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2016 高考英语重点词组、词汇、短语句型专题
1. a great/good many:a large number of 许多。修饰可数名词复数。 I'm quite busy. I have a great many things to do. 我很忙,我有很多事要做。 若复数名词前有限定词或其修饰的为代词时,应加 of . ①A great many o

f the books have been sold out. 已经卖了很多书了。 ②A great many of them are out of work.他们很多人失业了。 2. able(可以的,有能力的,可能的) ①He is an able man.那人本事不小。 enable(v)使……能 ②We must learn more to enable us to face all the difficulties.我们要多学知识以便能面对 各种困难。 disable:有残疾的,不能干的;the disabled 表示一类人(残疾人) able 作词辍时 ①可以……的,值得……的(有被动含义) eatable 可食用的,measurable 可以测量、估计的;readable 可读的 ②其他含义:conformable 舒适的、安逸的;suitable 合适的,恰当的 3. above, over, on 三个词都可以表示“在……上”,但用法不同。On 表示与某物体表面接触;over 表示在某物 体垂直的上方,含“布满、覆盖、跨越”之意,与 under 相对;above 表示位置高于,但不一 定垂直,与 below 相对。注意:与数字、数量、长度词连用时,多用 over,同 more than. 如:over10,000people 一万多人;表示年龄、刻度多用 above,如 a man above fifty 五十 开外的人;above zero 零度以上。 习惯用语:well above average 远在一般以上;above sea-level 海拔以上;the one above 上面的一个;above all 首先,尤其重要的是;over there 那边;all over 遍及;over again 再一遍;over and over 再三地 [应用]介词填空 ①There lay an umbrella_______the table and some raincoats _____it. ②The mother held an umbrella______the boy's head so that the sun wouldn't burn him. ③ There seemed to be a war and many planes were flying____the city. ④The moon was______the trees in the east. Key:①on,under ②over ③over ④above above all 首先,特别是,最重要的是 after all 到底,毕竟 at all (用来加强语气)与 not 连用,表示“一点也不,完全不”。 in all 总共 all but 几乎,差点没(=almost,nearly)

①We have all but finished the work. ②The day turned out fine after all. ③Children need many things ,but above all they need love. ④He wasn't at all tired. ⑤Do you feel ill at all(真的,确实)? ⑥There were twenty in all at the party. 4. accident/event/incident event 一般指重大事件。accident 多指意外或偶然发生的事故,特别是不幸的、有损害性的 事故。 incident 相对于 accident 来说,显得不很重要,指“小事件”,它还可以用来表示“事变”,如 叛乱、爆炸等。如: The broadcaster is broadcasting the news on current events.广播员正在播报时事新闻。 He was badly injured in the traffic accident.在那起交通事故中,他严重受伤。 There was an incident on the bus: a man fought with the conductor.那辆公共汽车上发 生了一件事,有个人和售票员打来。 Have you heard of Xi'an Incident?你听说过“西安事变”吗? 5. admit vt. ①接纳,许可……进入(allow sb./ enter) He was admitted to the school this year.Only two hundred boys and girls are admitted to our school every year. ②承认,后可接名词,doing、从句或复合结构。 I admit my fault. She admitted having read the letter. He admitted that his comprehension was weak. You must admit the task to be difficult. 6. advice 建议;劝告。是不可数名词,“一条建议”应用 a piece of advice.常用结构。 give sb.advice(on)/give advice 给某人提(关于……的)建议;忠告某人。 ask(sb.)for advice 征求(某人的)意见。 ①Marx gave us some good advice on how to learn a foreign language.关于如何学好外语, 马克思给我们提了些好建议。 ②If you take /follow my advice, you'll pass the exam.如果你听从我的建议,你会考试及 格的。 ③Let's ask our teacher for some advice.咱们征求一下老师的意见吧。 7. admire(= respect / praise)vt.羡慕,钦佩,夸奖 admire sb.(for sth.)佩服某人某事 Visitors to Beijing greatly admire our Palace Museum. 去北京的游人极其羡慕我们的故宫。 I admire him for his wisdom.我佩服他的智慧。别忘了夸奖孩子。

对比:envy(= jealous)vt.嫉妨,羡慕 envy sb.(sth.)嫉妒/羡慕某人某事 We all envy you your good future. 我们都很羡慕你的 好运。 8. advise sb. to do sth.建议某人做某事(suggest 不这样用)。 ①I advise you to take the chance.我建议你抓住机会。 ②-What do you advise me to do?你建议我怎么办? -I advise you not to lose heart; just keep on.我劝你不要灰心,继续干。 advise 还可同 suggest 一样,后接名词、代词、动名词(短语)和 that 从句(用虚拟语气) 作宾语。 ①-What would you advise?你有什么建议吗?-I advise you an early start 我建议你早点出 发。 ②I advise holding a metting to discuss the problem.我建议召开一次会议来讨论这个问题。 ③I advise you (should) go to once.我建议你马上去。 advise;persuade persuade sb. to do sth.意为“说服某人做某事”,强调劝说成功,说服;advise sb. to do sth. 意 为“劝说某人做某事”,不涉及劝说是否有效,相当于 try to persuade sb. to do sth 如: The doctor persuaded my father to give up smoking.医生说服我爸爸戒了烟。 The doctor advised my father to give up smoking, but failed.医生劝我爸爸戒烟,但没成 功。 advise;suggest advise 与 suggest 都可作“建议”讲,二者用法有同有异。 (1)相同点表示建议做某事,advise 与 suggest 都可采用下列三种句型: ① + 名词 ② + 动名词 ③ + that 从句(从句中常用 should 加动词原形,should 可以省略。) eg. He advised/ suggested an early start. He advised/ suggested (our) starting early. He advised/ suggested that we (should) start early. (注:只要是用从句表示建议该做的事,从句中就可用“should+动词原形”,should 可以省 略。)上面的第三句可转化为: It was suggested that we (should) start early. What he suggested was that we (should) start early. His suggestion was that we (should) start early。 (2)不同点 ①advise 后可以跟人称代词作宾语,而 suggest 后不可以跟人称代词作宾语。故可以说: advise sb. to do sth.; advise sb. against (doing) sth.; advise sb. on/ about sth.;suggest (to sb.) that…

前三种结构中不可将 advise 改为 suggest,如: 他建议我们去参观博物馆。 [正]He advised us to go to visit the museum. [误]He suggested us to go to visit the museum. [误]He suggested us that we go to visit the museum. ②suggest 还有“暗示、表明、说、指出(一个事实)”的意思。此时从句中用陈述语气,不 用虚拟语气。如: The smile on his face suggested that he was pleased. Having examined carefully, the doctor suggested that the patient was seriously ill.(句中 suggest 陈述了一个事实,故用陈述语气。) 比较:Having examined carefully, the doctor suggested that the Patient be operated on at once.(句中 suggest 表示建议该做某事,从句中用 should 加动词原形,should 在从句中 省略。) 9. affect(=have an effect on sth.)vt.影响(effect n.影响) This may affect your health. 这或许会影响你的健康。 My throat is always affected by bad weather.我的嗓子总是受恶劣天气的影响。 10. afraid 1)“be afraid of+名词”,意为“害怕”。 2)“be afraid of doing sth”意为“担心,害怕……”。 3)“be afraid for…”意为“为……担心。” 4)“be afraid that…”意为“担心,恐怕”。 5)“be afraid to do ”意为“害怕,担心而不敢做某事”。 6)I'm afraid so/not.恐怕是这样/恐怕不会这样 [应用]完成句子 ①女孩子一般都怕蛇。Girls are usually_____snakes. ②他怕把杯子打碎,因而很小心。He was careful because he was afraid_____the glass. ③你不为自己的安全担心吗?Are you afraid____your safety? ④恐怕她会迷路。I am____ ____she will lose her way. ⑤汤姆把钱丢了,也不敢告诉他母亲。Tom lost the money and was afraid_____ ____his mother. Key:①afraid,of ②of,breaking ③for ④afraid,that ⑤to tell 11. again and again = time and time again = over and over = over and over again 再三地 The old man thinks of his happy past again and again. 这位老人再三地想起他幸福的过去。 12. age (1)n.年龄,时代,时期

The old man died at the age of 80/when he was 80 years of age/when he was 80 years old. 那位老人 80 岁时去世了。 He is young for his age. 就他的年龄而论,他是年轻的。 What is the age of the church?这座教堂多少年了? He was the greatest poet of the age. 他是那个时代最伟大的诗人。 (2)vi./vt. 变老 He is aging fast. Worry ages a man. 他老得很快。忧虑令人老! I found him greatly aged. 我发现他老多了。 拓展:(1)adj. aged……岁的,年老的 a boy aged ten 一个 10 岁的男孩 an aged man 老人 (3)人生的七期 baby→infant→child→youth→manhood→middle age→old age 婴儿/0→幼儿 7→儿童 12→青年 28→壮年 40→中年 65→老年 13. agree 同意 常用桔构: (1)agree on 对……取得一致意见或达成协议,一般表示原双方共同商讨以后达成协议的 名词)。主语必须是两者以上。也常用被动语态,表示“(某事)是大家都同意的”。如: ①They agreed on the date for the next meeting. 对下次会议的日期他们达成了一致意见。 ②At last,the plan was agreed on. 最后,这项计划通过了。 ③I don't agree with you to this arrangement, but perhaps, after a discussion we will agree on this project.我不赞同你在这件事的安排,但或许在协商之后我们可以就这个工程 达成共识。 (2)agree to 同意;赞成。to 为介词,后接表示“建议;办法;计划”等名词。 ①Do you agree to my plan?你同意我的计划吗? ②The headmaster has agreed to our suggestion for the holiday.校长同意了我们度假的建 议。 (3)agree with 同意;赞成。后接 sb. 或 what 从句。 I agree with you ,but I don't agree with what he said.我同意你的意见,但我不同意他所 说的。 另外,agree with 还有“与……相适应/相一致”的意思。 The climate here doesn't agree with me .我不适应这里的气候。 (4)agree to do sth.同意、答应做某事。 Do you agree to go with us if we agree to lend you some money?如果我们答应借钱给你, 你同意和我们一起去吗? 14. ahead 短语归纳 go ahead 朝前走,请便(同意对方继续干或同意对方的请求);go ahead (on)with… 继 续;ahead of 在……前面,早于,优先;ahead of time 提前

[应用]完成句子 ①他朝前走去看看发生了什么事情。He _____ _____ to see what had happened. ②我可以坐这个座位吗?请坐吧。May I take this seat?_____ _____. ③汤姆的数学比玛丽好。Tom is ____ ____ Mary in maths. ④她比我早到 2 个小时。She arrived two hours _____ _____me. ⑤他们已提前三周完成了设计。They have completed the design _____ _____ ______ _____time. Key:①went,ahead ②Go,ahead③/ ④ahead,of⑤three,weeks,ahead,of 15. alive,living,live,lively,lovely 区别 1)lovely 意“可爱的”,“美好的”如:a lovely day 美好的一天 a lovely girl 可爱的女孩 2)alive 意为“活着的、有活力的”,是表语形容词,可修饰人、物;在句中做表语宾补和或 后置定词,不能用作前置定语。 如: He was alive when he was taken to the hospital.他被送往医院时还活着。 Although he is old, he is still very much alive.虽然年老了,但他仍十分活跃。 The fish is still alive/living.那条鱼还活着。 Keep him alive, please.请让他活下去吧。 He is the only man alive in the accident.他是事故中惟一活着的人。 After the war , he remained alive .战后他还活着。 Those alive will gather here. 活着的人将在此相聚。 3)living 意为“活着的、有生命的”,主要用于作前置定语及冠词 the 之后表示一类人,也 可用作表语,可修饰人或物。 如: a living plant 活的植物 The living will go on with the work of the dead.活着的人将继续死者的工作。 all living things 所有生物 the living 在世者,活着的人们 Latin is not a living language. 拉丁语不是现代使用的语言。 He is still living at the age of 95.95 岁了他还活着。 4)live [laiv] (1)(动、植物)“活的”,“有生命的”,“活生生的,主要用来说鸟或其它动物,作前置定 语; 如:a live fish 一条活鱼 a live tiger 一只活老虎 (2)实况的,现场直播的; 如:a live report 现场报道 a live show/broadcast/TV program 现场转播的表演/实况广播/ 现场直播的电视节目 living 有精神的,活泼的,快活的,轻快的 Her grandfather is still living at the age of 93.她爷爷已经 93 岁了,仍然健在。

5)lively 意为“活泼的”,“有生气的”,生动的“生动的”,可用作表语、定语,指人或物。 如: a lively child 活泼的孩子 a lively description 生动的描述如: a lively mind 活跃的头脑 a lively discussion 热烈的讨论 a way of making one's classes lively 使课堂生动的方法 He told a lively story about his life in Africa. 他讲述了一个有关他的非洲生活的一个生动故 事。 Young children are usually lively. 年轻人通常很活泼。 all the same adj.都一样;无所谓(to+n.) ①You can stay or leave now;It's all the same to me. ②It's all the same to me whether we'll go there today or tomorrow. adv.仍然,还是 Thank you all the same. all the year round 全年,一年到头 in the west coast of Canada,it rains all the year round. 16.allow 与 permit 1)用法相同 allow/permit do sth.允许某人做某事 allow/permit doing sth. 允许做某事。此时动词只用 ing 形式。 反义词 forbid 具有同样用法。 2)意义有异同 许多情况下可换用,只是词意的强弱上有差异。allow 语意较弱,含有“听任”,“默许”,“不 加阻止”的意思;permit 语意较强,强调“正式认可”,“批准”的意思。 如: The nurse allowed him to remain there, though it was not permitted. 护士让他留在那里,虽然这时(规定)不允许的。 17. amaze vt.使……惊奇 = astonish,surprise The news amazed us greatly.这条消息使我们感到很惊奇。 拓展: (1)amazed 人对……感到吃惊的;amazing(某物)……信人吃惊的。 they were all amazed at the amazing news. 听到这个令人吃惊的消息他们感到惊讶。 (2)amazement n. to one's amazement 令人吃惊的是 To my amazement, they have gone to Xishuangbanna. 让我奇怪的是,他们去西双版纳了。 类似短语: to one's happiness/excitement/sadness/puzzlement 使某人高兴的/兴奋的/伤心 的/迷惑的是 and so on:etc 等等。用来表示列举,但又不一一列出。 He knows five foreign languages, English, French, Japanese and so on.他懂 5 种外语,如

英语、法语、日语等等。 announce, explain, introduce, declare 后面不接双宾语,若以人作宾语常置于 to 后。 如: The president announced to the workers the sad news. The president announced the sad news to the workers.总裁向工人宣布了那不幸的消息。 He introduced the new comer to everyone here.他把新来的那个人介绍给这里的每个人。 report to sb.向某人汇报:report sth/ sb.向某人汇报/告诉。 [应用]单句改错 ①The teacher explained his students how to use the computer. ②No one declared us we could not smoke here. Key:①explain 后加 to ②declare 后加 to. 18. another day/the other day/some day/one day another day 可表示近期将来的某一天,意为“改天”,也可表示过去将来某一动作或状态延 续的“又一天”。 如:She is coming another day instead of today. 她今天不来,改天来。 You may do it another day.你可以改天做这件事。 He stayed there (for) another day/another two days after I lift.我离开后他在那 又待了一天/两天。 the other day 相当于 a few days ago,意为“几天前、某天、那天、不久前”,句中用一般 过去时。 如: I met her in the street the other day.几天前我在街上碰见过她。 I bought the watch the other day.这手表我是几天前买的。 some day 指将来“总有一天、有朝一日、终将、 (日后)某一天”,谓语动词用一般将来时。 如: Your wishes will come true some day.总有一天你的愿望会实现的。 Some day you'll have to pay for what you have done.总有一天你要为你的行为而付出代价 的。 one day 可以表示“ (过去) 某一天”, 谓语动词常用一般过去式; 也可表示“ (将来) 某一天”, 这时可与 some day 互相代替,谓语常用一般将来时。 如: One day I went to see my first teacher ,but he happened to be out.有一天,我去看我的 启蒙老师,可碰巧他出去了。 He will understand the teacher one day/some day.将来有一天,他会理解老师的。 19. anxious;eager 两个词均有“渴望,急于”之意。anxious 着重指焦急、着急或担心;而 eager 着重指对成功 的期望或进取的热情。两者都多用作表语,其主语通常是人,不能以无生命的事物作主语。 对比: He is eager to join the army.他渴望参军。

He is anxious to know whether he has been chosen.他急于知道是否被选上了。 常用搭配: ①be anxious to do sth.渴望急切地做某事;be anxious for 渴望(了解、得到);be anxious about 担心,对……感到不安 ②be eager to do sth.急切地想做某事; be eager for (about, after) 渴望, 渴求, be eager for your help 渴望得到你的帮助; be eager about peace 渴望和平 ①学生们都急切地想知道考试结果。The students ________ ________ ________ ________ the results ofthe examination. ②那个小男孩渴望得到一台新录音机。The little boy was ________ ________a new recorder. ③我很担心我儿子的健康。I'm ________ ________my son's health. ④他殷切希望女儿的成功。He is __________ _________ his daughter's success. Key:①are, anxious(eager),to ,know②anxious(eager),for③anxious, about④eager, for(about, after) 20. apologize for doing sth.apologize 是不及物动词,意为“道歉”,其表达式为“apologize to sb.for sth.”。 如: You must apologize to your sister for being so rude.它的名词形式是 apology,复数形式是 apologizes. make one's apologies to sb. for sth.= make an apology to sb. for sth. He make his apologies to me for coming late.



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