2013 年高一英语精品测试训练：Unit 4 《Earthquakes》 任务型阅 读（人教版必修 1）
任务型阅读 阅读下面短文，根据所读内容在表格中的空白处填入一个恰当的单词。注意：每个空格只填 一个单词。 Passage 1
What Should You Do When an Earthquake Hits? If you find th
e ground shaking beneath your feet，there’s an international consensus on how you should act.Earthquake safety boils down to three basic steps： 1.Drop to the ground. 2.Take cover by getting under a sturdy desk or table. 3.Hold on to it until the shaking stops. If there isn’t a table or desk near you，drop to the ground in an inside corner of the building and cover your head and neck with your hands and arms.Do not try to run to another room just to get under a table. If you are in bed，hold on and stay there，protecting your head with a pillow.You are less likely to be injured staying where you are.Broken glass on the floor has caused injury to those who have rolled to the floor or tried to get to doorways. If you are outdoors ，move to a clear area if you can safely do so；avoid power lines， trees，signs，buildings，vehicles，and other hazards：If you’re at the movies or a sports game，stay at your seat and protect your head and neck with your arms.Don’ t try to leave until the shaking is over.Then walk out slowly watching for anything that could fall in the aftershocks. If you’re driving a car，pull over to the side of the road，stop，and set the parking brake.Avoid overpasses，bridges，power lines，signs and other hazards.Stay inside the vehicle until the shaking is over.If a power line falls on the car，stay inside until a trained person removes the wire. If you’re by the shore，drop，cover and hold on until the shaking stops.Estimate
how long the shaking lasts.If severe shaking lasts 20 seconds or more，immediately evacuate to high ground as a tsunami （海啸） might have been generated by the earthquake：1Vlove inland 3 kilometers（2 miles）or to land that is at least 30 meters （100 feet） above sea level immediately. Don’t wait for officials to issue
a warning.Walk quickly， rather than drive， avoid traffic,debris and other hazards. to If you live downstream for a dam，you should know flood-zone information and have prepared an evacuation plan.Latastrophie failure is unlikely，but dams can fail during major earthquakes. The main point is to try not to move and to immediately protect yourself as best as possible where you are.Earthquakes occur without any warning and may be so violent that you cannot run or crawl；you therefore will most likely be knocked to the ground where you happen to be.You will never know if the initial jolt will turn out to be start of the big one. In addition，studies of injuries and deaths caused by earthquakes in the US over the last several decades indicate you are much more likely to be injured by falling or flying objects（TVs，lamps，glass，bookcases，etc.）than to die in a collapsed building.“Drop，Cover and Hold on” offers the best overall level of protection.
答案：1.Measures/Steps/Action 5.supposed/expected Passage 2
6.pull 7.escape 8.prepare 9.where 10.less
Events such as hurricanes，earthquakes，floods，volcanic eruptions，and tornadoe s are all natural disasters.They are mostly related to the weather.Some are predicta ble—like a hurricane.Some，like an earthquake，surprise us.It is necessary for us to learn about them，so we can be prepared! Flooding happens during heavy rains，when rivers overflow，when ocean waves come
onshore，when snow melts too fast or when dams or banks break.Flooding is the mos t common of all natural disasters. Hurricanes are severe tropical storms that form in the southern Atlantic Ocean， Caribbean Sea，Gulf of Mexico，and in the Pacific Ocean.Hurricanes gather heat and energy through contact with warm ocean waters.Evaporation from the sea water increases their power. Hurricanes have winds at least 74 miles per hour.When they come onto land，the heavy rain，strong winds and heavy waves can damage buildings，trees and cars. Tornadoes are nature’ most violent storms.Tornadoes must always be taken seriously. s Tornadoes can be very dangerous—sometimes even deadly.They come from powerful thunderstorms and appear as moving.Tornado winds can reach 300 miles per hour.They cause damage when they land the ground.They can damage an area one mile wide and 50 miles long. While thu nder won’t hurt you—lightning will! So it’s important to pay attention when you hear thunder.Thunderstorms happen mostly in summer and every thunderstorm has lightning.Lightning can strike people and buildings，which is very dangerous. Thunderstorms affect small areas when compared with hurricanes and winter storms.The typical thunderstorm is 15 miles in diameter and lasts an average of 30 minutes. A volcano is a mountain with a large opening at the top through which melting rock， steam，gases escape from time to time with violent force from inside the earth.When pressure increases，eruptions occur.Gases and rock shoot up through the opening fill the air with small pieces.Eruptions can cause l ava flows，hot ash flows，mudslides， falling ash and floods，which is likely to knock down entire forests，cause floods and earthquakes.Fresh volcanic ash can cause damage to the lungs of older people， babies and people with respiratory problems. Terrible Natural Disasters Natural 1 Reasons Heavy rains[ Flooding Ocean 4 The most common Basic features Possible damage to
Snow melts Dams or banks breaks Heavy 2 74 miles per hour Heavy waves Wind 300 miles per hour Tornadoes Dangerous，even 6 Thunder Lightning Gases and rock shoot Entire 10 Pressure inside Volcanic 3 Earth Cause floods and The people’s health earthquakes 答案： 1.disasters 2.Hurricanes 8.area 9.buildings Passage 3 Most scientists are now certain that global warming is taking place.Gases such as carbon dioxide produced by burning of coal，oil，wood，together with industrial pollution，are creating a warm blanket around the earth.This blanket is trapping heat in the atmosphere and so raising the temperature of the earth. The evidence for global warming can now be seen in the world’s changing climate statistics.In Europe ， eight of the last ten years have seen record high temperature.For northern Europe ， this has generally been a change for the better.Gardens can even now grow tropical plants in England，though London may never see a “ White Christmas ” again.On the other hand ， the countries around the Mediterranean Sea，and those south of the Sahara desert are receiving even less rain 10.forests 3.eruptions 4.waves 5.rain 6.deadly 7.Trees up People and 9 A large 8 7 and cars 5 Buildings
Strong wind at least
than before.In sub-Saharan Africa the crops are drying out in the fields and people are dying of starvation.In the Americas，the climate is becoming more extreme— the summers are getting hotter and hotter and the storms are becoming more violent.In 1999 the southern United States was struck by a series of destructive hurricanes， while the end of 1999 saw the worst floods ever in Venezuela.Meteorologists expect such trends to continue，and indeed to worsen，if global warming cannot be halted （终止）. In addition to worrying about rising global temperatures and more extreme weather conditions ， scientists are closely monitoring sea levels around the world.These are slowly rising，as the northern and southern polar ice-caps start to melt.This will have serious consequences for low-lying countries near the sea， such as the coral islands in the Pacific，and Banglad esh where the River Ganges already folds the delta （三角洲） every year.Already parts of these places are disappearing under the rising tides. Title：Global Warming Main items 1 Contexts Gases from burning coal，oil，and wood with industrial pollution. In European countries: Record high temperature in the last 3 .
In the countries around the Mediterranean Sea: It is 2 4 less than before.
In sub-Saharan Africa: The crops are drying out in the fields and people are In Americas: 6 hot summers. storms and worst floods. 5 to death.
More 7 9 8
10 polar ice-caps 答 案 ： 1.Causes/Reasons 2.Evidences 3.decade 4.raining 5.starving
6.Increasingly 7.violent/destructive 8.Consequences 9.Rising 10.Melting Passage 4 Becoming a fireman is a c hallenging and competitive job today.A fireman’s main duty is being scheduled according to the fighting and extinguishment （扑灭） of fire which definitely requires being a strong man，both mentally and physically. The duty of a fireman involves protection of life and property of the public.They are the servicemen who are decisively selected by an organization to deal with situations like fire.The duty of a fireman intentionally consists of helpi ng innocent people in their time of need.Such type of jobs is one of those few jobs where service is provided for people when they need help immediately.This may include rescuing people from a building at fire，providing them with medical facilities， extinguishin g fire in a house or in a large commercial building.Serving people is the main intention of these professionals.The satisfaction which a fireman gets from this type of job cannot be compared to any other profession in the world. Such profession demands top-level commitment and professionalism from those who have chosen it as a career.Fireman should possess the highest level of courage and patience to put their lives in danger for the sake of others.They undergo lessons of maintaining patience for long hours and go through complete preparation to become successful and well-organized professional firemen.There are certain tests that are recommended before becoming a fireman. It’s not that easy to become a fireman nowadays.A fireman is supposed to deal with unexpected situations，and they should be skilled at communicating with others and be self-disc iplined at the same time. In order to be a good fireman，one must undergo（经历，接受）strict local fire department’s training program after passing all the tests.All the fire departments conclude a two-to-four-month course，including classroom training and practical training that cover firefighting techniques，fire avoidance，dangerous materials and urgent situation medical actions.Completing this training，trainees go through the department’s trial period of service that can last from three to six months， depending on the methods of selection.
Firemen usually work both indoors and outdoors.They have to be on duty at all times and mostly work in shifts of at least 8 hours.They are also provided with several benefits which include medical aid plan，pension fund，annual leave and many more. Title：Fireman The servicemen decisively selected by an organization to Definition like fire. ·Helping innocent people 2 facilities. · 4 out fire in a hou se or in a large commercial building. 3 they need help. 1 situations
·Rescuing people from a building at fire and providing them with medical
·Having top-level commitment and professionalism. ·Being courageous and Requirements 5 . 6 .
·Being strong both in body and ·Having good 7 skills.
·Being self-disciplined. 8 ·Firefighting techniques，fire avoidance，dangerous materials and urgent situation medical actions. ·The department’s trial period of service which possibly months. 10 Medical aid plans，pension fund，annual leave and many more. 2.Duties/Responsibilities 3.whenever/when 8.Training/Courses 4.Putting 9.lasts 9 3～6
答案：1.handle/approach 5.patient 10.Benefits 6.mind