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高考语法填空(定语从句专项练习)5班级使用讲义


定语从句讲与练
一、定语的概念:
定语是用来修饰名词或代词的。比如:

二、定语从句的概念及主要特征:
1.定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词;定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后; 引导定语从句的词叫关系词。

请划出下列句子中的定语从句、先行词及关系代词:

The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. 2.定语从句的主要特征: (1)先行词要在从句中充当一定的成分; (2)what 永远不能引导定语从句; (3)翻译时先译从句,翻译成“…….的”

三、定语从句的基本用法:

定 语 从 句 的 引 导 词
(一)关系代词引导的定语从句

关系 代词

指人 指物

who(主语、宾语),whom(宾语), that(主语、宾语), whose(定语) that(主语、宾语),which(主语、宾语) whose(定语)

where (地点状语) 关系 副词 when (时间状语) why (原因状语)

1.who 指人,在定语从句中作主语,有时也作宾语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 分析:关系词 who 在从句中作主语。

Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning. 分析:关系词__________ 在从句中作________。 That is the teacher who teaches us physics. 分析:关系词__________ 在从句中作________。

you needn’t talk to the people who you don’t like talking to. 分析:关系词______在从句中作________。 2.whom 指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。 Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus. 分析:关系词_____ 在从句中作________。 Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see. 分析:关系词__________ 在从句中作________。

注意:关系代词 whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替,也可省略。 The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend. 3. whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语。 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. 分析:关系词____在从句中作________ \He has a friend whose father is a doctor.

译成汉语:_________________________________
分析:关系词_________ 在从句中作________。

分析:关系词_________ 在从句中作________。 I lost the book whose cover was blue.

We live in a house whose windows face the south. 译成汉语:_________________________ 注意:指物时,常用下列结构来代替: The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired.=The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. Do you like the book whose cover is yellow?=Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow?

自己总结一下:在定语从句中,whose + 名词= ___________________________
4.which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. 分析:关系词__________ 在从句中作________。 分析:关系词__________ 在从句中作________。
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5.that 引导定语从句时,既可以指人,也可以指物。指人时,相当于 who 或 whom;指物时,相当于 which.。在定语从句中作主语或 宾语,作宾语时常可省略。 The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million 分析:关系词________ 在从句中作________。 Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? 二) 关系副词引导的定语从句 1. when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。常可以用 in/on/at which 代替。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. 我仍然记得我第一次来到这所学 分析:关系词__________ 在从句中作________。 The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终于到了。 校的那一天。 分析:关系词_________ 在从句中作________。

分析:关系词__________ 在从句中作________。 October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. 1949 年 10 月 1 日是中华人民共和国成立的日子。

把这个句子改成两个简单句:___________________________________________ ___________________________________________
分析:关系词__________ 在从句中作________ 2. where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。常可用 in/on/at which 代替。 Shanghai is the city where I was born.

把这个句子改成两个简单句:___________________________________________ ___________________________________________
分析:关系词__________ 在从句中作________。 I visited the farm where mes you will find yourself in a situation where you felt very embarrassed He has reached a point where nobody can compare with him. 3. why 指原因,在定语从句 a lot of cows were raised . 分析:关系词__________ 在从句中作________。 Is this the place where they fought against the enemy? 分析:关系词_________ 在从句中作________。 注意:当先行词是 situation, occasion, point, case 时,且又在从句中作状语时,常用 where 来引导定语从句。 Someti 中作原因状语。常可用 for which 来代替。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 分析:关系词_________ 在从句中作________。 The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 译成汉语:____________________ I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 译成汉语:____________________ 注意:关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。如: I will never forget the moment when (=______________) the blind students moved us. Great changes are taking place in the city where (=______________) they live. The reason

Attributive clause:
限制性定语从句 restrictive
是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语, 如果去 掉,主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。这种从 句和主句关系十分密切, 写时不用逗号分开。

why

非限制性定语从句non-restrictive
和主句关系不很密切,只是对先行词作些附加说 明, 如果去掉,主句的意思仍然清楚。这种从 句, 写时往往逗号分开。

I was the only person who was invited. in my office

Jenny, with whom I played table tennis yesterday, lives in my next room.

The man who came here yesterday has come again.

That is Mr. Wang, whose daughter teaches English at a middle school.

注意:引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词不可用that,指人时用who(主 语),whom(宾语),指物时须用which.
(=______________) he refused the invitation is quite clear.
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四、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句
限制性定语从句举例: The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. 译成汉语:____________________ China is a country which has a long history. 译成汉语:____________________ In the street I saw a man who was from Africa. 译成汉语:____________________ 非限制性定语从句举例 : His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 译成汉语:____________________ China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 译成汉语:____________________ 注意:在非限制性定语从句中,有时 which 所指代的先行词是前面的整个句子。 Xiao Li came to see me off, which was very kind of her.

五.定语从句考查重点:
(一)定语从句在下列情况下只能用 that,而不能用 which 指物。 (指人时可以用 who/whom) 1. 当先行词被形容词最高级或者序数词修饰时。如: This is the best film that I have ever seen. The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 2. 当先行词是不定代词 everything, anything, nothing ,something, all, none, few, little, some, much 等代词时,或当先行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时。如: Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? All that can be done has been done. There is little that I can do for you. 3. 当先行词被 the very, the only, the same, the last 修饰时。如: This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 4. 当先行词是 who,或 which 引导的主句时。如: Who is the man that is standing by the gate? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 5. 当先行词为人与动物或人与物时。如: They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school

思考:什么时候只能 which 而不能用 that 呢?1.在___________中;2.在____________之后。
(二)关系代词的省略: The factory we visited yesterday was really old. (请将省略的关系代词补充在正确的位置) The man you just talked to was my English teacher. (请将省略的关系代词补充在正确的位置) 当关系代词在从句中作_________时可以省略。 (三)“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句;关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时,从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous. =The school in which he once studied is very famous. 他曾经就读过的学校很出名。 This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday. =This is the boy________________I played tennis yesterday. 这是我昨天跟他打台球的男孩。 We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about. =We’ll go to hear the famous singer ________________we have often talked. The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions. =The manager ________________ I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions.注意:1. 含有介词的固定短语动词一 般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如:look for, look after, take care of, give up 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. (正) This is the watch for which I am looking . (正) (误)

The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. (误)

2.若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时只可用 whom,不可用 who, that;关系代词指物时只可用 which,不可用 that。关系代词 是所有格时用 whose。The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. (误)
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(正) 你刚才跟他谈话的那个人是我的邻居。

The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable.

(正)我们去加拿大所乘坐的飞机实在很舒服。 (误)

3.“介词+关系代词”前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代词或者数词。如: He loves his parents deeply, are very kind to him. 他深深地爱着他的父母,他们俩待他都很好。 have gone bad. are from big cities. 篮子里有好些苹果,有些已经坏了。 我们班总共有40个学生,大多数来自大城市。

In the basket there are quite many apples, There are forty students in our class in all, Up to now, he has written ten stories,

are about country life. 迄今为止, 他写了10部小说其中3部是关于农村生活的。

(四)当先行词被 one of 修饰时,若 one of 前有 the only,则从句的谓语动词用单数,没有 only 的话则用复数。 He is one of the students who ________ never late. 译成汉语:________________________ He is the only one of the students who ________ never late.

译成汉语:_________________

(五)先行词是时间却不用 when 引导,先行词是地点却不用 where 引导,先行词是原因却不用 why 引导。 I will never forget the days ________ we climbed the mountain together. I will never forget the days ________ we spent together. We visited the house _______ Lu Xun used to live. We visited the house _______ Lu Xun used to live in. This is the reason _______ he was unhappy. This is the reason _______ he explained to me. (六)当先行词被 such, the same 修饰时,关系词常用 as。 如: I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过象他讲的这样的故事。 This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一样。 注意:当先行词受 the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句,但与 as 引导的定语从句意思有区别。如: She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. (七)以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由 in which 或 that 引导,而且通常可以省略。如: The way ________he answered the questions was surprising. 课堂练习: 1. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, , of course, made the others unhappy. 2. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town he grew up as a child. 3. The gentleman you told me yesterday proved to be a thief. 4. Please take any seat is free. 5. The old man has two sons, is a soldier.(其中一个是士兵) 6. New York is famous for its sky-scrapers(摩天大楼), has more than 100 storeys.(最高的一座) 7. He has written a book______ name I have forgotten. 8. This is the place ______I spent my childhood. 9. The boy composition won the first prize is the youngest in the group. 10. The weather turned out to be very good, was more than we could expect. 11. Mr. Wang is a boss, factory Li Ping worked. 12. I don't like the way you speak to her. 13. I shall never forget the years I lived in the country with the farmers, has a good effect on my life. 14. is known to all, China will be an advanced and powerful country in 20 or 30 year’s time. 15. Yesterday we had a meeting ____ we discussed many problems. 16. Such a book you showed me is difficult to understand. 17. The speaker spoke of some writers and some books were popular then. 18. This is the store we visited the famous shop assistants. 19. I’m going to spend my holiday in Beijing, live my old parents. 20. _______ we have seen, oceans cover more than 70 percent of the earth. 21. Nick’s guests, _______ had heard their conversation, asked why they should not buy salt more cheaply if they could. 22.The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those ______ lives were affected. 23. Happiness and success often come to those ______ are good at recognizing their own strengths. 24. When I arrived, Bryan took me to see the house ______ I would be staying. 25.The museum will open in the spring with an exhibition and a viewing platform________ visitors can watch the big glasshouses being built. 26. Nowadays people are more concerned about the environment _______ they live. 27. Many countries are now setting up national parks _______ animals and plants can be protected.
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