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Period 4 Grammar
Step 1 Warming up Warming up by discovering useful words and expressions Step 2 Presentation Boys act one cartoon figure and says something. Teacher asks “What did he/sh

e say?” Girls act the other cartoon figure and answer the teacher’s question. Then boys and girls exchange. The shoes are too big for me. What did he say? He said the shoes were too big for him Step 3 Grammar The students will learn the use of Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (statements and questions). First try to make clear to the students what direct and indirect speech is, with the help of the practice in Step III. Then give them some examples. At last get

them to summarize the rules of Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (statements and questions). T: In this part, we are to learn the use of Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (statements and questions). Indirect Speech? 一、直接引语变成间接引语,句子结构的变化 1.陈述句 用连词 that 引导,that 在口语中常省略。主句的谓语动词可直接用引语中的 said, 也可用 told 来代替,注意,可以说 said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that,不可直接说 told that He said, “I have been to the Great Wall.” → He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall. He said, “I'll give you an examination next Monday.” → He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday. When do we use Direct Speech and when do we use

解题步骤: “I don’t like computers,” Sarah said to her friends. Sarah said to her friends that I don’t like computers. Sarah said to her friends that she didn’t like computers. .2.一般疑问句 间 接 引 语 用 连 词 whether 或 if 引 导 , 原 主 句 中 谓 语 动 词 said 要 改 为 asked(me/him/us 等),语序是陈述句的语序 He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?” →He asked (me) whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation. He said, “You are interested in English, aren't you?” →He asked whether I was interested in English. 解题步骤: Is it easy to improve the condition of the soil? (They asked him) “It is easy to improve the condition of the soil.” They asked him if it is easy to improve the condition of the soil was They asked him if it was easy to improve the condition of the soil. 3.特殊疑问句 原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词,主句的谓语动词用 ask(sb. )来表达,语序改 为陈述句语序 He said to me,“What's your name?” → He asked me what my name was.

He asked us, “How many car factories have been built in your country?” →He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country. 解题步骤: When do you harvest the wheat? ( They asked him ) you harvest the wheat They asked him When you harvest the wheat. He harvested

They asked him when he harvested the wheat.

4.选择疑问句 用 whether…or…表达,而不用 if…or…,也不用 either…or… He asked, “Do you speak English or French?” →He asked me whether I spoke English or French. I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?” →I asked him whether he would take bus or take train. 二、在直接引语变为间接引语时需要注意的变化 1. 注意时态的变化 Direct Present Past Present perfect Past perfect 2. 注意人称变化。 3. 注意指示代词的变化 this, these(that, those) 4. 注意时间的变化 now, today, this week ,yesterday, last week ,four days ago ,the day before yesterday , tomorrow , next month(then, that day, that week, the day before, the week before, four days before ,two days before , the next day, the next month) 5. 注意地点的变化 here( there) 6. 注意个别趋向动词的变化 come, bring (go, take) 三、谓语动词时态变化需要注意几点: 1.直接引语表述的是客观真理,变为间接引语时,时态不变 The geography teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.” The geography teacher told us that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 2. 如果直接引语所表述的内容在目前和说话时同样有效,变间接引语时,时态 可不变 The children said, “We love this game.” They told us that they love that game. 3.主句谓语动词的时态是现在时态,在引述时,时态不变。 She says, “I’ll never forget the days in the country.” She says that she’ll never forget the days in the country. indirect past past and past perfect past perfect past perfect

从句时态无须改变的还有以下情况: 1. 当主句的谓语动词是将来时的时候 2. 当直接引语部分带有具体的过去时间状语时 3. 当直接引语中有以 when, while 引导的从句,表示过去的时间时 4. 当引语是谚语、格言时 5. 当直接引语中有情态动词 should, would, could, had better, would rather, might, must, ought to, used to, need 时 Step 4 Practice

For Ex 1, get the students to look at the sentences carefully in pairs in order to find out the difference between direct speech and indirect speech. Guide the

students to find out the changes in pronoun forms, word order, adverbials and so on, especially the verb tenses, the underline parts. Ask the students to pay attention to the reporting clause. For Ex 2, ask the students to do it by themselves, then check. Exercises: 1. He said, “I m afraid I can’t finish this work.” _____________________________________________________________ 2. He said, “I haven’t heard from him since May.” _____________________________________________________________ 3. Tom said “I will see you next week.” _____________________________________________________________ 4. “Why were you late again?” The teacher said to me. _____________________________________________________________ 5. “I don’t like swimming,” said Sarah. _____________________________________________________________ 6. His friends asked him if he would go to Dalian. _____________________________________________________________ 7. “Have you been to Paris?” My classmate asked me. _____________________________________________________________

高考链接 1. Readers can ________ quite well without knowing the exact meaning of each word. A. get over B. get in C. get along D. get through

2. It’s hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ______ in love, at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. A. wouldn’t have fallen C. should fall B. had not fallen D. were to fall

3. Father went to his doctor for _______ about his heart trouble. A. an advice C. advices B. advice D. the advices

4. I wonder how he ____ that to the teacher. A. dare to say C. not dare say Step6 Correcting mistakes T analyses the common mistakes Ss have made during the practice. T: Now let’s look at the screen and pay attention to these sentences. Choose the right sentence and tell me why the other one is wrong. B. dare saying D. dared say


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