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? 定语从句由关系代词(who, whom, whose, which, that)或关系副词(as, when, where, why)等引导。 关系词除了起引导作用外,还在从句中指代前面的先 行词,并在从句中担任一定的成分。 ? The car which was stolen has been found.(which 指代

先行词car,在从句中作主语) ? The house whose windows are broken is empty. (whose 是所有格,在从句中作定语) ? I shall never forget the day when I entered the university. (when指代先行词day,在从句中作时间状 语)

1. 限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句

? 定语从句就其与先行词的关系而言,可分为限 定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。限定性定 语从句和先行词之间没有逗号,表示对先行词 起修饰限制作用;而非限定性定语从句和先行 词之间有逗号分开,是对先行词进行补充说明, 相当于并列句。如: ? He is the man who has strong personality. 他是个个性很强的人。(限定性定语从句) ? My brother, who works abroad, is coming next week. 我哥哥在国外工作,他下周将回 来。(非限定性定语从句)

? 注:1. 非限定性定语从句不能用that来引导,一般用 which,as或who(指人)。用which或as引导时,既可 以修饰主句的部分内容,也可修饰主句的全部内容。如: ? He spoke confidently, which impressed me most. (which指代整个主句,在从句中作主语) ? 2. as引导的非限定性定语从句既可以放在主句之前,也 可以放在主句之后,但which或who引导的非限定性定语 从句不能放在主句之前。如: ? As we all know, the moon is a satellite of the earth. ? The large area is covered with thick snow, which affects people's life greatly.

? 3. 在限定性定语从句中,关系代词作宾语时可 以省略;但在非限定性定语从句中,关系代词 作宾语时不能省略。如: ? The film (which) I saw last night is about a young teacher. (which可以省去) ? She introduced me to her husband, whom I hadn’t met before. (whom不能省去)

2. 通常只用关系代词that,不用 which,who或 whom的几种情况

? 1. 当先行词是all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much, none, few 等时。如: ? All that you want are here. ? 2. 当先行词被all, no, some, any, every, a few, a little, much, only, very等修饰时。如: ? There is no person that doesn’t make mistakes. ? 3. 当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。 如: ? This is the best film that I have ever seen.

? 4. 当出现两个或两个以上的先行词,并同时兼指人和 物时。如: ? We are talking about the people and countries that we have visited. ? 5. 当主句是以which 或 who 开头的特殊疑问句时。如: ? Who is the person that is standing over there? ? 6. 当定语从句为there be 句型时,关系代词只能用 that,但经常可以省略。如: I know the difference (that) there is between you. ? 7. 当关系代词在从句中作表语时,常用that。如: ? He does not seem to be the man that he was. 他 似乎和过去不一样了。

3. as 与其他词连用引导的定语从句
? as 引导定语从句时,可指人也可指物,通常与the same,such,so等连用,形式为:the same… as, such… as,as …as,so… as。As在定语从句中可作 主语、宾语、表语等。如: ? She knew he felt just the same as she did. 她知道 他的感觉与她自己的一样。(as代替事,作宾语) ? I lend you such books as will interest you. 我借给 你使你感兴趣的书。(as代替物,作主语)

? 注:the same… as 和the same… that的用 法不同。as引导的定语从句表示其内容与主句 所讲的事物“相似”,指同类事物;that引导 的定语从句表示其内容与主句所讲的事物是 “同一个”,指同一事物。如: ? This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. 这和我昨天丢的笔一样。(类似的笔) ? This is the same pen that I lost yesterday. 这支笔就是我昨天丢的那支。(同一支笔)

? 在“介词+which/whom”结构中,介词的选择取决于三种 情况: ? 1.定语从句中谓语动词或表语的搭配。如: ? This is the college in which I am studying. ? He is the man about whom we are talking. ? 2.先行词与介词的习惯搭配。如: ? The speed at which the machine operates is shown on the meter. 仪表上显示出这台机器运转的速度。 ? 3.当定语从句为最高级时只能用of which; 否则用其他介 词。如: ? I have five dictionaries of which Longman Dictionary is the best. ? I have five dictionaries among which Longman Dictionary is published in UK.

? 1.主语从句 ? 1.主语从句在句中作主语。如: ? Which team will win the match is still not certain. ? Why he did that wasn’t quite clear. ? 2.主语从句位于句首时,会使句子显得笨重, 因此常以it 作为形式主语,而将主语从句后置, 以保持句子平衡。如: ? It is strange that she didn’t come yesterday.

? 3.whether与if引导主语从句的区别: ? whether引导的主语从句既可放在句首也可放 在句尾,if引导的主语从句只能放在句末。如: ? Whether she comes or not makes no difference. (不能用if) 她来不来都没有关系。 ? It is doubtful whether/if the President knew the details of the plan. 总统是否知道 这个计划的细节这一点颇有疑问。

? 2. 表语从句 ? 1.表语从句在句中作表语,位于主句中的系动词之后。 如: ? The question is whether she can speak English. ? That is what we need. ? 2.表语从句可用whether引导,也可用as if 引导, 但不能用if 引导。如: His first question was whether Tom had arrived yet. ? It looked as if it was going to rain. ? 3.主句的主语是reason时,表语从句要用that,不 能用because。如: ? The reason why he was dismissed was that he was careless and irresponsible. 他被开除的原因是他工 作马虎,不负责任。

? 3. 同位语从句 ? 1.同位语从句在句中作同位语,它一般要放在主句中 某些名词的后面,说明这些名词的含义。可跟同位语 从句的名词主要有fact, news, promise, reason, idea 等。如: ? We heard the news that our team had won. ? I have no idea how soon they are coming. ? 2.同位语从句与定语从句的主要区别: ? 从意义上来说,同位语从句对一个名词加以补充说明, 定语从句对一个名词进行修饰或限定。从结构上说, 同位语从句由连词引导,连词在句中不作任何成分, 只起引导作用;引导定语从句的关系代词在从句中担 任一定成分,含有代替所修饰或限制词语的意义。

? 如: ? They were all shocked at the news that Germany had declared war on Russia. 他们都为德国向俄国宣战而感到 震惊。(同位语从句,that只起引导作用, 在句中不作任何成分。) ? They were all shocked at the news that was announced on the radio. 他们 都为收音机中宣布的消息而震惊。(定 语从句,that在从句中作主语,若省略 that,句子成分不全。)

? 4. 宾语从句 ? 1.宾语从句在句中作及物动词或介词的宾语。 如: ? I wonder who he is. ? He is sorry for what he has done. ? 注:在口语及非正式文体中,that常省略。 ? 2.whether和if引导的宾语从句可以互换使 用,但介词后的宾语从句只能用whether, 不能 用if。如: ? He asked me if (whether) my brother was at home. ? It is a question of whether we should go.

? 1. 时间状语从句 ? 1.常用来引导时间状语从句的连接词有as, when, whenever, while, before, after, till, until, since, as soon as, hardly/scarcely/barely…when/before…, no sooner… than…等。如: ? He made a mistake,but then he corrected the situation before it got worse.他犯了错误,但没等 局势恶化,他就扭转了局势。 ? Jack had scarcely/hardly seen me when/before he left the room. 杰克一看到我就离开了房间。

? 2.某些表示时间的副词、名词短语和介词短 语也可引导时间状语从句。如directly, immediately, the instant, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, each/every time, next time, the first/second/last time, by the time等。 如: ? Directly I received your letter, I came back at once. 我一收到你的信,就马上回来 了。

? 2. 地点状语从句 ? 地点状语从句一般由where, wherever, everywhere 和anywhere引导。如: ? Wherever he went, he was warmly welcome. 无论他走到哪里,都受到热烈 的欢迎。

? 3. 原因状语从句 ? 原因状语从句一般由because, as, since, now that, in that, seeing that, considering that, not that… but that, by reason that, for fear that, for the reason that, on the ground that等引导。 如: ? As it is raining, let’s stay at home. 因为下 雨,我们就留在家里吧。 ? A gas differs from liquid in that it has no definite shape. 气体不同于固体就在于它没 有一定的形状。

? 4. 结果状语从句 ? 结果状语从句由so… that, such… that, so that, such that, so, that, to such a degree that, to such an extent that, with the result that等引导。 ? The shock was so big that she was almost driven mad. 因为打击太大,她差点发疯。 ? The temperature rose to such an extent that the firemen had to leave the house. 温度如此之高,消 防队员不得不离开那个着火的房子。 ? 注:so 或such位于句首时,主句需用倒装语序。如: ? So fierce was their dog that no one dared come near. 他们的狗真凶恶,没有人敢走近它。

? 5. 目的状语从句 ? 目的状语从句常由that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, in case等引导。从 句谓语常由“can/could, may/might+动词原 形”构成,有时也用“shall/should, will/would +动词原形”。 如: ? We left early so that we could catch the first train. 我们很早出发,以便能赶上第一 班火车。 ? He ran away lest he (should) be caught. 他 怕被抓,因而逃走了。

? 6. 条件状语从句 ? 条件状语从句由if, unless, only if(只要), if only(但 愿),when(如果),suppose/supposing(假如), as/so long as(只要),given that(假设), provided/providing that(假如),granted/ granting (that)(假定),on condition that(条件是……)等引 导。如: ? I’ll lend it to you as long as you handle it with care. 只 要你小心使用,我会借给你的。 ? 注:若主句为一般将来时,条件状语从句中谓语需用一般 现在时代替将来时。如: ? If you are free tomorrow, I will go to see you. 如果你 明天有空我就去看你。 ? 但如果从句表示的是主语的意志、志愿或以you作主语表 示请求时,则用will,would。如:I’d be very glad if you would come. 如果你肯来我会非常高兴。

? 7. 让步状语从句 ? 让步状语从句由as, though, although, even if/though, whatever, whoever, whichever, however, whether… or…, no matter+ wh-词, be, while, granted that, for all that等引导。如: ? While/Although he has some shortcomings, he also has some good points. 虽然他有一些缺点,但也 有一些优点。 ? Be it rain or shine, I must go. 不管天晴还是下雨, 我必须去。 ? 注:as 和though引导的让步状语从句通常用倒装结构, as必须用倒装结构,though可用也可不用倒装。这种 倒装通常是把从句中的表语、状语或谓语动词放在句 首。如: ? Selfish as/though he is, he is not without merits. 尽管他自私,但不是没有优点。

? 8. 方式状语从句 ? 方式状语从句由as, as if/though, the way, how, as… as, not so/as… as, just as (…so) 等引导。 如: ? It looks as if/as though it is going to rain. 看上去要下雨了。 ? Do it the way (that) you were told. 要照告 诉你的去做。

? GROUP 4 ? 1. To get more information, please contact us at the following address. ? GROUP 5 ? 2. It didn’t take long before he got used to life abroad. ? 5. It would be wonderful if we can get together on Christmas.

? GROUP 10 ? 4. This is the first time that I heard “Happy Birthday to you” sung in Italian. ? 5. He introduced me to his students, most of whom are English majors.



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