 解 的 新 词 汇).Therefore,I’d like to suggest changing them into easier ones. 2.Desperately_______ (专心于) the interesting TV program,I didn’t hear the doorbell ringing. 3._______________(根据他先前的经历判断),he has many advantages over other candidates. 4.On arriving there,we________________________(祝贺他) on his success. 5.It’s wrong of you to__________________(在树下躲避) in the storm. Ⅱ .单项填空 1.According to a recent survey,too much cigarettes and wine are________many people’s health. A.hurting B.injuring C.ruining D.deserting 2.________in the leg made it impossible for him to walk his way home. A.Injured B.Injuring C.Having injured D.Being injured 3.________as a responsible person,Tony was appointed head of the department. A.Judging B.Judged C.Having judged D.To be judged 4.I haven’t read all of his books before,but________from the one I have read,I think he’s a very promising writer. A.judged B.judging C.determining D.determined 5. On seeing the former champion of the Olympics appear on the stage, the audience______cheering. A.burst in B.burst into C.burst on D.burst out 6.—Mary’s always________in reading and studying. —No wonder she always got the first place in any examination. A.buried B.scheduled C.burst D.shocked an end 结束;终结 原句:It seemed as if the world was at an end!仿佛到了世界末日!

?at the end of...在……尽头,在……末端 (1)?by the end of到……结束时,到……时候为止 ?常与完成时态连用

(2)come to an end 结束

put/bring an end 结束…… make (both) ends meet 使收支相抵;量入为出 put an end to sth.结束;终结 (3)end up with 以……结束 ① The meeting was nearly at_an_end when I got to the meeting room.② By the end of last year,he had learned two thousand English words.到去年年底为止,他已学了 2 000 个英语单词。 ③ Being out of work and having two young children,they found it impossible to make ends meet.他 们失业了,还要养活两个小孩,他们发现无法维持起码的生活。 ④ Smell the flowers before you go to sleep,and you may just end_up_with sweet dreams.睡前闻闻 花香,你就会进入甜蜜的梦乡。 2.a (great) number of 许多;大量 原句 Such a great number of people died because the quake happened while they were sleeping. 那么多的人丧生是因为地震发生在人们睡觉的时候。 表示“许多”的短语可分为三类: 修饰可数名 a large/great/good number of,a good/great many,quite a few, 词复数 dozens of,scores of 修饰不可 数名词 修饰可数或 不可数名词 a good/great deal of,a large amount of a lot of,lots of,a large quantity of,large quantities of,plenty of

① Now a_great_number_of_college_graduates are seeking to get a highpaid job.But the number of posts available for them is often not enough.如今很多大学毕业生努力想找一份待遇好的工作, 但适合他们的岗位的数量却经常不足。 ② There are a great many talented people waiting to be discovered.众多有才华的人有待于被发现。 (1)a number of+n.(pl.)作主语,谓语动词用复数,“许多……;大量……”。 the number of+(pl.)n.作主语,谓语动词用单数,“……的数目”。如果说“数量多少”,要用 large,small 或 high,low,不用 many,few。 (2)large quantities of+pl.n./[U]n.作主语,谓语动词用复数。 large amounts of+[U]n.作主语, 谓语动词用复数; 但是 a large quantity of +n., a large amount of+n.作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 ③ The number of foreign students attending Chinese universities has been rising steadily since 1990. 自从 1990 年以来,读中国大学的外国学生稳步上升。 ④ With more and more forests cut down,large quantities of soil are being washed away. 由于越来越多的森林被砍伐,大量的土壤被冲走了。 Ⅰ .完成句子 1 . I didn’t persuade them to do the experiment in that way , you know , they______________________(不把……当回事) my suggestion. 2.—We need an immediate reply.—I see. I’ll send the paper to you__________________(立刻). 3.I____________________(被困在) the heavy rain on the way to school yesterday. 4.It seemed that the world was__________(结束) when he learned that all his savings were gone.

5.—___________________ (大量的书) have been stolen from the library,haven’t they? —Yes.The number of them is 26,000. Ⅱ .单项填空 1.The hurricane came to____end at midnight,having caused great_____damage to the crops of our town. A./;a B./;/;/ 2. I’ve had enough of my neighbor. I’m going to________their noisy parties right now. A.put an end to B.give way to C.look up to D.come up to 3.—A number of people________learning English nowadays. —Yes.The number of people who are learning English________increasing.;is B.are;are C.are;is;are 4.Nowadays,a large number of women,especially those from the countryside,________in the clothing industry. working D.worked 5. It is reported that many a new house________at present in the disaster area. A.are being built B.were being built C.was being built being built 1.It seemed as if the world was at an end!似乎世界末日来临了! as if 是连词词组,意为“好像、好似”,相当于 as though,一般用于句型 It looks/seems as if... 中,其意思是“看起来好像……”。如果所引导的从句表示的情况接近事实,句子要用陈述语 气;如果与事实相反,句子要用虚拟语气。 ① Hurry up!It looks as if it is going to rain.快点!看起来好像要下雨了。 ② When a pencil is partly put into a glass of water,it looks as if it were_broken. 当把铅笔的一部分放进水里时,它看上去好像断了。 ③ Jack wasn’t saying anything, but the teacher smiled at him as if he had_done something very clever. 杰克没说什么,但是老师向他微笑,好像他之前做的是明智之举似的。 仿写:这个讲故事的人以一种生动的方式给我们讲故事,好像他亲身经历过的一样。 The storyteller was telling us a story in a vivid way as_if he had experienced it himself. 如果 as if 引导的从句中的主语和主句的主语相同, 且含有 be 动词, 可省略主语和 be 动词, 这样 as if 后就只剩下名词、不定式、形容词(短语)、介词短语或分词。 ④ She walked here and there on the playground as if (she was) looking for something.她在操场上来 回走,好像在找什么东西。 ⑤ He opened his mouth as if to say something.他张开嘴好像要说什么。 2.All hope was not lost.并没有丧失所有的希望。 该句是表示部分否定的句型。all...not...=not all...,意为“并非所有的……都……”。 ① All these books are not popular with people.=Not all these books are popular with people. (1)英语中的 all,both,each,every,everybody,everything,completely,always,whole, entirely 等具有总括意义的代词、形容词和副词与否定词 not 连用,无论 not 位置如何,均构 成部分否定,表示“并非都”的意思。 (2)英语中的 no, none, never, nobody, nothing, neither, no one, nowhere, no more, no longer, no way 等表否定意义的词(组)与肯定式谓语一起使用构成“全部否定”。 ② Every boy is not interested in sports.=Not_every_boy is interested in sports. ③ Both of the two math problems are not very difficult.=Not both of the two math problems are very difficult.这两道数学题并非都很难。 ④ I knew that nothing would ever discourage him;he would never give up wanting to be a director. 我知道没有什么能够阻碍他,他将永远不会放弃成为一名导演的想法。

仿写:并非所有的学生都遵守学校规章制度,因此作为一名老师,我们应严格要求他们。 All students don’t_obey the school rules,so as a teacher,we should be strict with them. Ⅰ .句型转换 1.It’s impossible for all the people to get jobs because all of them are not fit for them. →It’s impossible for all the people to get jobs because________ ________ ________ ________are fit for them. 2.The old man was lying on the ground as if he was hurt badly. →The old man was lying on the ground as if________ ________. 3.You must be very careful when you do your homework. →You________ ________ ________ ________when you do your homework. Ⅱ .单项填空 1.—Look at the skydivers!How wonderful! —Yes,________they were flying in the sky. if B.even if C.what if D.only if 2. She is always talking as though she________everything under the sun. A.knew B.knows C.should know D.must know 3.Swimming is my favorite sport. There is________like swimming as a means of keeping fit. A.something B.anything C.nothing D.everything 4.I agree with most of what you said,but I don’t agree with________. A.anything B.something C.everything D.nothing 5.—What about the monthly test?Is it easy? —Yes,but I don’t think________can pass it. A.somebody B.anybody C.nobody D.everybody 1.shock vt.& vi.(使)震惊;震动;n.休克;打击,震惊 be shocked to do sth.做某事很震惊 be shocked at...对…感到震惊 a shock to...使……吃惊 The bad news was a bad shock to the whole family.这个坏消息使这个家庭非常震惊。 2.trap vt.使陷入困境;n.陷阱;困境 trap sb.into sth./doing sth.诱使某人做…… be trapped in 困在……中,陷在……中 3.destroy vt.毁坏;摧毁 The whole city was completely destroyed in the sudden flood,leaving nothing to the native people.突然的洪灾使整个城市完全被破坏,当地人什么也没剩下。 4.think little/nothing of 认为……没什么了不起;对……满不在乎;轻视;忽视 think much/highly/well of 重视/看重;对…高度评价 be well/highly thought of 被…高度评价 George is organized, easygoing, hardworking and intelligent. In a word, I can’t think too highly of him.乔治做事有条理,为人随和,努力,聪明。总而言之,我对他赞叹不已。 写作素材 1.一场可怕的地震袭击了四川省雅安市。2.一切开始摇晃起来,水管爆裂,电力中断。 3.世界似乎到了末日。4.有些人受伤,有些人被埋在废墟下,还有些人失踪。 5.大量的被困群众等待着救援。 提示:黑体部分用本单元词汇表达。 【连句成篇】 A terrible earthquake hit Ya’an,Sichuan Province.Everything began to shake,with the pipes bursting and the electricity cut off.It seemed as if the world was at an end.Some people were injured,some were buried in the ruins and some were missing.A number of trapped people waited for the rescue.

答案:1. new words and expressions which are hard for us 2. buried in/burying myself in 3. Judging by/from his previous experience 4. offered our congratulations to him 5. take shelter under the tree 解析 1. 句意为:根据最近的调查,太多的烟和酒正在破坏人们的健康。ruin 破坏,毁灭;hurt 伤害(感情);injure 伤害,损害(感情),损害(名誉);desert 放弃,抛弃。答案: C .2. 考查非谓语动词。此处“being injured in the leg”作主语,又因是受伤,所以用动名词的被动 式。句意为:腿部受伤使他不可能步行回家。答案: D 3 考查非谓语动词。句意为:Tony 被认为是一个负责的人,所以他被任命为部门主管。分析句 子结构可知,Tony 与 judge 之间构成逻辑上的动宾关系,故此处用动词的ed 形式置于句首 作原因状语。答案: B 4. judging from...是固定短语,常在句中作状语。不管它与主语是主动还是被动关系,都要用 judging from 形式。答案: B 5. 考查与 burst 相关的短语搭配。句意为:一看到前奥运会冠军出现在舞台上,观众爆发出欢 呼声。burst out doing 相当于 burst into+n.。答案: D 6.句意为:——玛丽整天埋头于学习和读书中。——难怪她每次考试都得第一名。be buried in 埋头于;专心于。答案: A 答案:thought little of; right away/right now/at once; was trapped in; at an end; A large number of books 解析:.1 考查冠词以及固定搭配。at an end 结束;do damage to 对……造成损失。句意为:飓风 在午夜结束了,给我们城镇的庄稼造成了巨大的损失。答案: D 2. 考查动词短语辨析。 前一句提到已经受够了邻居, 由此可知我想立刻“终止”他们吵闹的聚会。 put an end to sth.结束某事,符合语意。答案: A 3.. a number of 许多, 修饰可数名词复数, 作主语时谓语动词用复数形式; the number of...…… 的数目,作主语时谓语动词用单数形式。答案: C 4 由 nowadays 可以得出应该用一般现在时,又因为 a number of 修饰主语时谓语动词用复数, 所以 A、B 两项不对。答案: C 5.句意为:据报道,目前在这个受灾地区正在建很多新房子。本题考查的是主谓一致和时态。 many a:a large number of 许多。many a+单数名词+单数动词。如:Many a strong man has weakened before such a challenge.很多坚强的人面对这种挑战都动摇了。Many a famous pop star has been ruined by drugs.很多著名的流行音乐歌星都因毒品而被毁了。根据谓语动词应该 用单数,排除 A 和 B 两项。根据 at present,时态应该是现在时态 答案: D 答案: not all of them hurt badly can’t be too careful 解析:1. 考查状语从句。句意为:——看(那些)跳伞运动员!好精彩呀!——就是,他们好像 正在空中飞一样。结合语境可知应用 as if 好像,仿佛。even if 即使;what if...?要是……会怎 样呢?only if 仅在……情况下。答案: A 2. 考查虚拟语气。在 as if/though 引导的从句中,如果从句是一个虚拟或不真实的情况,那么从 句就要用虚拟语气。句意暗含她不可能知道世界上所有的事情,因此此处要用虚拟语气,且是 对现在情况的虚拟,故 A 项正确。答案: A 3. 句意为:游泳是我最喜欢的运动。作为保持健康的方式,没有什么能比得上游泳了。本题考 查不定代词。根据上文可知,空格处需要一个表示否定意义的词,所以 C 为答案。答案: C 4. everything 与否定词连用表示部分否定。答案: C 5.句意为:——月考怎么样?简单吗?——是的,但我认为不是每个人都能通过考试。此 处 not everybody 意为:不是每个人,是部分否定。答案: D



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