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定语从句(关系代词篇)


The Attributive Clause

定语从句

1.定义:在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句 定义 2.先行词: 被修饰的名词或代词 先行词 3.关系代词: 引导定语从句的词 关系代词

关系代词: 关系代词:who, whom, whose, which, that

关系代词的用法

指代 that which who whom whose 人;物 物 人 人 人;物

所做成分

是否可省略

主语; 主语;宾语 作宾语可省 主语;宾语 作宾语可省 主语; 主语; 主语;宾语 作宾语可省 宾语 定语 可省 不可省

1. who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词, 从句中所起作用如下: 从句中所起作用如下: Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗?( ?(who/that在从句中 他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中 作主语) 作主语) He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在 他就是我昨天见的那个人。( 。(whom/that在 从句中作宾语) 从句中作宾语)

2. Whose 用来指人或物, 只用作定语), 例如: 用来指人或物,(只用作定语), 例如: They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。 Please pass me the book whose cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。 请递给我那本绿皮的书。

3. which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词, 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词, 在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如: 在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如: A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村 出现了前所未有的繁荣。( 。(which that在句 出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句 中作主语) 中作主语) The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。 你拿的包快散了。 (which / that在句中作宾语) that在句中作宾语 在句中作宾语)

常见考点
1. 关系词的选择 2. 指物时只用 指物时只用that 的情况 3. Whose 用法 4. 指人时 指人时that 与who的区别 的区别 5. 定语从句中的主谓一致问题 6. 关联词的省略 7. 介词 关系代词 介词+关系代词

考点一:关系代词的选择 考点一:

指代 that which who whom whose 人;物 物 人 人 人;物

所做成分 主语; 主语;宾语 主语;宾语 主语; 主语; 主语;宾语 宾语 定语

考点二:that 与which 的区别 考点二
先行词是事物的时候,只能用that引导定语从句的情况 先行词是事物的时候,只能用that引导定语从句的情况 that 1)先行词是不定代词all, few, little, much, something, 先行词是 nothing, anything, thing等. 等 2)先行词被 2)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰时。 所修饰时。 等修饰。 3)先行词被all,any,every,each,few,little,no,some等修饰。 )先行词被 等修饰 4)先行词被the only,the very,the same,the last修饰时。 )先行词被 修饰时。 修饰时 5)先行词既有人又有物时。 )

考点三: 考点三 Whose 用法 1. whose引导定语从句,其后应紧跟名词, 引导定语从句, 引导定语从句 其后应紧跟名词, 构成名词短语。 构成名词短语。 That’s the child whose father is a teacher. 2.whose引导定语从句,其先行词不仅可 2. 引导定语从句, 引导定语从句 以指人,还可以指物。 以指人,还可以指物。 Do you know the woman whose husband is a doctor? This is a book whose cover is green.

考点四: 考点四 that 与who的区别 的区别 在anyone, those, he/she/I / they作先行词 作先行词 时, 用“who” 代替 “that”. who Anyone _____breaks the law is punished. who Those _____ break the law are punished. who He _____ breaks the law is punished.
避免重复, 注:当句中已有who时,为避免重复,用that。 当句中已有 时 。
Who is the man that is standing there?

考点五: 考点五 定语从句中主谓一致问题 定语从句中的动词在人称和数方面应该与它 的先行词保持一致。 的先行词保持一致。

1. I am not one who ______afraid of is difficulty. . 2. They are the students who _______not are fit for this job. .

3. This is one of the best books _______. A. that have ever been written B. that has ever been written C. that has written D. that have written 4. She is not the only one of the girls ___ well in class. A. which sings B. who sing C. who sings D. who to sing

考点六:关系词的省略 1、关系代词做主语是不能省略。 2、关系代词做宾语时可以省略。 3、whose不能省略。

判断下列关系词是否能省略 1. I know the man who is standing there. 2. I have read the book whose name is Time. 3. I want to visit the place which has a long history. 4. The woman who can speak Russian got the job. 5. The man who everyone likes is kind. 6. The woman whom we saw got the job. 7. The boy whom you want to talk to is in the lab. 8. Can you lend me the book which you talked about last night. 9. A plane is a machine that can fly.

考点七:介词的提前
注意: 注意:关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾

语时,从句常常由“介词 关系代词 关系代词” 语时,从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引 此时关系代词只能用which 或 whom; 出。此时关系代词只能用 不可用that 或who 代替 不可用

Join them into one sentence.
The man is from Beijing University . I talked about him at the meeting. The man (who/whom/that) I talked about at the meeting is from Beijing University.. =The man about whom I talked at the meeting is from Beijing University.

关系代词紧跟在介词后面时,不能用 关系代词紧跟在介词后面时,不能用that,也 , 不能省略,常用which或whom。该介词通常可以 不能省略,常用 或 。 放在关系代词之前,也可放在从句之尾。 放在关系代词之前,也可放在从句之尾。

但遇固定词组时, 但遇固定词组时,介词一般紧跟词组 主体, 主体,不作前置 Is this the book (which/that) you are looking for ?

填空
1.The man with whom you shook hands just __________ now is our headmaster. in which 2.The room __________ my family live used to be a garage. 3.Did you find the pen with which I wrote just _________ now? which 4.Did you find the composition ______ I wrote just now?



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