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新8A全册重难点归纳之语法


牛津英语 8AU1-8 期末汇总考试知识点之语法
一、语法专题-形容词和副词的比较级 (一)形容词的比较等级(1)—用法讲解 大多数的形容词都有三个级别:原级、比较级、最高级。其中比较级表示“更 ……”,用于两者之间的比较,用来说 明“前者比后者更……”,比较级前面一般用 much, even, a little 修饰,其中 even, much 只能修饰比较级。最高级

表示 “最……”,用于三者及三者以上之间的比较,用来说明“某人或某物在某个范围内最……” ① 形容词的比较级(-er)和最高级(-est)的构成 a. 规则变化之口诀:直接加;去 e 加;双写加;变着加 b. 不规则变化 原级 good / well bad / ill many / much little far old 比较级 better worse more less farther, further older, elder 最高级 best worst most least farther, further oldest, eldest

② 形容词的比较级和最高级的构成及用法 ③ 比较级前的修饰语 still, even, any, quite(a bit), almost, nearly, just, rather;a little, a bit;much, a lot, far, many;twice, ten times, one fourth, two pounds, three years 【小试牛刀】 1. I can't run any ____________(far). Shall we stop for a while? 2. It is not so (hot) today as it was yesterday, 3. ______________ (hard) you study, __________ __ (good) you will be at English. 4.--Which do you like _______ _____ (well), English, Maths or Chinese? --English is my favorite subject. 5. Our country is becoming _______________ and ________________ (beautiful). Keys: 1、farther 2、hot 3、The harder, the better 4、best 5、more, more beautiful

(二)形 容词的比较等级(2)—常见句型 ① A=B A+ V + as + adj./adv. + as + B (与。 。 。一样) He is as tall as I/me. 他和我一样高。 He is as good a teacher as his father.他和他的父亲一样是个好教师。 ② A≠ B A + V + not + as/so + adj./adv. + as + B (与。 。 。不一样) They didn’t do as/so much work as you did. 他们干得事没有你多。 I’ve never seen as/so old a car as this.我从来没有见过像这样旧的车。 ③ A > B 或 A < B A + V + 比较级 + than + B (比。 。 。<更>。 。 。 ) Tom is two years older than his brother. 汤姆比他的弟弟大两岁。 Our classroom is bigger than theirs. 我们的教室比他们的大。 ④ 表示倍数 A + V + twice/four times/… + as + adj./adv. + as + B(A 是 B 的两倍/四倍/…)
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This room is twice as large as that one. 整个房间是那房间的两倍大。 The earth is 49 times as big as the moon.地球是月球 的 49 倍大。 ⑤ 表示程度的递增 主语 + V + 比较级+ and+比较级 (…越来越…) 主语 + V + more and more+ +adj./adv. (…越来越…) The days are getting shorter and shorter.白天变得越来越长了。 Our country is becoming more and more beautiful.我们的国家变得越来越美了。 ⑥ 表示两种情况同时变化 The+ 比较级+ 主语+ V + …,the+ 比较级+ 主语+ V + …(…越…越…) The more we get together, the happier we’ll be.=If we get together more, we’ll be happier.我们聚得越多, 我们就会越高 兴。 The harder you study, the better you’ll be at English.= If you study h arder, you’ll be better at English. 你学习越努力,你的英语成绩越好。 ⑦ 主语+ be +one of the+ 最高级 + n.(pl.) + in/of… (…是最…之一) Beijing is one of the oldest cities in China.北京是中国最古老的城市之一。 ⑧ 主语+ V。+ the+ 最高级 + in/of… (…最…) Ann studies hardest of all the girls in our class.安妮是我们班学习最用功的学生之一。 ⑨ 主语+ V。+ the+ 比较级 + of the two… (…<两者中>较…的) Lily is the taller of the twins.莉莉是这两个双胞胎中较高的那个。 ⑩ 主语+ V。+ 比较级 + than + any other +n. (单数) + in… (…比任何其他的更…) 主语+ V。+ 比较级 + than + any of the other +n. (复数) + in…(…比任何其他的更…) He is taller than any other student i n his class.他比他班级中其他的任何学生高。 = He is taller than any of the other students in his class.= He is the tallest students in his class. 【小试牛刀】 1. It is not so______________ (beautiful) as the one back home. 2. Li Lin is not as______________ (active)as he used to be. 3. The air pollution is much______________ (serious)in our city than in theirs. 4. This is one of the______________(delicious)dishes in this restaurant. 5. Judy got the______________(many)new ideas of all the students here . Keys: 1、beautiful 2、active 3、more serious 4、the most delicious 5、the most (三)易错点讲解 命题角度 1
典型例题

形容词、副词的位置以及易混淆的形容词的用法

1.( 典型例题 ) This _ _ girls are Linda’s cousin. A. pretty little Spanish B. Spanish little pretty C. Spanish pretty little [考场错解] D [专家把脉] 本题考查考生多个形容词作定语时的位置关系。参见下文的规律总结。 [对症下药] A 2.(典型例题) to take adventure course will certainly learn a lot useful skills.

D. little pretty Spanish

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A. Brave enough students

B. Enough brave students

C. Students brave enough

D. Students enough brave

[对症下药] C 3.(典型例题 ) students are required to take part in the boat race. A. Ten strong young Chinese B. Ten Chinese strong young C. Chinese ten young strong [对症下药] A 总结:

D. Young strong ten Chinese

1.英语中某些副词短语的意义和用法很重要。 这类短语常见的还有: more than, no more than, too much, much too, by far, more than, more… than, no less than, not less than 等,在平常练习中要加以注意。 2.意义相近的形容词和副词的用法要加以注意: hard, hardly; deep, deeply; high, highly; dead,deadly; most, mostly; fair, fairly; quite, fairly, rather; almost, nearly; such 等。 3.多个形容词同时一个名词时,多用下列顺序:性质+大小+形状+新旧+颜色,有时也要看与名词的密切关系,越密 切越靠近名词。多个词同时作前置定语时的一般排列规律是:代词性定语+冠词/指/物主/所有格+数词(先序后基)+形 容词+国籍/材料/用途形容词或名词或动名词 +被修饰的名词。例如:a charming small round old brown French oak writing table. 训练: 1 Excuse me, but can I borrow your pencil- box? A. blue cheap plastic B. cheap blue plastic C. plastic blue cheap D. plastic cheap blue 答案: B 解析:最近的是材料,最远的是一般性描绘形容词 cheap。 2 Mr. Evans is wise than smart. Few people can solve such a problem. A. no less B. no more C. less D. more 答案: D 解析:more…than…与其说……不如说……。 3 Whoever has sense knows that smoking is harmftd to people’s health. A. normal B. general C. ordinary D. common 答案: D 解析:根据语境,“拥有一般常识的人”,用 common 来表示“普通的,平常的”。 命题角度 2 形容词、副词的比较级结构;形容词、副词前面使用冠词的情况以及倍数的表达方法
典型例题

1.(典型例题)David has won the first prize in singing; he is still very excited now and feels __ desire to go to bed. A. the most B. more C. worse D. the least [考场错解] A 或 C [专家把脉] 解答本题首先要理解语境。David 刚刚获奖,还很兴奋,那么睡觉的欲望当然是很少了。the least 表示“最少的”的意思。 [对症下药] D 2.(典型例题) Mary kept weighing herself to see how much__ she was getting. A. heavier B. heavy C. the heavier D. the heaviest [考场错解] B [专家把脉] 本题最容易出错的地方是考生难以理解句意中暗含的比较,常常会误选 D.囚此,读懂题干是关键。在
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此基础上就不难理解玛丽所做的目的是“看看 (比以前)重了多少”。 [对症下药] A 3.(典型例题) The house rent is expensive. I’ve got about half the space I had at home and I paying here. A. as three times much B. as much three times C. much as three times D. three times as much [考场错解] A [专家把脉] 在表达倍数时,比较级的修饰词要放在 as...as 结构之前。同时本题又是一个省略句,这都是错误 的根源。具体用法参见下文的“规律总结”。[对症下药] 总结: 1.形容词和副词比较级和最高级前的冠词用法:形容词最高级前须加 the,副词最高级前都可以。做表语的形容 词前如果没有比较范围和比较对象也可省去 the,比较级在特指意义时须加 the,泛指时可数单数须加 a/an.Most + 原 级形容词的结构中,前面用不定冠词 a,an 或无冠词时,并非是最高级意思,most 意思为“very(非常)”。 2.形容词比较级的倍数表达方式:比较级修饰词+ as + adj./adV.十 as 和比较级修饰词+ as + many/much+ n.+ as.在 “as...as”结构中,第一个 as 是副词,修饰形容词或副词,强调程度。当某些副词如 so,as,too,how 等用来修饰名词前的 形容词时;不定冠词放在该形容词之后,名词之前。后一个 as 引导比较状语从句。表示倍数的三个句 型是: (1)… times as + 形容词原级 + as…例如:This table is three times as big as that one. (2)… times +性质名词 + of … 例如:This table is three times bigger than that one. 3.比较级前可以用 even, still,a bit /little,much, a lot, far, by far, no, any 等修饰,表示程度。最高级前可以有序数词, by far, nearly, almost, by no means, not really ,not quite, nothing like 等来修饰。例如: —Is your father any better? 你父亲好些了吗?—Yes,much better.是的,好多了。 I’d like to buy the second most expensive laptop. 4.形容词副词比较的对象应该相同但不能相互包容。常用以下结构形式: 比较级 + than +any other + 单数名词;比较级 + than + anyone else;比较级 + than +any of the other +复数名词。 例如: China is larger than any other country in Asia /all the other countries in Asia. The weather here is colder than that of Huanggang. The computers made in our factory are better than those in your factory, 训练 1 You’d better go and buy some tomatoes for the dinner party, for you see, there are _ _ tomatoes left in the basket than I imagined. A. far more B. far fewer C. many more D. many fewer 答案: B 解析:far 修饰比较级。 2 — Are you satisfied with his work?— Well, I’m afraid it couldn’t be __ . A. any better B. the best C. any worse D. the worst 答案: C 解析:否定词和比较级连用相当于最高级。 3 Exercise is _ _ any other to lose unwanted weight. A. so useful a way B. as a useful way C. as useful a way D. such a useful way 答案: C 二、反身代词 (一)反身代词用法讲解
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1、反身代词的构成 反身代词又称自身代词,有人称和数的变化。其中,第一、二人称的反身代词由 “形容词性物主代词 + 后缀-self (单数)/ - selves(复数)”构成,第三人称的反身代词由“人称代词的宾格 + 后缀-self(单数)/ - selves(复数)”构成。 人称 单数 复数 第一人称 myself ourselves es 第二人 称 yourself yourselv 第三人称 himself herself itself themselves

2、反身代词的用法 ① She called herself Xiao Zhang. 她自称小张。 ② We can look after ourselves well. 我们会照顾好自己的。 ③ The poor boy in the story is myself. 故事里的那个可怜的男孩就是我自己 ④ They finished the work themselves. 他们独自完成了工作。 ⑤ Did you see Mr. Wang himself? 你见过 王先生本人吗? 【规律总结】 反身代词可以作动词或介词的宾语,如例句①②;可以作表语,如例句③;可以作主语或宾语的同位语,用于加 强语气,意为“亲自,本人”,如例句④⑤。 ★一些常用的固定搭配 look after oneself / take care of oneself 照顾自己 teach oneself sth. / learn sth. by oneself 自学 enjoy oneself 玩得高兴,过得愉快 help oneself to sth. 请自用……(随便吃/喝些……) hurt oneself 摔伤自己 say to oneself 自言自语 (二)易错点讲解 ① 反身代词不能单独做主语,但可以做主语的同位语,起强调作用。例如: 我自己能完成作业。 (误)Myself can finish my homework. (正)I myself can finish my homework. ② 反身代词表示“某人自己”,不能表示“某人自己的东西”,因为它没有所有格的形式。表达“某人自己的(东西)” 时,须要用 one’s own. 例如: 我用我自己的蜡笔画画。 (误)I’m drawing with myself crayons.(正)I’m drawing with my own crayons. 【趁热打铁】用合适的反身代词填空。 1. Danny, can you do it by __________? 2. Lily is old enough to look after ________ now. 3. Please help _________ to the food, Jenny and Brian. 4. They are enjoying ___________ in the park now. 5. I want to go shopping. I want to buy _________ a T-shirt. Keys:1. yourself 2. herself 3. yourselves 4. themselves 5. myself 三、祈使句 (一)祈使句用法讲解
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祈使句指的是表示命令、请求、建议或劝告的句子。其主语 you 常省略,谓语动词用原形,句末用感叹号或句号, 读降调。 1. 肯定的祈使句 (1)动词原形+其他 Stand up, please. = Please stand up. 请起立。 (2)Be + n./adj. Be a good boy! 要做一个好孩子! Be careful! = Look out! = Take care! 小心 / 当心! (3)Let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它成分 Let me help you. 让我来帮你。 Let ’s go to school together. 咱们一起上学去吧。 2. 否定的祈使句 (1) Don't + 动词原形 Don't stand up. 别站起来。 Don't be careless. 别粗心。 Don't let them play with fire. 别让他们玩火。 (2) Let 型的否定式有两种:“Don't + let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它成分”和“Let + 宾语 + not + 动词原形 + 其它成分”。 Don't let him go. / Let him not go. 别让他走。 Let them not play with fire. 别让他们玩火。 (3) no 开头,用来表示禁止性的祈使句。 No smoking! 禁止吸烟!No fishing! 禁止钓鱼! 3. 祈使句的强调形式,通常在肯定祈使句式前加上助动词 Do。 例如:Do shut up! 快住口! 4. 祈使句的回答 祈使句的动作通常是表示将来发生的动作,所以回答祈使句时,一般用 will 或 won’t。 在回答具有否定意义的祈使句时,要注意两点: 形式一致(即 Yes 与 will 保持一致;No 与 won’t 保持一致) 2) 意思相反(即 Yes 是 “不”的意思;No 是 “是”的意思)。 在回答时,要注意分析上下文语境中所提供的条件。 如:--- Don’t go out, please. It’s raining heavily outside. 请不要出去。外面雨下得很大。 ---- Yes, I will. I have to meet my brother at the airport. 不行,我得去机场接我弟弟。 (二)易错点讲解 1、放句首时,要注意 Don’t 后面要用动词原形; 2、当人称后面有标点符号时,要注意是用祈使句还是用三单。 如:Lucy, don’t be late again. Lucy, a 17-year-old girl, is not late again. 3、祈使句与 or 的搭配, 如:Hands up, or we’ll shoot. 【趁热打铁】 1. _______ late again, Bill! A. Don't to be B. Don't be C. Not be D. Be not 2. _______ cross the road until the traffic lights turn green. A. Not B. Won't C. Doesn't D. Don't 3. Kate, _______ your homework here tomorrow.
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A. bring B. brings C. to bring D. bringing 4. ________ me the truth, or I'll be angry. A. Telling B. To tell C. Told D. Tell 5 .Her doctor said: “________ work so hard” A Stop B Don’t C Can’t D No 6. Sindy, ________ to be here at 8 o’clock A is sure B is sure that C will be sure D be sure 7.________ when you cross the road. A Do care B Care C Do be careful D To be careful 8. ________ in bed. It’s bad for your eyes. A Not to read B Don’t read C Don’t to read D Not read 9 ______ tell a lie. A Hardly B Not C No D Never Keys: 1-5 BDADB 6-9 DCBD 四、should 和 had better (一)should 用法讲解 1. 用于第一人称疑问句,表征询意见。如:Should I open the window? 我可以开窗户吗? 2. should 表义务,可用于各种句式,通常指将来。 如:You should do what your parents tell you. 你应该照你父母的话去做事。 He should do some work, but he doesn’t want to.他应该做些工作,但是他不想做。 也可指现在。如: You shouldn’t be sitting in the sun. 你不应该坐在阳光下。 3. should 表推测,暗含很大的可能。如: It’s 4:30. They should be in New York by now. 现在是四点半,他们应该到达纽约了。 (二)had better 用法讲解 1. had better 的基本用法特点 其意为“最好”、“应该”,后接动词原形,与情态动词 should 用法相似,其中的 had 通常缩略为 ‘d。如: You’d better get some sleep.你最好去睡一会儿。 We had better go before it rains. 我们最好在下雨前就去。 2. had better 如何构成否定式和疑问式 构成否定式时, 通常将 not 置于 had better 之后(而不是 had 之后); 而构成疑问式时, 则通常将 had(而不是 had better) 置于主语之前。如: I’d better not disturb him.我最好别去打扰他。 What had we better do? 我们最好怎么办? 【注】在否定疑问句或反意疑问句中可将 not 与 had 连用。如: Hadn’t we better go now? 我们是不是现在就去呢? 3. had better 后接进行式 有时后接动词的进行式,表示最好马上做某事如:
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I think I’d better be going.我想我最好还是马上走。 You’d better be getting your clothes ready. 你最好马上把衣服准备好。 【趁热打铁】 句式转换: You should go to school on time.(否定句) _________________________________________________________________ You had better get here early.(否定句) _________________________________________________________________ You should dress neatly.(同义句) _________________________________________________________________ We’d better put the rubbish in the bin.(划线提问) _________________________________________________________________ Keys: 1 You shouldn’t go to school on time. 2 You had better not get here early. 3. You had better dress neatly 4. Where should we put the rubbish? 单选 ( )1. This dictionary belongs to Rita. You ____________ it home without letting her know. A. had better not to take B. shouldn’t take C. needn’t take D. shouldn’t be taking ( )2. This is a very important project,so you _______ plan it very carefully. A. should B. will C. dare D. need ( )3. You had better ________ football near the street,it’s very dangerous. A. not to play B. don’t play C. not play D. to not play ( )4. Our money is very limited, so you ___________ so much money on so dear a skirt. A. shouldn’t spent B. shouldn’t be spending C. needn’t spent D. won’t spend Keys: BACA 五、may 的用法 1、can, could 的用法 1. 表能力,意为“能、会”。例:Can you play basketball? 你会打篮球么? 2. 表怀疑、猜测,常用于否定句和疑问句中。例:He can’t be in the room. 他不可能在房间里。 3. 表请求或允许,多用于口语中,意为“可以”,相当于 may.例:You can(may) go now. 你现在可以走了。 4. could 是 can 的过去式,可以表示过去的能力。 例:I can swim when I was seven years old.我七岁时就会游泳。 –Could I go to the movie this weekend, Dad?-- Yes, you ______. But you have to come back before nine. A. shall B. must C. need D. can 【答案】D 2、may 的用法 1. 表推测,意为“可能,也许”,用于肯定句中。 He may come tomorrow. 他明天可能会来。 2.表请求、许可,意为“可以”。例:May I borrow your book? 我可以借用你的书么? 注意:may 表请求,用于主语为第一人称的一般疑问句时,
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其否定回答用 mustn’t 或 can’t, 不用 may not, 意为“不可以,不允许,禁止”。 例:--May I go now? 我现在可以走了么?--No, you mustn’t. 不,不可以。 3. can 和 may 均可用来表示征求意见或允许,意为“可以”,一般可互换使用。 may 的基本用法就是表示请求时的“可以”和猜测时的“可能”,但要再次强调 may 表示猜测时是可以用在肯定句、 否定句中的。另外,may 引起的一般疑问句,其回答需要注意:肯定回答可以使用 may 或者 can 都可以,但否定回答 则不能用 may not, 只能用 can’t 或者 mustn’t. -- _____ I take the newspaper away?--No, you mustn’t. You _____ read it only here. A. Must, can B. May, can C. Need, must D. Must, must 【答案】B 【趁热打铁】 1. The man in the office ________ be Mr. Black, because he went home just now. A. mustn’t B. may not C. can’t D. needn’t 2. John___ come to see us tonight, but he isn't very sure yet. A. may B. can C. has to D. must 3 —May I take this book out? —No, you___. A. can't B. may not C. needn't D. aren't 4. —He___ be in the classroom, I think. —No, he ___ be in the classroom. I saw him go home a minute ago. A. can; may not B. must; may not C. may; can't D. may; mustn't 5. ___ I take this one? A. May B. Will C. Are D. Do CAACA 六、动词不定式的用法 初二上学期所学的动词不定式主要做宾语和目的状语 1、动词不定式作宾语 一些动词,如 want, decide, hope, ask, agree, choose, learn, plan, need, teach, prepare,等,常接动词不定式作宾语。 当动词不定式作宾语时,如果后接宾语补足语,常用 it 作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语放在宾语补足语之后。应注意有 些动词后面可接不定式作宾语,也可接动名词作宾语,但所表达的意义不同。 常见的有: (1)stop to do sth.停止正在做的事,去做另一件事;stop doing sth. .停止正在做的事 (2)go on to do sth. 做完一件事后,继续做另一件事;go on doing sth.继续做同一件事 (3)remember/forget to do sth.记住/忘记去做某事;remember/forget doing sth. 记得/忘记做过某事 有一些动词后面后面是省略 to 的情况,如 see, watch, look at, hear, make, let, help 等。 常考词组:expect to do 期望做。 refuse to do 拒绝做。 plan to do 计划做。 decide to do 决定做。 agree to do 同意做。 learn to do 学会做。 hope to do 希望做。 prepare to do 准备做。 want to do 想做。 choose to do 选择做。 wait to do 等待做。wish to do 希望做。 2、动词不定式作状语 动词不定式作状语主要用来修饰动词,表示目的,结果或原因。为了强调目的,有时可以把动词不定式放在句首, 或在不定式前加 in order 或 so as。常用结构有 too + adj./adv. + to dosth.等。 【趁热打铁】
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1. It took half an hour _______(get) to the World Park from Kitty’s school. 2. It was interesting _______(see) so many places of interest from all over the world. 3. They want _______(save) time by using shorter words and phrases. 4. Kitty’s classmate Daniel taught himself how _______(make) a home page. 5. He put his photos on it for everyone _______(look) at. 6. Help him _______(put) the photos in the correct order. 7. He made the girl _______(cry) yesterday. 8. It’s time for class. Please stop _______(talk). 9. I’d like _______(go) to the Temple of Heaven. Keys: 1. to get 2. to see 3. to save 4. to make 5. to look 6. (to)put 7. cry 8. talking 七、句子结构 简单句的五个基本句型 主语 + 不及物动词 She came./ My head aches. 主语 + 及物动词 +宾语 She likes English. 主语 + 系动词 +主语补语 She is happy. 主语 + 双宾动词 +间接宾语 +直接宾语 She gave John a book. She bought a book for me. 主语 + 宾补动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补语 She makes her mother angry. 【趁热打铁】 1. Our school is not far from my home. 3. All of us considered him honest. 5. He broke a piece of glass. 7. ---I love you more than her,child. 9. They pushed the door open.

9. to go

2. It is a great pleasure to talk with you 4. My grandfather bought me a pair of sports shoes. 6. He made it clear that he would leave the city. 8. Tees turn green when spring comes. 10. Grandma told me an interesting story last night.

11. He wrote carefully some letters to his friends. 12.All the students think highly of his teaching www.rr365.com 13. We need a place twice larger than this one. 14. He asked us to sing an English song.

15. Don't get nervous,help yourself to what you like.16.We will make our school more beautiful. 17. He didn't come.That is why he didn't know.18. She showed us her many of her pictures. 19. The old man lives a lonely life.
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20. Luckily the 1989 earthquake did not happen in the center of town. 1.主语 + 系动词 + 表语 2.主语 + 系动词 + 表语 3.主语 +动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 4.主语+双宾动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 5.主语 +及物动词 +宾语 6.主语 +动词 + 形式宾语 it+ 宾语补足语+宾语 7.主语 +及物动词 +宾语 8.主语 + 系动词 + 表语 9.主语 +动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 10.主语+双宾动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 11.主语+双宾动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 12 主语 +及物动词 +宾语 13.主语 +及物动词 +宾语 14.主语 +动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 15.主语 + 系动词 + 表语 16.主语 +动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 17.主语 + 系动词 + 表语 18.主语+双宾动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 19.主语 + 不及物动词 20.主语 + 不及物动词 八、过去进行时 (一)定义 过去进行时,是表示过去某个具体时刻正在进行的事情或动作。 (二)结构 was/were +doing (现在分词) (三)用法 1、过去进行时表示过去某段时间内持续进行的动作或者事情。常用的时间状语 this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while 例如: (1)We were watching TV from seven to nine last night. 昨天晚上七点到九点的时候我们在看电视。 (2)What was he researching all day last Sunday? 上周日他一整天都在研究什么? 2. 过去进行时可以表示在过去某个时间点发生的事情。时间点可以用介词短语、副词或从句来表示。如: What was she doing at nine o'clock yesterday? 昨天晚上九点她在做什么? (介词短语表示时间点) When I saw him he was decorating his room. 当我看见他的时候他正在装饰房间。 (when 从句表示时间点) 3. 在复合句中,如果主要动作和背景动作都是延续的或同时发生的,那么主从句的动词都可用过去进行时。 例如:While he was waiting for the bus, he was reading a newspaper.他边等车边看报。 (两个动作都是延续的) He was cleaning his car while I was cooking. 他擦车时我在做饭。(两个动作同时进行) 4、表示在过去即将发生的动作。如: She asked him whether he was coming back for supper. 5、表示过去的反复性或习惯性的动作,常与副词 always,constantly,continually,frequently 等连用,常常带有说话人 的某种感情色彩。如: His mother was always working like that.他目前总是那样工作。
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6. 通常不能用于过去进行时的动词主要有:agree, be, believe, belong, care, forget, hate, have(拥有), hear, know, like, love, mean, mind, notice, own, remember, seem, suppose, understand, want, wish 等。 (四)过去进行时与一般过去时的区别 (1) 过去进行时与一般过去时, 两者都表示过去发生的动作,但过去进行时表示在过去某一特定的时间点或时间段 正在进行的动作,而一般过去时表示在过去时间完成的动作?例如: I was typing a letter last night. 昨晚我在打一封信?(可能没打完) I typed some letters last night. 我昨晚打了一些信?(已经打完) A. 过去进行时却表示动作在持续或未完成,而一般过时往往表示某一动作已经完成。 I was reading the book at that time. (未读完,“读”的片段) I read the book yesterday. (已读完,表整个“读”) B、一般过去时表示只做一次动作,而过去进行时却表示动作反复地进行。 She waved to me. 她朝我挥了挥手。 It was raining all night.(优先用 was raining ,rained 为持续动词,故也可使用) He was writing a letter the whole of afternoon. (短暂动词与持续时间连用,表反复,连续发生,不可用一般 过去时) 【趁热打铁】 1. I ______ a meal when you _____ me. a. cooked, were ringing b. was cooking, rang c. was cooking, were ringing d. cooked, rang 2. He said he _____ to draw a plane on the blackboard at that time. a. tries b. tried c. was trying d. will try 3. While she ______ TV, she ______ a sound outside the room. a. was watching, was hearing b. watched, was hearing c. watched, heard d. was watching, heard 4. They _____ a football game from 7 to 9 last night. a. were watching b. watch c. watched d. are watching 5. What book ____ you ______ when I ____ you at four yesterday afternoon? a. did, read, was seeing b. did, read, saw c. were, reading, saw d. were, reading, was seeing 6. It was Friday evening. Mr and Mrs. Green _____ ready to fly to England. a. are getting b. get c. were getting d. got 7. Lei Feng _____ always _____ of others when he ______ in the army. a. is, thinking, was b. was, thinking, is c. did, think, is d. was, thinking, was 8. A girl ______ my pen fall off the table when she _____ me. a. saw, passed b. was seeing, passed c. was seeing, passed d. was seeing, was passing 9. We ____ for tom at ten last Sunday. He often kept us ______. a. were waiting, waiting b. were waiting, wait c. waited, waiting d. waited, wait 10. He ____ his father on the farm the whole afternoon last Saturday. a. helps b. would help c. was helping d. is helping 1-5 BCDAC 6-10 CDAAC

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