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选修六Unit4 global warming Learning about language修改

Book 6 Unit 4
Discovering useful words and expressions

Discovering useful words and expressions (P28) 2 Go over the new words and phrases in the previous sections. Then complete each sentence with one of those new words or phrases.

1. Charles Keeling collected ______on data the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere over a forty-year period. He found that the amount of carbon dioxide _______ increasing during that time. kept on

2. Although we are burning coal in huge _________ every year, we won’t quantities ________ run out of it for centuries. 3. If the amount of greenhouse gases continues to build up we could be _______, facing a global __________. catastrophe

4. Many scientists believe that global warming has come about through __________ the burning of fossil fuels. consequence 5. The _____________ of a rising sea level would be widespread flooding.

6. On the whole the warming of the phenomenon earth is a ____________ that causes great concern. graph 7. The __________ shows temperature changes during the 20th century. 8. One hectare of forest can absorb 23 tons of carbon dioxide ____ year. per

9. The washing machine uses too much energy, but _________ we buy a more even if economical one, it would still use too much water. 10. The car accident on the main road yesterday ___________ one driver’s resulted in death.

? 由it引导的强调句结构: 引导的强调句结构: 引导的强调句结构 ? (1) 肯定句 ? It is (was)+被强调部分 被强调部分+that (who) + 句子其他部分 被强调部分
? (2)否定句: 否定句: 否定句

? It + is (was) + not + 被强调的部分 + that (who) + 句子 ) 的其它部分. 的其它部分 ? 注意:此结构用来强调原句子中的主语、宾语、状语、 注意:此结构用来强调原句子中的主语、宾语、状语、 宾语补足语和间接宾语。强调的成分可以是一个词, 宾语补足语和间接宾语。强调的成分可以是一个词,一 个短语,也可以是一个从句。 个短语,也可以是一个从句。

(1).强调句型的时态要以原句的时态为依据。原句用现 强调句型的时态要以原句的时态为依据。 强调句型的时态要以原句的时态为依据 在时,强调句用is;若原句为过去时, 在时,强调句用 ;若原句为过去时,强调句中则要 用was。例如: 。例如: I met him in the street yesterday. (原句) 原句) →It was him that I met in the street yesterday. 强调宾语him,原句 为过去时, (强调宾语 ,原句met为过去时,强调句也用过去 为过去时 时was。) 。) (2).要注意主谓一致性。例如: 要注意主谓一致性。 要注意主谓一致性 例如: It’s we who are to answer for it. It’s I, not my parents, that am waiting for the bus. (3).强调时间、地点状语时不得用 强调时间、 强调时间 地点状语时不得用when和there取代 和 取代 that,也应避免使用 ,也应避免使用which。 。

(4).被强调的是疑问句,改为强调句后仍用疑 被强调的是疑问句, 被强调的是疑问句 问句结构。 问句结构。例: 一般疑问句: 一般疑问句:
Is / Was + it + 被强调的部分 + that + 句子其它部分

特殊疑问句: 特殊疑问句:
①特殊疑问词+ ② is/was + ③ it + ④ that 特殊疑问词 +句子的其它部分 句子的其它部分? 句子的其它部分

What do you want me to do? →What is it that you want me to do?

(5).被强调的如果是 被强调的如果是not …until; 被强调的如果是 because;only after等状语从句时,习 等状语从句时, ; 等状语从句时 惯上用”It is/was not until… that…”; 惯上用” “It is(was) because …that…”, “It was only after …that …”结构。例如: 结构。 结构 例如: It was not until 1920 C regular radio broadcasts began. (NMET’95) A. while B. which C. that D. since

(6).注意强调句型与其它句型的区别: 注意强调句型与其它句型的区别: 注意强调句型与其它句型的区别 强调句型和定语从句的区别主要从以下两方面 考虑: 考虑: 1).强调句式“It is(was) … that/who” 可去掉, 强调句式“ 可去掉, 强调句式 不影响句意, 不影响句意,剩下的词能单独组成一个完整的 句子,而包含定语从句的句子不能这样做。 句子,而包含定语从句的句子不能这样做。 如:It is tomorrow that they will begin their work. →Tomorrow they will begin their work.

2).It is(was)后,若是名词及名词词组,其 后 若是名词及名词词组, 后一般是定语从句;若是副词、介词短语, 后一般是定语从句;若是副词、介词短语, 则句子属强调句式。 则句子属强调句式。例: It is in the hall a meeting was held. (that/where) 在此句中,若选that,句子是强调句型;若 在此句中,若选 ,句子是强调句型; 选where,则是定语从句。试比较: ,则是定语从句。试比较: Was it on the day that you joined the army? (强调句式) 强调句式) Was it the day when you joined the army? (定语从句) 定语从句)

强调句型和状语从句的区别主要是: 强调句型和状语从句的区别主要是:有介词是 强调句型,没有介词是时间状语从句。 强调句型,没有介词是时间状语从句。 (1) It was 5 o’clock in the afternoon when _______ they arrived at the hotel. (状语从句 (状语从句) 状语从句) (2) It was at 5 o’clock in the afternoon that _______ they arrived at the hotel. (强调句型 强调句型) 强调句型

? 典型例题分析: 典型例题分析: 1) It was last night ____ I saw the film C Star Wars. . A. who B. when C. that D. which

? 答案 强调句的结构是:It + be + 答案C 强调句的结构是: 主谓句。 强调部分 + that (who) +主谓句。强 主谓句 调句的连词只有两个,that和who。 调句的连词只有两个, 和 。 当强调的部分是人, 当强调的部分是人,且为句子的主 语时,才用 语时,才用who,其余用 ,其余用that。 。

2) It is ten years ____ Miss Green returned to Canada. . A. that B. when C. since D. as ? 答案 考点是连词用法。本题易 答案C 考点是连词用法。 误选为A其实本句不是强调句。 误选为 其实本句不是强调句。 其实本句不是强调句

若是去掉It 若是去掉 be…that还应是一个完整 还应是一个完整 的句子。而本句去掉 的句子。而本句去掉It is…that, 只 剩下ten 剩下ten years Miss Green returned to Canada不成句。因此本句不是强 不成句。 不成句 调句。 时间+since...,其中 is 调句。It is + 时间 , = has been.

练习 I
1. It was this village ___ I was brought up. A. where C. on which B. that D. which

2. It was in this village ___ I was brought up. A. where B. that C. on which D. which

3. --- Was it under the tree ___ you were away talking to a friend? --- Sure. But when I got back there, the bike was gone. A. that C. which B. where D. while

II. 根据下列各句句意及所给单词的首字 母或汉语提示, 写出各单词的正确形式。 母或汉语提示 写出各单词的正确形式。 1. The organization has been in e______ existence for 25 years. average 2. What is the a______ rainfall for August in your country? widespread 3. The earthquake caused a w______ damage to the area. 4. With the development of technology, people are more and more familiar with outer 外部的 ______ (外部的 space. 外部的)

III. 每空填一词 使该句与所给句子的意 每空填一词, 思相同。 思相同。 1. We depend on energy to do many things. that It __ ___ is energy ____ we depend on to do many things. 2. He didn’t go to school because he was ill. It was __ ____ because he was ill _____ he that didn’t go to school.

3. My father didn’t return until 11 o’clock last night. ___was not ______ 11 o’clock ______ my It ___ __ until that father returned last night. 4. David bought a walkman from a store yesterday. It was that / who __ ____ David _________ bought a walkman from a store yesterday.

5. The mountain climber was rescued with the help of the local people. __ ____ with the help of the local people It was ______ the mountain climber was rescued. that 6. Her uncle moved out of the city and settled down in a small village for this reason. It was __ ___ for this reason ______ her uncle that moved out of the city and settled down in a small village.

7. What on earth do you want me to say? What _ __ that you want me to say? ____ is it ___ 8. I didn’t receive the manager’s reply until nearly a month later. ___ was ___ until nearly a month later It ___ not ____ ____ I received the manager’s reply. that

9. Marx met Tracy in Pairs in 1845. ___was in Pairs ____ Marx met Tracy in It ___ that 1845. 10. The football match had to be called off because it rained heavily. It was __ ____ because it rained heavily ____ the that football match had to be called off.

IV. 根据括号内的提示将下列句子翻译成 英语。 英语。 1. 总的来说,我很喜欢这本书。(on the 总的来说,我很喜欢这本书。 whole) On the whole, I like this book very much. 2. 昨天的平均温度是 摄氏度。(average) 昨天的平均温度是28摄氏度 摄氏度。 The average temperature yesterday was 28°C. °

Homework Make four sentences with “it” for emphasis.

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