选修 9 Unit 1 Breaking records-Reading "THE ROAD IS ALWAYS AHEAD OF YOU" Ashrita Furman is a sportsman who likes the challenge of breaking Guinness records. Over the last 25 years, he
hasbroken approximately 93 Guinness records. More than twenty of these he still holds, including the record for having the most records. But these records are not made in any conventional sport like swimming or soccer. Rather Ashrita attempts to break records in very imaginative events and in very interesting places. 第一单元 路永在前方 阿什利塔·福曼是一位热衷挑战并总想争创吉尼斯纪录的运动 员。在过去 25 年中，他大约(approximately)已经打破了 93 项吉尼斯 世界纪录，至今，他仍然是其中 20 多项纪录的保持者，还包括拥有最 多的吉尼斯纪录这一项。但是这些记录并不是像游泳或足球等一般运 动项目那样创建的，而是阿什利塔试图在非常有趣的地点，在富有想 像力的运动项目中打破的。 Recently, Ashrita achieved his dream of breaking a record in all seven continents, including hula hooping in Australia, pogo stick jumping under water in South America, and performing deep knee bends in a hot air balloon in North America. 最近，阿什利塔完成了他的梦想:在所有七大洲破一项纪录，其 中包括在澳洲玩呼啦圈，在南美洲的水下做弹簧单高跷游戏，在北美 洲的热气球中做膝部深弯曲运动。
While these activities might seem childish and cause laughter rather than respect, in reality they require an enormous amount of strength and fitness as well as determination. 虽然这些活动看起来孩子气且令人发笑而不是让人肃然起敬，但实 际上(in reality),完成这些活动需要强大的力量,健康的体格和坚定 的决心。 Think about the fine neck adjustments needed to keep a full bottle of milk on your head while you are walking. You can stop to rest or eat but the bottle has to stay on your head. 想想吧,你一边走路,一边还要把一瓶牛奶顶在头上，你的脖子需 要的多好的适应力。你可以停下来休息或吃东西，但瓶子必须呆在头 上。 While Ashrita makes standing on top of a 75 cm Swiss ball look easy, it is not. It takes a lot of concentration and a great sense of balance to stay on it. You have to struggle to stay on top especially when your legs start shaking. 当阿什利塔站在 75 厘米高的瑞士球上时， 看起来虽然很轻松容易， 其实不然。呆在球上得一直全神贯注，还需要有极强的注意力和极好 的平衡感。特别是在双腿开始抖动的时候，你还得使劲呆在球上。 And what about somersaulting along a road for 12 miles? Somersaulting is a tough event as you have to overcome dizziness, extreme tiredness and pain. You are permitted to rest for only five minutes in every hour of rolling but you are allowed to stop briefly to vomit.
然而沿着 12 英里的马路翻筋斗,情况又是怎样的呢？翻筋斗是一 项艰苦的运动,因为你必须克服头晕、极度疲劳和痛苦。每翻滚一个小 时,只允许休息 5 分钟,不过也可以短暂地停下来呕吐(vomit)。 Covering a mile in the fastest time while doing gymnastically correct lunges is yet another event in which Ashrita is outstanding. Lunges are extremely hard on your legs. You start by standing and then you step forward with the fight foot while touching the left knee to the ground. Then you stand up again and step forward with the left foot while touching the fight knee to the ground. Imagine doing this for a mile! 做标准的体操(gymnastically)弓箭步动作向前，以最快的节奏走完 1 英里的路程是阿什利塔又一个出色的项目。弓箭步冲刺对你的双腿是 一个极端艰苦的考验。开始时呈站立姿势，然后右脚向前迈一步，同 时左膝触地，然后再站起来，左脚向前迈出一步，同时右膝触地。 想 想吧，这个动作要反复做 1 英里远！ Yet this talented sportsman is not a natural athlete. As a child he was very unfit and was not at all interested in sports. However, he was fascinated by the Guinness Book of World Records. 然而，这位有才能的运动员并不是天生的。小时候，他很不健康 (unfit)，而且对运动毫无兴趣。但他却对《吉尼斯世界纪录大全》非 常着迷(fascinated)。 How Ashrita came to be a sportsman is an interesting story. As a teenager, he began searching for a deeper meaning in life. He studied Eastern religions and, aged 16, discovered an Indian meditation teacher
called Sri Chinmoy who lived in his neighbourhood in New York City. Since that time in the early 1970s, Ashrita has been one of Sri Chinmoy's students. Sri Chinmoy says that it is just as important for people to develop their bodies as it is to develop their minds, hearts and spiritual selves. He believes that there is no limit to people's physical abilities. 阿什利塔究竟是怎样成为一位运动员的呢？这是一个有趣的故 事。少年时,他就开始探究人生的深层的意义。他研究过东方宗教，16 岁时，他发现了一位名叫斯里琴摩的印度静坐功(mediation)导师，住 在纽约市他家附近。自从 20 世纪 70 年代初，阿什利塔就一直是斯里 琴摩的学生。斯里琴摩指出，人们发展他们的体魂与发展他们的头脑、 心灵和精神上的(spiritual)自我具有同等的重要性，并且他相信人的 体能是没有局限的。 When Ashrita came third in a 24-hour bicycle marathon in New York's Central Park in 1978, he knew that he would one day get into the Guinness Book of World Records. He had been urged by his spiritual leader to enter the marathon even though he had done no training. So, when he won third place, he came to the understanding that his body was just an instrument of the spirit and that he seemed to be able to use his spirit to accomplish anything. From then on, Ashrita refused to accept any physical limitation. 当阿什利塔 1978 年在纽约市中央公园进行的 24 小时自行车马拉 松(marathon)比赛中获得第三名时，他就知道总有一天他将进入《吉 尼斯世界纪录大全》 。尽管从没有训练过，他还是受到他的精神领袖的 敦促参加了马拉松比赛。因此,当他取得第三名的时候，他开始有了这
样的认识：他的身躯只不过是他的精神的工具，而且他似乎能够利用 他的精神力量去完成任何事。从那时起，阿什利塔就拒绝接受任何身 体极限的说法。 With this new confidence, Asharita broke his first Guinness record with 27,000 jumping jacks in 1979. The motivation to keep trying to break records comes through his devotion to Sri Chinmoy. Every time Ashrita tries to break a record, he reaches a point where he feels he cannot physically do any more. At that moment, he goes deep within himself and connects with his soul and his teacher. 由于有了这种新的信心, 阿什利塔于 1979 年第一次打破吉尼斯纪 录——跳爆竹 27000 次。不断努力打破纪录的动机源来自他对斯里琴 摩思想的虔诚。每次试图破纪录的时候，阿什里塔都会达到一个体力 不可逾越的极限点。这个时候，他就会进入自己的内心深处，与他的 灵魂(soul)和他的老师相沟通。 Ashrita always acknowledges his teacher in his record-breaking attempts.In fact, he often wears a T-shirt with Sri Chinmoy's words on the back. The words are: 在创纪录的努力中，阿什利塔总是要感谢他的老师。事实上，他 常穿着一件 T 恤衫，后背上有斯里琴摩的名言： "There is only one perfect road. It is ahead of you, always ahead of you." “完美的道路只有一条,它就在你前方,永远在你前方。” FOCUS ON ... Lance Armstrong
Date of Birth: 8th September, 1971 Country: USA Lance Armstrong's Guinness record for the fastest average speed at the Tour de France was set in 1999 with an average speed of 40.27 km/hr. In his teens he was a triathlete but at 16 he began to concentrate on cycling. He was an amateur cyclist before the 1992 Olympic Games but turned professional after he had competed in the Games. In the following few years, he won numerous titles, and by 1996 he had become the world's number one. However, in October 1996, he discovered he had cancer and had to leave cycling. Successfully fighting his illness, Armstrong officially returned to racing in 1998. In 1999 he won the Tour de France and in 2003 he achieved his goal of winning five Tours de France. 集中精力于?? 兰斯·阿姆斯特郎 出生日期：1971 年 9 月 8 日 国籍：美国 兰斯·阿姆斯特郎的环法自行车赛最快平均速度的吉尼斯记录是 他 1999 年以 40.27 公里 小时的平均速度创造的。在少年时期，他 是一名三项全能比赛的运动员，但到 16 岁时，他开始集中精力于自 行车运动。在 1992 年奥运会之前他还只是一名业余车手，但是在参 加奥运会比赛之后，他就成为一名专业车手了。在随后的几年里，他 获得了许多称号。到了 1996 年，他已经成为世界第一了。然而，在 1996 年 10 月，他发现自己患了癌症，不得不放弃骑车运动。在成功地
战胜病魔之后，他于 1998 年正式重返赛场。1999 年他赢得了环法自行 车赛的冠军。到 2003 年，他完成了自己在环法自行车赛上五次夺冠的 目标。 Michellie Jones Date of Birth: 9th June, 1969 Country: Australia In 1988 Michellie Jones helped establish the multi-sport event, the triathlon, in Australia. After completing her teaching qualifications in 1990, she concentrated on the triathlon. In 1991, she finished third at the world championships. In 1992 and 1993, she was the International Triathlon Union World Champion. Since then, she has never finished lower than fourth in any of the world championships she has competed in. At the Sydney Olympics in 2000 she won the silver medal in the Women's Triathlon, the first time the event had been included in the Olympic Games. Recently, for the first time in 15 years, Jones was not selected as part of the national team and therefore did not compete in the 2004 Olympics in Athens. 米歇尔· 琼斯 出生日期：1969 年 6 月 9 日 国籍：澳大利亚 1988 年， 米歇尔· 琼斯在澳大利亚帮助创建了“多项运动”比赛—— 三项全能运动。1990 年她取得教师资格证以后，就把精力集中在三项 全能运动上。在 1991 年的世界锦标赛上她得了第三名。在 1992 年和
1993 年，她取得了国际铁人三项联盟的冠军。从那以后，在她所参加 的任何一次世界锦标赛中， 她从来没有低于第四名的成绩。 2000 年 在 的悉尼奥运会上，她又取得了女子三项全能运动的银牌。该项运动还 是首次被纳入奥运会。最近，琼斯没有入选国家队，这是她 15 年来首 次未被入选，因而她没能参加 2004 年的雅典奥运会。 Fu Mingxia Date of Birth: 16th August, 1978 Country: China Fu Mingxia first stood on top of the 10-metre diving platform at the age of nine. At 12 years old she won a Guinness Record when she became the youngest female to win the women's world title for platform diving at the World Championships in Australia in 1991. At the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games, she took the gold medal in the women's 10-metre platform, becoming the youngest Olympic diving champion of all time. This was followed by great success at the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games where she won gold for both the 10-metre platform and the three-metre springboard. This made her the first woman in Olympic diving history to win three gold medals. She retired from diving after Atlanta and went to study economics at university. While there she decided to make a comeback and went on to compete at the Sydney Olympic Games, where she won her fourth Olympic gold, again making Olympic history. 伏明霞 出生日期：1978 年 8 月 16 日
国籍：中国 伏明霞首次站在 10 米跳台上是在她 9 岁的时候。1991 年，12 岁 的伏明霞就获得了一项吉尼斯记录，当时她参加了在澳大利亚举行的 跳台跳水世界锦标赛，成为最年轻的女子世界冠军。在 1992 年的巴 塞罗那奥运会上，她夺得女子 10 米跳台的金牌，成为有史以来最年 轻的奥运会跳水冠军。 随后的巨大成功是在 1996 年的亚特兰大奥运会 上， 她又夺得 10 米跳台和 3 米跳板的金牌。 这使伏明霞成为奥运 会跳水史上第一位连续夺得三枚金牌的女子。在亚特兰大之后，伏明 霞退股，到大学里学习经济。读书期间，她决定复出参加悉尼奥运会， 结果她又获得第四枚奥运会金牌，再次改写了奥运会历史。 Martin Strel Date of Birth: 1st October, 1954 Country: Slovenia Strel was trained as a guitarist before he became a professional marathon swimmer in 1978. He has a passion for swimming the world's great rivers. In 2000, he was the first person ever to swim the entire length of the Danube River in Europe - a distance of 3,004 kilometres in 58 days. For this, he attained his first entry in the Guinness Book of World Records. Then in 2001 he broke the Guinness record for non-stop swimming - 504.5 kilometres in the Danube River in 84 hours and 10 minutes. Martin won his third entry in the Guinness Book of World Records in 2002 when he beat his own record for long distance swimming by swimming the length of the Mississippi River in North America in 68 days, a total of 3,797 kilometres.
Then in 2003 he became the first man to have swum the whole 1,929 kilometres of the difficult Parana River in South America.In 2004, Strel again broke his own Guinness record by swimming the length of the dangerous Changjiang River (4,600 km), the third longest fiver in the world. 马丁·斯特雷 出生日期：1954 年 10 月 1 日 国籍：斯洛文尼亚 在 1978 年成为职业马拉松游泳运动员之前，斯特雷曾被作为吉他 手培养。 但是他有一股热情， 想要到世界上的大江大河中去游泳。 2000 年， 他成为游完欧洲多瑙河全程的第一人—58 天游完了 3004 公里。 为此，他第一次进入了《吉尼斯世界纪录大全》 。随后在 2001 年，他 打破了全程无间断游泳的吉尼斯世界纪录——在多瑙河中以 84 小时 10 分的时间游了 504.5 公里。马丁于 2002 年第三次进入《吉尼斯世界 纪录大全》 这次他打破了自己创下的远距离游泳的世界纪录——在 68 ， 天内总共游完北美洲密西西比河的 3797 公里。然后在 2003 年他成为 游完难度巨大，全程 1929 公里的南美洲巴拉那河的第一人。到 2004 年，斯特雷再次破了他自己的吉尼斯记录,游了世界上第三大河长江的 危险河段 4600 公里。 选修 9 Unit 2 Sailing the oceans-Reading SRILING THE OCERNS We may well wonder how seamen explored the oceans before latitude and longitude made it possible to plot a ship's position on a map.
The voyages of travellers before the 17th century show that they were not at the mercy of the sea even though they did not have modern navigational aids. So how did they navigate so well? Read these pages from an encyclopedia. 第二单元 海洋航行 我们很可能感到奇怪,在经纬度被用来在地图上标出船只位置之 前,海员是如何对海洋进行探索的。17 世纪以前的航海记录显示,即使 没有现代航海技术的帮助,他们也没有任凭海洋摆布(at the mercy of) 。 那 么 他 们 是 怎 样 航 行 得 如 此 之 好 的 呢 ？ 读 读 百 科 全 书 (encyclopedia)这几页上的记载吧。 Page 1: Using nature to help Keeping alongside the coastline This seems to have been the first and most useful form of exploration which carried the minimum amount of risk. Using celestial bodies North Star At the North Pole the North Star is at its highest position in the sky, but at the equator it is along the horizon. So accomplished navigators were able to use it to plot their positions. Sun On a clear day especially during the summer the sailors could use the sun overhead at midday to navigate by. They can use the height of the sun to
work out their latitude. Clouds Sea captains observed the clouds over islands. There is a special cloud formation which indicates there is land close by. Using wildlife Seaweed Sailors often saw seaweed in the sea and could tell by the colour and smell how long it had been them. If it was fresh and smelled strongly,then the ship was close to land. Birds Sea birds could be used to show the way to land when it was nowhere to be seen. In the evening nesting birds return to land and their nests. So seamen could follow the birds to land even if they were offshore and in the open sea. Using the weather Fog Fog gathers at sea as well as over streams or rivers. Seamen used it to help identify the position of a stream or river when they were close to land. Winds Wise seamen used the winds to direct their sailing. They could accelerate the speed, but they could also be dangerous. So the Vikings would observe the winds before and during their outward or return journeys. Using the sea
Certain tides and currents could be used by skillful sailors to carry ships to their destination.These skills helped sailors explore the seas and discover new lands. They increased their ability to navigate new seas when they used instruments. 第一页： 借助大自然使船只沿海岸线行驶 这似乎是最早的、最有用的探险(exploration)方式,所冒的风险 也最小。 利用天体(celestial bodies) ●北极星 在北极, 北极星是在天上的最高位置；而在赤道(equator)上，北 极星却在地平线(horizon)上。因此，熟练的航海探险家就能够利用北 极星来确定他们自己的位置。 ●太阳 在晴朗的日子里， 特别是夏天， 船员可以利用正午在头顶上(overhead) 的太阳来导航。他们可以利用太阳的高度来计算出他们自己的位置。 ●云层 海上的船长观测岛上的云层。有一种特殊的云彩的形状表明附近 有陆地。 利用野生动植物 ●海藻 海员常常看到海里的海藻，并能根据它的颜色和气味判断这种海 藻在那儿有多久了。如果它颜色新鲜而且气味浓烈,那说明船只就离陆
地很近了。 ●鸟 在看不见陆地的时候, 可以用海鸟来指明通往陆地的去路。在夜 晚的时候, 筑巢而居的鸟就要返回陆地鸟窝。因此, 即使在远离海岸 的大洋上, 海员们也可以跟随这些鸟儿到达陆地。 利用天气 ●雾 正如雾气汇聚在溪流或江河上一样, 雾气也能汇聚在海洋上。当 靠近陆地时, 海员们可以用雾气来帮助确定溪流或江河的位置。 ●风 聪明的海员常常利用风向来导航。风向可以使船只加快速度，也 可以造成危险。于是，北欧的海盗们在出海或返航时都要观察风向。 利用大海 技术娴熟的海员可以利用大海的某些潮汐(tides)或浪潮把船送 往他们的目的地。 Page 2: Using navigational instruments to help Finding longitude There was no secure method of measuring longitude until the 17th century when the British solved this theoretical problem. Nobody knew that the earth moved westwards 15 degrees every hour, but sailors did know an approximate method of calculating longitude using speed and time. An early method of measuring speed involved throwing a knotted rope tied to a
log over the side of the ship. The rope was tied to a log which was then thrown into the sea. As the ship advanced through the water the knots were counted as they passed through a seaman's hands. The number of knots that were counted during a fixed period of time gave the speed of the ship in nautical miles per hour. 第二页： 利用航海工具 找出经度 直到 17 世纪英国人解决了这个理论问题后,人们才有了测量经 度的可靠方法 。以前没有人知道地球每小时向东转动约 15 度，然而 海员们确实知道用速度和时间来计算经度的近似标准的方法。早期测 量速度的方法是沿着船边拉一根打结的(knotted)绳子，把这根绳子系 在一根圆木(log)上，然后把它抛入海里。当船只在水中前进时，这些 绳结从海员的手中通过, 这时海员就记下绳结的数目。在一定时间内 计算出有多少个结, 就可以算出船只每小时航行多少海里(nautical miles)的速度。 Later, when seamen began to use the compass in the 12th century they could calculate longitude using complicated mathematical tables. The compass has a special magnetic pointer which always indicates the North Pole, so it is used to help find the direction that the ship needs to go. In this way the ship could set a straight course even in the middle of the ocean. 后来, 当 12 世纪海员们开始使用指南针的时候, 他们就可以用复杂的 数学表来计算出经度了。指南针有一个特殊的磁针(magnetic), 始终
指着北极。因此人们用它来帮助找出船只所要去的方向。这样, 即使 在大海中船只也可以直线航行。 Finding latitude The Bearing Circle It was the first instrument to measure the sun's position. A seaman would measure the sun's shadow and compare it with the height of the sun at midday. Then he could tell if he was sailing on his correct rather than a random course. 找出纬度(latitude) ●方位圆 这是最早用来测量太阳位置的工具。海员可以测量太阳的影子，并把 它同太阳在正午时的高度作比较，这样就可以知道自己是在正确的航 道上或是在随意行驶。 A Bearing Circle The Astrolabe The astrolabe, quadrant and sextant are all connected. They are developments of one another. The earliest, the astrolabe, was a special all-in-one tool for telling the position of the ship in relation to the sun and various stars which covered the whole sky. This gave the seamen the local time and allowed them to find their latitude at sea. However, it was awkward to use as one of the points of reference was the moving ship itself. ●星盘 星盘、象限仪和六分仪相互都有联系。它们是在彼此的基础上发
展而成的。最早的是星盘，它是一种特殊的集多功能于一体的工具， 它可以用来表明船只同太阳和布满天空的各种星星之间的相关位置。 这样船员们就可得知当地的时间，以及他们在海上的纬度。但是，它 不容易使用，因为其参照(reference)点之一就是行驶中的船只本身。 The Quadrant This was a more precise and simplified version of the astrolabe. It measured how high stars were above the horizon using a quarter circle rather than the full circle of the astrolabe.It was easier to handle because it was more portable. Its shortcoming was that it still used the moving ship as one of the fixed points of reference. As the ship rose and plunged in the waves, it was extremely difficult to be accurate with any reading. ●象限仪 这是一种比较精确而且比较简单的星盘。它利用星盘的 1 /4 圆 周而不是整个圆来测量星星在水平线上的高度。它比较容易操作，因 为它比较轻便(portable)。缺点仍旧是使用移动的船只作为一个固定 的参照点。因为船只在海浪中起伏不定，所以很难测出精确的读数。 The sextant The sextant was the updated version of the astrolabe and quadrant which reduced the tendency to make mistakes. It proved to be the most accurate and reliable of these early navigational instruments. It works by measuring the angle between two fixed objects outside the ship using two mirrors. This made the calculations more precise and easier to do. ●六分仪
六分仪是方位圆和象限仪的改进版，它减少了出差错的可能性。 在这些早期的航海仪器中，它被证明是最精确和最为可靠的一种，它 的工作方式是用两块镜子来测量船外两个固状物体之间的角度，这就 使得计数更加精确，而且更加容易操作。
THE GREATEST NAVIGATIONAL JOURNEY:A LESSON IN SURVIVAL I am proud to have sailed with Captain Bligh on his journey of over 40 days through about 4,000miles in an open boat across the Pacific Ocean in 1789. Our outward voyage in the "Bounty" to Tahiti had been filled with the kind of incidents that I thought would be my stories when I returned home. But how wrong I was! On our departure from Tahiti, some of the crew took over the ship.They deposited the captain into a small boat to let him find his own way home. But who else was to go with him? Those of us on board the "Bounty" were caught in a dilemma. Was it better to risk certain death by sitting close together on a small, crowded open boat with very little food and water? Or should one stay on the "Bounty" with the crew and face certain death from the British Navy if caught? The drawback of staying on the ship seemed to grow as I thought about how wrong it was to treat Captain Bligh in this way. So I joined him in the small boat. As dusk fell, we seemed to face an uncertain future. We had no charts and the only instruments the captain was allowed to take with him were a compass and a quadrant.
最伟大的航海里程 ——幸存的经验教训 1789 年我有幸与布莱船长乘坐一条敞篷船航行了 40 余天，横穿太平 洋，行程约 4000 英里。我们乘坐“邦蒂号”出发到塔希提岛这希航程 中充满了各种事件。我以为回国后可以讲这些故事,但是我完全错了！ 在我们离开(departure)塔希提以后,有部分船员(crew)接管了这艘 船。他们把船长放(deposit)进一条小船里，让他自己想办法回家。可 是还有别的什么人同他一起走吗？在“邦蒂号”上的我们这些人有点 儿进退两难：是冒着生命危险,挤坐在又小又拥挤的船上,只有少量的 食物和水更好呢？还是与船上的人一起呆在“邦蒂号”上,面对被英 国海军抓获的危险？想到这样对待布莱船长是多么错误的时候,留在 船上的不利因素似乎增多了,因此我随船长上了小船。随着黄昏降临, 我们似乎面对着一个不可预测的未来。没有航海图,允许船长带走的仪 器只有一个指南针和一个四分仪。 Once we were at sea, our routine every day was the same. At sunrise and sunset the captain measured our position using the quadrant and set the course using the compass. It was extremely difficult for us to get a correct reading from the quadrant as the boat moved constantly. The captain used a system called "dead reckoning". He knew there was land directly northwest of our original position. So his task was to make sure we stayed on that course. As you can see from the map we kept to a straight course pretty well. In addition, the captain kept us all busy reading the tables to work out our position. Although this took a great deal of time, it didn't matter. Time
was, after all, what we had a lot of! 一旦我们在海上,每天的事务总是一成不变。每当日出和日落的时 候,船长就用四分仪测量我们的位置,并用指南针确定航线。因为船只 总是在晃动,所以我们很难从四分仪上得到正确的读数。船长使用一个 叫做 “航位推算(reckoning)” 的系统。他知道在我们原先位置的正 西北方有陆地。因此,他的任务就是确保我们要在那个航线上。正如你 在地图上所能见到的那样,我们很好地保持着这条笔直的航线。此外, 船长还让我们大家都忙于解读表格,以计算出我们的位置。虽然这项工 作占去了大量的时间，但那并没有关系。毕竟我们有的就是时间。 Our daily food was shared equally among us all: one piece of bread and one cup of water. It was starvation quantities but the extreme lack of water was the hardest to cope with psychologically. Imagine all that water around you, but none of it was safe to drink because the salt in it would drive you mad! All the time the captain tried to preserve our good spirits by telling stories and talking hopefully about what we would do when we got back to England. We only half believed him. 我们的日常食物全都是平均分配的：一片面包和一杯水。这点儿 份量的食物只能让人处于饥饿之中,可是我们心理上最难承受的却是 极度缺水。想想看,你的四周全都是水,但是一滴都不能喝,因为水中的 盐分会弄得你精神失常！船长一直试图让我们保持良好的精神状态,他 给我们讲故事,并且满怀希望地同我们谈论回到英国后所要做的事。我 们对他只是将信将疑罢了。 The tension in the boat got worse as the supply of food and water
gradually disappeared. We could foresee that we would die if we could not reach land very soon and we sank gradually into a sleepy, half-alive state. The captain was as weak as the rest of us, but he was determined not to give up. He continued his navigational measurements every day. He kept us busy and tried to take our minds off our stomachs and our thirst. He kept us alive. 随着食物和水的供应渐渐(gradually)短缺, 船上的气氛也越来 越紧张(tension).可以预见到, 如果不能很快地靠岸登陆, 我们必死 无疑。逐渐地我们陷入一种昏昏欲睡奄奄一息的状态。船长同我们这 些人一样地虚弱,但是他决意不放弃。他每天继续不停地进行航海测 量。他总是使我们忙个不停,并且竭力使我们忘记饥渴(thirst)。他使 我们活了下来。 You could not imagine a more disturbing sight than what we looked like when arriving in Timor over forty days after being set loose in our small boat. Our clothes were torn, we had fever and our faces showed the hardships we had suffered. But after a rest, some good meals and some new clothes, everything changed. We couldn't stop talking about our voyage and everybody wanted to hear about it. We were the heroes who had escaped the jaws of death by completing the greatest navigational feat of all time! 你简直无法想象我们被放在(set loose)小船上漂泊了 40 天后在 帝汶岛登陆时的凄惨样子。我们衣衫褴褛(torn), 发着高烧, 从脸上 就能看出我们所遭受的痛苦。但是经过一段时间的休息,吃了几顿好饭, 穿了几件新衣服之后一切情况就都变了.我们不停地讲述着我们航行
的经历,并且大家都想听我们讲。我们完成了历史上最伟大的航海壮举, 我们成了从鬼门关(jaws of death)逃出来的英雄！
选修 9 Unit 3 Australia-Reading GLIMPSES OF AUSTRALIA AUSTRALIA Capital: Canberra Australia Area: 7,686,850 km2 Population: 20 million Offcial name: Commonwealth of
Highest point: Mount Kosciuszko, 2,228 metres above sea level Lowest point: Lake Eyre, 15 metres below sea level 第三单元 澳大利亚小览 澳大利亚 首都:堪培拉 正式国名:澳大利亚联邦(commonwealth) 面积: 7 686 850 平方公里 人口:2 千万 最高点:科西阿斯科山,高出海平面 2228m 最低点:艾尔湖, 低于海平面 15m Australia is the only country that is also a continent. It is the sixth largest country in the world and is in the smallest continent - Oceania. It is a mainly dry country with only a few coastal areas that have adequate rainfall to support a large population. Approximately 80 of Australians live
in the south-eastern coastal area, which includes Australia's two largest cities – Melbourne and Sydney. The centre of the continent, which is mainly desert and dry grassland, has few settlements. 澳大利亚是唯一一个既是国家又是大陆的国家。它是世界上第六 大的国家, 并且位于最小的大陆——大洋洲(Oceania). 这是一个干 旱气候为主的国家, 只有少部分沿海地区有充足雨量, 可以维持着大 量人口的生存。大约有 80%的澳大利亚人居住在东南沿海地区，这里 包括澳大利亚两个最大的城市——墨尔本和悉尼。 大陆中央主要是沙漠和干草地很少有人居住。 Australia is famous for its huge, open spaces, bright sunshine, enormous number of sheep and cattle and its unusual wildlife, which include kangaroos and koalas. Australia is a popular destination with tourists from all over the world who come to experience its unique ecology. 澳大利亚以其开阔的疆域、明媚的阳光、数不尽的牛羊和奇特的 野生动植物而闻名，其中包括袋鼠和树袋熊。澳大利亚是一个受人欢 迎的旅游胜地，世界各地的游客来到这里体验它独特的生态环境。 Australia is made up of six states. Like the states in America, Australian states are autonomous in some areas of government. However, Australia has a federal government responsible for matters that affect people all over the country, such as defence, foreign policy and taxation. The federal parliament is located in Canberra. 澳大利亚是由六个州组成的。像美国的州一样，澳大利亚的州政 府的某些部门自治。然而， 澳大利亚有一个联邦政府负责管理涉及全
国人民的事务，诸如国防、外交政策和税收(taxation)等。联邦议会 设在堪培拉。 CITIZENSHIP CEREMONIES PLANNED AROUND AUSTRALIA On 26 January, Australia Day, in over 200 locations across the nation , more than 9,000 people will become Australian citizens. 澳大利亚的公民庆典活动 1 月 26 是澳大利亚日，全国 200 多个地方的 9 000 多人将成为澳 大利亚的公民。 "By these citizenship ceremonies we welcome those who have come from overseas from many different cultural and social backgrounds into our communities and our nation," said the Minister for Citizenship and Multicultural Affairs. "Australia Day celebrations that include people from so many birthplaces are an excellent way to encourage tolerance, respect and friendship among all the people of Australia." “我们以这些公民(citizenship)庆典的形式欢迎来自不同文化和 社会背景的人加入到我们这个群体和国家中来。”公民与多元化事务 部部长说。“来自许多不同的出生地的人参加澳大利亚日庆典活动.这 种庆典活动是在澳洲全体人民中鼓励宽容(tolerance)、尊重和友爱的 一种极佳方式。” Most citizenship ceremonies will be followed by displays of singing and dancing from many of the migrants' homelands and the tasting of food from all over the world. 通常在公民庆典活动之后有一些来自移民(migrant)国家的歌舞表
演，还有品尝世界各地美味佳肴的活动。 Go by plane and see clouds Go by TRAIN and see Australia 乘飞机观云彩 坐火车看澳洲 Enjoy 3 nights on board the Indian-Pacific On this 4,352-km journey from Sydney to Perth via Adelaide you'll view some ot Australias unique scenery from the superb Blue Mountains to the treeless plains of the Nuliarbor. Along the way you will spot a fascinating variety of wildlife. 乘印度洋——太平洋号列车三日游 从悉尼经(via)阿德莱德到佩思长达 4332 公里的旅途中, 你将 看到澳大利亚所特有的美景,既有巍峨秀美的蓝山,也有望不见树木的 纳拉伯平原。沿途中,你还将看到各种各样引人入胜的野生动植物. Enjoy 2 nights on board the Ghan As you travel from Adelaide to Darwin via Alice Springs, you'll observe some of Australia's most spectacular landscapes - from the rolling hills surrounding Adelaide to the rusty reds of Australia's centre and the tropical splendour of Darwin. For more information, timetables and fares go to www.gsr.com.au/trains.htm 乘格安列车二日游 从阿德莱德经爱丽丝温泉到达尔文的旅程中，你可以看到澳大利 亚最壮丽的风景——从环绕阿德莱德的延绵起伏的群山，到澳大利亚
中 部 的 红 色 (rusty) 土 地 ， 到 达 尔 文 美 丽 的 热 带 景 观 (tropical splendour)。 查询详情、时间表与费用等请登陆：www.gsr.com.au/trains.htm Dear Shen Ping, I wish you could see this amazing rock. It is part of one of Australia's 14 Worm Heritage Sites and rises about 335 metres out of a vast, flat sandy plain. A t different times of the day it appears to change co/our, from grey-red at sunrise, to golden and finally to burning red at dusk. Aboriginal people have lived near Uluru for thousands of years and yout can walk around it with an Aboriainal guide to learn about their customs, art, religion and day-to-day life. It is also possible to climb the rock, but most people don't do this out of respect for the Aboriginal people who consider the rock to be sacred. I’ll be back in Sydney in a fortnight because I've made a reservation on the Indian Pacific train to Perth. love Jack
Tours 亲爱的沈平： 真希望你能够亲眼看到这块令人惊叹的岩石。它是澳大利亚 14 项世界遗产(heritage)之一， 矗立在一片广阔的沙地平原上， 高达 335 米。在不同时间里，这块岩石会呈现出不同的颜色，从日出时的灰红, 到金黄,最后到黄昏时的火红。澳洲土著人(aboriginal)居住在乌卢鲁 附近已经有几千年了。你可以找一位土著人向导带你去走一走，了解
那里人们的习俗、艺术、宗教和日常生活。要爬上这个巨石也是可能 的，但大多数人们出于对土著人的尊敬(out of respect)而不这么做 因为他们认为这块岩石是神圣的。我会在两个星期后返回悉尼，因为 我已经预定(reservation)好了印度洋——太平洋号火车票前往佩思。 杰克 outside Hobart Drive 250 km northwestwards from Hobart along the A10 highway and you'll arrive at the southern end of the magnificent Cradle Mountain National Park and World Heritage area. This park is famous for its mountain peaks, lakes and ancient forests. A popular attraction for active tourists is the 80-km walking track that joins the southern and northern ends of the park. There are also a range of short walks. 霍巴特市外之旅 从霍巴特沿 A10 号公路朝西北方向行驶 250 公里，你就来到景色 壮观的摇篮(Cradle)山国家公园暨世界遗产保护区的南端。这座公园 以山峰、 湖泊和远古森林而闻名。 喜爱运动的旅游者还有个好去处， 那 就是贯穿公园南北的一条 80 公里长的徒步旅行路线，此外还有一些 短途旅行路线。
Reading and discussing Before you read the following text, read the title and look at the pictures. Discuss with a partner what you expect to read about in the text. AUSTRALIA’S DANGEROUS CREATURES
Australia is home to more than 170 different kinds of snake and 115 of these are poisonous. In fact, Australia has more kinds of venomous snake than any other country in the world. Luckily, the poison of most snakes can kill or paralyze only small creatures.A few varieties, however, can kill humans, so it is just as well that snakes are very shy and usually attack only if they are disturbed and feel threatened. 澳大利亚的危险动物 澳大利亚是 170 多种蛇的家乡，其中有 115 种是毒蛇。事实上， 澳大利亚比世界上任何其它国家的毒(venomous)蛇品种都多。幸运的 是, 多数毒蛇的毒素只能杀死小动物, 或使它们瘫痪(paralyze)。不 过, 还是有少数几种蛇能致人于死地。好在蛇都胆小怕事, 通常只在 被打扰和感到有威胁时才会出击。 There are also approximately 2,000 different kinds of spider in Australia and, like snakes, most have a poisonous bite. However, the majority have no effect on humans or cause only mild sickness.Only a few have venom that is powerful enough to kill a human being. While a small number of Australians are bitten by spiders each year, most recover without any medical treatment. 在澳大利亚，还有着将近 2 000 种不同种类的蜘蛛。它们同蛇一 样，多数蜘蛛咬起来也有毒。然而, 绝大多数蜘蛛的毒素对人体并没 有影响, 或者只能引起轻微病痛。只有少数蜘蛛有剧毒(venom), 足以 致人于死地。虽然每年有少数人被蜘蛛咬伤，但多数人不经治疗就能 痊愈。
The seas around Australia contain over 160 different kinds of shark, which vary in size from just 20 centimetres to over 14 metres. However, although they look dangerous because of their wide mouths and sharp teeth, all but two or three kinds are harmless to humans. 在环绕着澳大利亚的海域里有 160 多种鲨鱼，它们的体长从 20 厘米到 14 米不等。尽管它们有宽大的嘴巴和锋利的牙齿，看上去很危 险，然而除了两三种之外，其余的对人类并没有危害。 Another potentially dangerous sea animal is the jellyfish. Most kinds of poisonous jellyfish can cause severe pain to anyone who touches them but the poison of the box jellyfish can actually kill a human, especially if that person has a weak heart. The tiniest amount of poison from a box jellyfish can kill in less than five minutes and it is probably the most poisonous animal in the world. 另外一种具有潜在危险的海洋动物就是水母。多数有毒水母都会 使任何触碰到它们的人痛苦万分，而箱水母的毒素则足以致人死亡， 特别是如果这个人的心脏虚弱的话。箱水母极少量的毒素就可以在五 分钟内致人死命，它也许是世界上最毒的动物。 There is one other dangerous animal in Australia worth mentioning, and that is the crocodile. Although two types of crocodile live in Australia, only the saltwater crocodile has been known to kill humans. This crocodile moves very quickly when it sees something it considers to be food, and from time to time a crocodile has snatched someone before he or she is even aware that the crocodile is there.
澳大利亚还有一种值得一提的危险动物就是鳄鱼。虽然澳大利亚 有两种类型的鳄鱼，但是我们只知道咸水鳄才会致人于死地。当这种 鳄鱼看到某个东西并认为是食物的时候，它就会迅速行动，就这样时 常捕获(snatch)住那些还未来得及察觉到鳄鱼的人。 You might think that with all these dangerous animals Australia is an unsafe place to live in or visit. However, this is far from the truth. There are no more than a handful of shark attacks each year and only three deaths have been reported in the last five years.Similarly, in the last three years there have been only two reported deaths from crocodile attacks. Since 1956, when an anti-venom treatment for redback spider bites was developed, there have been no deaths from redbacks, and since 1981 when a treatment was developed for funnelweb spider poison, there have been no deaths from this spider either. Treatments for jellyfish stings and s~aakebites have also been developed and in the last five years there have been only three deaths from jellyfish stings and about the same number from snakebites. 澳大利亚有这么多危险的动物，你也许会认为在这里居住或到这 里旅游很不安全。但事实并非如此。每年只有少量的鲨鱼袭人事件， 而且在过去五年里，只有三例死亡报道。与此相似的是在过去的三年 间也只有两起鳄鱼袭击致死的报道。1956 年研制出一种治疗红背毒蜘 蛛咬伤(anti-venom)的疗法，以后就再没有发生过红背蜘蛛咬死人的 事件了。 1981 年研制出一种对付漏斗蜘蛛的疗法,那以后就也没有人因 此而死亡。治疗水母刺伤和毒蛇咬伤的方法也已经研制成功。在过去
选修 9 Unit 4 Exploring plants-Reading PLANT EXPLORATION IN THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES The plants in our gardens look so familiar that often we do not realize that many of them actually come from countries far away. Collecting "exotic" plants, as they are called, dates back to the earliest times. Many ancient civilisations saw the value of bringing back plants from distant lands. The first plant collecting expedition recorded in history was around 1500 BC when the Queen of Egypt sent ships away to gather plants, animals and other goods. 第四单元 18 世纪和 19 世纪的植物探索 我们花园里的植物看上去是那么熟悉,以致我们常常意识不到在 这些植物中有许多实际上来自遥远的国度。收集所谓的“异 国”(exotic)植物要追溯(date back to)到很久以前。许多古老文化 都懂得从遥远的地方把植物带回来的价值。历史上有记载的第一个收 集植物的探险是在公元前 1500 年，埃及女王派出船只去收集植物、 动物以及其他货物。 However, it was not until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that the exploration of the botanical world began on a large scale. Europe had become interested in scientific discovery and the European middle classes took great interest in collecting new plants. This attraction to exotic plants
grew as European nations, like the Netherlands, Britain and Spain, moved into other parts of the world like Asia and Australia. Brave young men took the opportunity of going on botanical expeditions, often facing many dangers including disease,near-starvation, severe environments and conflicts with the local people. 然而，直到 18 世纪和 19 世纪人们对植物世界大规模(scale)的 探索才开始。那时欧洲对抖学发现已经倍感兴趣，而欧洲的中产阶级 则特别热衷于收集新的植物。随着欧洲人，如荷兰、英国和西班牙向 世界其他地区，如亚洲和澳洲的迁徙，这种对异域植物的吸吸引也在 增长。勇敢的年轻人借机进行植物探索活动，他们常常面临许多危险， 如疾病、饥饿、严酷的环境以及同当地居民的冲突。 An important group of collectors were Frencn Catholic missionaries who, by the middle of the 18th century, were beginning to set themselves up in China. One such missionary, Father d'Incarville, was sent to Beijing in the 1740s. He collected seeds of trees and bushes including those of the Tree of Heaven. Just before he died, he sent some Tree of Heaven seeds to England. They arrived in 1751 and plants from these seeds were grown throughout Europe and later, in 1784, the species was introduced in North America. 有一群重要的收集者是法国天主教教士(missionaries) 18 世纪 中叶，他们开始进入中国。其中有一位叫汤执中的传教士于 18 世纪 40 年代被派赴北京。他收集了树种、灌木种，其中包括天堂树的种子。 就在他去世之前，他还把一些天堂树的种子送到了英国。1751 年它们
抵达英国，由这些树种长成的树遍布了全欧洲。后来在 1784 年，这 个物种又被引进到了北美。 Sir Joseph Banks was a very famous British plant collector, who accompanied James Cook on his first voyage from England to Oceania. The purpose of the trip for Banks was to record the plant and animal life they came across. He and his team collected examples whenever they went onto dry land. In 1769, Banks collected vast quantities of plants in the land now known as Australia. None of these plants had been recorded by Europeans before. Cook called the bay where the Endeavour had anchored Botany Bay. 约瑟夫·班克斯爵士是一位著名的英国植物收集家、他曾经陪同 詹姆斯·库克进行了从英国到大洋洲的首航。班克斯这次出行的目的 就是把他们所见到的植物和动物的情况记录下来。他和他的队员们每 次进入干燥的土地时都要收集样品. 1769 年，班克斯在我们如今所知 道的名叫澳大利亚的这块土地上收集到大量的植物，而在欧洲还没有 有 关 这 些 植 物 的 记 载 。 库 克 还 把 “ 奋 进 号 ”(Endeavour) 抛 锚 (anchored)停靠的地方称为植物湾. Keeping plants alive during long land or sea voyages was an enormous challenge. Large numbers of seeds failed to grow after long sea voyages or trips across land between Asia and Europe. One plant explorer lost several years' work when his plants were mined with seawater. 要使植物在陆地上或海上远距离航行时存活下来，是一个巨大的 挑战。在亚欧之间经过海上或陆上远程旅行之后，大量的种子都不能
生长。曾有一位植物探险家由于他的植物被海水侵蚀腐烂而使他好几 年的成果毁于一旦。 The world of plant exploration was completely changed with Dr Nathaniel Ward's invention of a tightly sealed portable glass container. This invention, called the Wardian case, allowed plants to be transported on long journeys. In 1833, Ward shipped two cases of British plants to Sydney, Australia. All the plants survived the six-month journey. In 1835, the cases made a return trip with some Australian species that had never been successfully transported before. After eight months at sea, they arrived safely in London. 纳撒尼尔·沃德医生所发明的便携式密封玻璃容器彻底改变了植 物探索的世界.这项发明被称为沃德箱，可以用来进行远距离的植物运 输。l833 年，沃德把两箱英国植物运到了澳大利亚的悉尼。所有这些 植物经过六个月的航行都存活了下来。l835 年这些箱子又带着一些过 去从来没有被成功运输过的澳洲物种作了回程之旅。在海上历经八个 月的航行之后，它们安全抵达了伦敦。 A British man called Robert Fortune was one of the earliest plant collectors to use Wardian cases. He made several trips to China between 1843 and 1859. At that time, there were restrictions on the movement of Europeans and so, in order to travel unnoticed, he developed his fluency in Chinese and dressed as a Chinese man, even shaving his head in the Chinese style. He experienced many adventures including huge thunderstorms in the Yellow Sea and pirates on the Yangtze River. Not only
did Fortune introduce over 120 species of plants to Western gardens but he also shipped 20,000 tea plants from Shanghai to India, where a successful tea industry was established. 有一位名叫罗伯特·福琼的英国人,是使用沃德箱的最早期的植 物收集家之一。在 1843～1859 年之间,他曾多次到中国。那时候，欧 洲人在中国的活动受到种种限制(restrictions)，因此，为了在旅行 中不引起别人注意，他努力使自己的汉语讲得很流利(fluency),并且 穿着中国人的服装，甚至像中国人一样削发(留辫)。他经历过多次险 情, 包括在黄海碰到过巨大的风暴, 以及在长江遭遇海盗(pirates) 的袭击。福琼不仅把 120 余种植物引入西方园林，而且还把两万株茶 树用船从上海运到了印度，印度的制茶工业就成功地发展起来了 The second half of the nineteenth century was a very important period of plant exploration. During this time many Catholic missionaries were sent to China from France. They valued the study of the natural sciences and many of the missionaries knew a lot about plants and animals. Their expeditions resulted in huge plant collections, which were sent back to France. One of the collectors was Father Farges, who collected 37 seeds from a tree that had appealed to him. This tree was later called the Dove Tree. He sent the seeds back to France in 1897 but only one seed grew. 19 世纪下半期是植物探索的一个非常重要的时期。在这期间, 许 多法国天主教的传教士被派到中国。他们很着重自然科学的研究, 而 且许多传教士对动植物都很了解。他们远征的结果是收集了大量的植 物, 并把它们运回法国。其中一位叫作法尔热的神父, 从他所喜爱的
一棵树上收集了 37 粒种子。这种树后来被称作鸽子(Dove)树。他于 l897 年把这些种子送回法国，但是只有一粒种子得以生长。 Although the missionaries collected large numbers of soecimens. there was not enough material for growing particular species in Western gardens. However, European botanists were very excited with the knowledge that China had a vast variety of plants, so many plant collectors were sent on collecting trips to China. One of these collectors was E H Wilson who, in 1899, was able to collect a large quantity of seeds of the Dove Tree that Father Farges had discovered. Wilson and other plant collectors introduced many new plants to Western gardens. 虽然传教士收集了大量的物种，但是在西方人的花园里种植特殊 物种的材料仍很缺乏。然而欧洲植物学家(botanists)知道中国有着品 种繁多的植物，并为此感到兴奋不已。因此，许多植物收集人员被派 去中国进行采集工作，其中有一位叫做 E·H·威尔逊的，他在 1899 年收集到大量的法尔热神父所发现的鸽子树种子。威尔逊及其他植物 收集者为西方人的花园引进了许多新的植物。
Reading and discussing Before you read the text on page 38, have a quick glance at it. What is the text about? What do the pictures show you? What is the chart about? FLOWERS AND THEIR ANIMAIL POLLINATORS Over time, many flowering plants and their animal pollinators have evolved together. The plant needs the animal to pollinate it and the animal
is rewarded with food called nectar when it visits the flowers. Pollen becomes attached to the animal during its visit to a flower and is then passed on to another plant's blossom on its next visit. So pollination takes place, therefore increasing the chances of the survival of the plant species. 花朵及其动物传媒 许多开花的植物长期以来是和它们的动物传媒一起发展(evolved) 的。植物需要动物帮它授粉，动物从中得到回报——当其接触花时， 能够得到被称作花蜜(nectar)的食物。动物接触一朵花时，花粉就附 着在它的身上，动物接触下一朵花时，就把这些花粉传到另外的那朵 花上。这样通过授粉就增加了植物物种生存的机会。 Through evolution, most flowers have adapted to attract specific types of pollinators. Bees, moths and butterflies are the most important pollinators. Flies, wasps, beetles and other animals such as birds and bats are less common. 通过进化(evolution)，大部分花朵变得适于吸引某种花粉传播 者。蜜蜂、飞蛾和蝴蝶是最为重要的传媒。而苍蝇、黄蜂(wasps)、甲 虫(beetles)和其他诸如小鸟、蝙蝠(bats)之类的动物则是较少见的传 媒。 The type of pollinator depends on the characteristics of the flower such as its colour, shape, size and smell. For example, yellow flowers attract bees, while red flowers attract butterflies. The nectar in some flowers can only be reached by a bird with a long bill or a long-tongued moth or butterfly. The chart below describes some features of flowers that
attract certain kinds of pollinators. 花粉传播者的类型取决于花朵的特性,如花朵的颜色、形状、大小 和气味。举例来说，黄色的花吸引蜜蜂，而红色的花则吸引蝴蝶。有 些花的花粉只有长嘴鸟、长舌蛾或者蝴蝶才可以够得着。下面这张图 表记述了吸引某种花粉传播者的花朵特性： Pollinator Typical flower characteristics Bees Colour: bright yellow, blue; the flower often has a special pattern to guide the bees to the nectar inside. Shape: the petals are wide enough for bees to land on;usually the nectar is at the end of a small, narrow tube whose length is the same as the tongue of a particular species. Smell: delicate, fragrant. Butterflies Colour: red, orange. Shape: the petals form a tube of a suitable length for butterflies. Tiny flowers are often in tight bunches that provide a place for butterflies to land on, eg daisies. Smell: odourless. Moths Colour: white, light-coloured so moths can see them at night. Shape: the petals form a deep tube to match the length of a specific moth's tongue. The petals lie fiat or bend back so the moth can get close to the flower. Smell: strong, sweet perfume, typically only given out at night.
Flies Colour: dull-coloured, brownish red. Smell: strong like rotting meat. Humming-birds Colour: brightly coloured, especially red and orange. Shape: tube-shaped; petals bent back so birds can get close. Smell: no odour. Bats Colour: white, light-coloured so bats can see them at night. Shape: open at night; large, strong with wide mouths for long tongues. Smell: musty, fruity smell. 虫 花朵的典型特性 媒 蜜 颜色：嫩黄色、蓝色；这种花常有一种特殊的花纹，吸引蜜蜂 蜂 找到里面的花蜜。 形状：花瓣宽大，足够蜜蜂落在上面，花粉通常在狭小的花管 子的一段，其长度与特定花粉传播者的舌头相当。 气味：微弱，芬香。 蝴 颜色:红色、橙色。 蝶 形状:花瓣聚为管状,其长度适应蝴蝶,纤小的花朵经常聚在一 块儿,自成一束,以便蝴蝶能有地方降落,如雏菊。 气味:无味。 飞 颜色:白色、浅色,以便飞蛾在夜晚能看清。 蛾 形状:花瓣开成一个深管子,其长度与特定蛾子的舌头长度相 当。花瓣伸展或向后弯曲,以便飞蛾靠近花朵。 气味:浓烈的香甜味,特别只在夜晚散发(given out)出来。
苍 颜色:灰暗色(dull-cloured)、褐红色. 蝇 气味:浓烈的像腐肉似的气味。 蜂 颜色:鲜艳色,特别是鲜红色和鲜橙色. 鸟 形状:管状,花瓣向后卷,以便鸟儿接近 气味:无嗅味。 蝙 颜色:白色、浅色,这样蝙蝠夜晚能够看到。 蝠 形状:夜晚开花;大而坚,嘴宽,可供长舌伸入。 气味:发霉的(musty)果子(fruity)味。
选修 9 Unit 5 Inside advertising-Reading HOW ADVERTISINC WORKS Do you know how many advertisements you are exposed to in your daily life? Every day, we pass by advertisements on buses and billboards, on trains and in train stations, in shop windows, outside restaurants and on public notice boards. At home, we see advertisements in magazines and newspapers and in the middle of our favourite television programmes. We hear advertisements on the radio and come across them on the Internet. Even some of the casual garments we wear have brand names attached to them which turn us into walking advertisements. With so many messages from advertisers filling our daily lives, it is important to understand how advertisements work. Then we can avoid being controlled by them. 第五单元 广告是如何起作用的
你知道你在日常生活中要面对多少广告吗？每天在公共汽车上和 广告牌上(billboards)，在火车和火车站里，在商店的橱窗里，在餐 馆的外边以及在公告牌上，我们都会遇到广告。在家里，我们从报刊、 杂志上，在我们喜欢的电视节目间隙中都可以看到广告。我们还可以 从广播中听到广告，在网络(Internet)上看到广告。甚至在我们穿的 有些休闲服上也印着品牌的名字，这就把我们变成(turn?into)了 “移动广告” 。 我们的日常生活中充满了众多的广告(来自广告商 (advertisers)的)信息， 可见了解广告如何发挥作用是很重要的事 情，这样我们才有可能避免被广告左右。 What is an advertisement? An advertisement is a message or announcement that informs or influences people. It can use words, pictures, music or film to communicate its message. Adverts are not only made and paid for by business, but also by individuals, organizations and associations that wish to inform or educate the public. 什么是广告？ 广告是告知人们或对人们起影响作用的信息或告示。它可以用文 字、图片、音乐或影片来传达其信息。广告不仅可由商家付费制作， 也可由想要向公众传达或教育公众的个人、组织或协会来出资制作。 How do advertisers make effective advertisements? Identify your target Advertisers must pay the media for displaying their ads. Their money would be wasted if the message didn't reach its target audience, in other
words the people the advertisement intends to persuade. For example, adolescent boys are more likely to buy computer games than any other group, so it makes sense to make computer game ads that appeal to this group. Having identified the target group, researchers find out as much as possible about those in the target group, such as their likes and dislikes, and how the product would fit into their lives. This information then forms the basis for decisions about what type of advertising techniques to use with this group. 广告商是如何制作有效的广告的？ 识别你的目标 广告商必须付费给展示其广告的媒体.如果信息没有传达给它的 目标群体, 也就是广告意图说服的人群的话, 那么他们的钱就白花 了。举例说,进入青春期的男孩子就比任何其他人群购买电脑游戏的可 能性更大, 因此, 制作吸引这个群体的电脑游戏的广告才是有意义 的。明确了广告的目标群体后, 研究人员就会尽量收集这个群体的有 关信息, 例如他们的好恶，以及如何使产品适应(fit into)他们的生 活。于是这个信息就构成了针对这部分人采用何种广告技巧的决策基 础。 Appeal to your target In order to persuade people to do something, advertisements often appeal to our hopes and dreams or our emotions. For example, the one on the right, which advertises sports shoes, shows young people doing exciting things. The colours and the flames also suggest excitement. The message it is
sending is: "Buy our shoes and you'll live an exciting life in the 'fast lane'." The ad above, with the star in it, is for a new radio station. It appeals to people's desire to "fit in" and be part of the group. The message is: "Everyone else is listening and if you want to be part of the group, you'd better listen too." 迎合你的目标 为了说服人们采取某种行动, 广告常常要迎合我们的希望、梦想 或情感。譬如右图的运动鞋广告, 它表现的是年轻人正做着一些刺激 的运动, (广告的)颜色和其中的火焰也使人感到兴奋。它所传递的信 息是: “购买我们的运动鞋你就能在快车道(lane)过上令人兴奋的生 活。”上方的那幅广告(上面有一个五角星)是为一个新的无线电台制 作的。它迎合了人们想要“适应”并成为其中一员的愿望。它传达的 信息是:“其他人都在听.如果你想成为其中的一分子, 你最好也听一 听。” Some advertisements appeal to people's desire to save money. Others are more likely to be noticed if they are funny. Ads that feature rich and famous people will grab the attention of those who admire people like that. Some adverts, like the environmental protection advertisement below, appeal to our conscience or our desire to be worthy citizens. 有些广告迎合人们省钱的愿望，另外一些广告则因为有趣而引人 注目。而以有钱人和名人为特写(feature)的广告则会抓住那些羡慕他 们的人的注意力。还有一些广告就像下边那种有关环境保护的广告, 就符合我们的良知(conscience), 或者说迎合了我们想成为有价值的
(worthy)公民的愿望。 Use a suitable medium As well as reaching the fight audience with the fight technique, advertisers must also place their ads in the right medium. Obviously, cost will play a.big part in this decision. Television adverts are expensive to make and to show. You have to be a big corporation with a big budget to afford television ads. Advertisements in newspapers, on the other hand, are much cheaper. 采用合适的媒体 正如要用恰当的方式吸引合适的消费者，广告商还得将广告置于 恰当的媒体上。很明显，做这个决定的时候，花销起很大的作用。电 视广告的制作与播放是非常昂贵的。你必须是一家大公司 (corporation)，有大笔经费，才能做得起电视广告。而另一方面，用 报纸做广告便宜得多。 As well as worrying about the expense, advertisers must also consider which media are most appropriate for their product and which their target audience is most likely to see or hear. Because most cars have radios, ads broadcast via radio can reach a lot of drivers very easily. For this reason, it would be appropriate to use radio to advertise goods and services relating to cars. However, it would be no use advertising products on radio if the ad relies on visual effects. Television adverts are great for generating emotional responses to a product, but magazines and newspapers can give more detail.
除担心费用(expense)外，广告商还必须考虑哪种媒体最适合他们的产 品以及他们的目标群体最有可能收看或收听哪种媒体。因为大多数汽 车都石收音机，司机很容易地就能收听到通过无线电广播传递的广告。 因为这个缘故，用无线电传递与汽车有关的产品与服务就很合适。但 是如果一项产品的广告要依靠视觉效果，那么它在收音机播出就毫无 意义了。电视广告能够激起(generating)人们对某种产品产生情感反 应(responses), 但杂志和报刊能够给出更详细的介绍。 How effective are advertisements? However good an advertisement is, people are unlikely to be persuaded if the product is unsuitable for them. For example, no matter how good an ad for a car stereo system is, people who don't own cars are unlikely to run out and buy one. Look at the advertisements in this unit. How many of the goods or services suit your interests or lifestyle? Would really good advertising persuade you to buy products and services you are not interested in or have no use for? 广告的效果如何？ 一则广告无论制作得那么好, 如果产品不合适, 也不可能使人信 服。举例来说,不管一个汽车的立体声(stereo)系统多么好, 那些没有 汽车的人是不可能跑去买它的。看一看本单元中的这些广告吧。你对 其中多少商品或服务感兴趣, 它们是否符合你的生活方式呢?是不是 有好的广告会说服你去买你并不感兴趣或对你没有用处(have no use for)的商品或服务呢？ On the other hand, being constantly exposed to advertisements can
help to change our opinions over time. This is why governments all over the world pay a lot of money for ads on such things as road safety. They believe these adverts will affect the way people think about their driving habits and will subsequently reduce the number of road accidents. 另一方面，经常处于广告的包围中，我们的想法有可能随着时间 的流逝而发生变化。这就是为什么世界各地的政府会花大量的金钱来 制作诸如道路安全之类的广告，他们认为这些广告(adverts)让人们认 真思考他们的驾驶习惯，从而减少交通事故的数量。
KEEPING ADVERTISEDRS HONEST Organizations and individuals advertise because they want to persuade people to behave in certain ways, for example to buy a certain brand of rice, stop speeding or see a movie at their cinema. Advertisers go, to a lot of trouble and expense to make adverts and so they want to make sure they achieve their purpose. Unfortunately, not all advertisers are good or honest people. Unless we have ways to protect ourselves, these dishonest advertisers will tell lies or use methods that may mislead us. Fortunately, most countries have developed ways to control advertising and prevent false or unsuitable advertising. 做广告的人应守诚信 组织和个人都做广告, 因为他们都想说服别人按某种方式来行事, 例如你买某个牌子的大米, 或者要你停止高速驾车或在他们的电影院 里看一场电影。广告制作者在广告上花了不少精力和财力, 因此，他
们要确保能达到他们的目的。不幸的是, 并不是所有的广告商都诚实、 正直。除非我们有办法进行自我保护, 否则这些不老实的广告商就会 说谎话, 或者采用误导我们的手段。好在多数国家都采用了一些办法 来控制广告业，防止虚假不实的广告。 The law One way to control advertising is to make laws that prevent advertisers doing the wrong thing. Many countries have laws that forbid ads being shown at inappropriate times or in unsuitable places. For example, an ad that has an adult theme cannot be shown during children's television programmes. In some countries advertising alcoholic drinks or tobacco is banned altogether. There are also laws in most places that prevent advertisers making false statements about their products or from promoting immoral or harmful behaviour. 法律 控制广告的办法之一就是制定法律以约束广告商们的不法行为。 许多国家制订了法律，禁止在不恰当的时间和不适宜的地点播放广告。 譬如有成人内容的广告就不能在儿童电视节目的时间里播放。在有些 国家里，酒(alcoholic)类及烟草(tobacco)的广告都是一概被禁止的. 在许多地方还制定了法律, 以防止广告商为他们的产品说假话,或者 宣传(promoting)不道德或有害的行为。 Advertising organizations Most advertisers are decent and honest, and they are as interested as everyone else in making sure ads are ethical. For this reason,
most advertisers belong to advertising
organizations that not only
educate and support their members, but also make rules for everyone in the organization to follow. They are called a code of ethics and include such rules as: Advertisements must not be untruthful or misleading;
Advertisements must not say bad things about other people's products. If well-known people are used in advertisements, they must be honest and truthful about products they advertise. 广告组织 多数广告商都是正派(decent)、诚实的。他们和其他人一样也致 力于确保广告合乎道德规范(ethical)。为此，多数广告商都是从属于 某个广告组织。广告组织不仅对其成员进行教育和支持，而且还制定 多种规则让组织中的每个成员都必须遵守。这些规则被称为道德规范 (code of ethics)，他们包括以下规则：广告一定不能失实或误导； 广告一定不能说别人产品的坏话。如果广告中用到名人, 那么他们必 须对所宣传的产品确保诚信。 Complaints organization Even though there are laws and advertisers' codes of conduct, some bad ads do get made. This is why many countries have a government organization which examines complaints about ads. A consumer can complain to the organization, giving reasons for their complaint, and if the complaint is correct, the organization can make the company stop using the offending advertisement.
投诉机构 虽然有法律和广告的行为规范，还是有很多糟糕的广告被制作出 来了。这就是为什么许多国家都设有检查有关广告投诉的政府机构。 消费者可以向这个机构投诉，提出投诉的理由。如果投诉是正确的， 该机构可以责令该公司停止使用这种令人不愉快的(offending)广告。 The consumer You may have heard the saying: "Buyer Beware". This means that the consumer is responsible for checking the product before buying. When it comes to advertising, consumers need to be educated about techniques used by advertisers so they can judge the claims for themselves and not blindly accept everything that is said in advertisements. As we are flooded with advertisements in our modem world, many schools believe it is their duty to educate students about advertising. 消费者 你可能听说过“买者自负(Beware)”的说法。这就是说消费者 (consumer)有责任在购买其产品之前对产品进行检查。涉及到广告时， 消费者需要了解广告商所使用的伎俩。这样他们才能对各种广告主张 做出自己的判断，而不致盲目地接受广告中所说的一切。当今社会上 广告泛滥成灾，许多学校认为它们有责任对学生进行有关广告的教育。