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2014年高考完形填空解题技巧


高考英语专题复习
--完形填空解题技巧指导

完型填空试题主要特点:
1. 通常从一篇300-350词左右,文章中设 空20个,首句不挖空; 2. 干扰项设计严密.一般情况下,四个选 项的词性相同或属于同等或对等范畴,干 扰项填入后在语法上一般不存在错误,对 考生有很大的迷惑作用; 3.突出语篇(语境),强调应用,注重交际; 4.大多富有

积极的教育意义,给人以人生 的启迪或是充满了生活情趣;

为什么我们在这一题型上总是失分较多?
1.没有严格遵循答题步骤:很多考生一拿到 完形填空题就急于选择答案,不认真分析 通篇文章,单纯求快,忽略语篇理解,只 看局部的词义辨析、搭配和语法结构。表 面上解题速度挺快,但是这种见树不见林 的做法只会影响解题的质量和效率。

切记:一定要用2-3分钟时间先进行缺词
阅读,弄清文章大意和基本脉络后再着 手逐个填空.

2. 不注意积累答题技巧:

a.忽略文章首句的提示作用; b.忽略文章中上下文之间的照应关系;
c.遇到长句不注意分析句子结构,在 语义模糊时抱碰运气的心理随意作出 选择.

3.时间安排不当:在几个选项上过分纠 缠,追求完美,导致许多本可以做出 的题来不及做。
切记:正确的做法是由易到难,先做会做
的,再考虑较难的。 强烈推荐:如尚有几题题目不确定可将某 题的可能的两项填入空格, 然后快速地整 句整段地默读, 选择某一项习惯或短语或 动宾搭配读起来较流畅的.

正确的完形填空的解题步骤
把握整体 具体分析

细读首句,跳过空格,通读全文, 把握大意 结合选项,综合考虑,初定答案 瞻前顾后,先易后难, 各个击破

再读全文,反复检查

细读文章的第一句话
高考完形填空选文的第一句话通常是 完整的 。该句 往往就 是主题 句 ( Topic Sentence ),这就为我们理解文章的内 在联系提供了一个“窗口”,它的句意 往往为全文提供中心信息,能直接概括 全文大意、揭示主题。

充分重视首句的标示作用,利用它为 解题找到一个突破口,据此展开思维, 争取开局胜利。

? 对于叙事,描述类文章。短文的首句, 往往点明故事发生的人物(who),时间 (when),地点(where),和事件 (what)等背景情况。例: It was a busy morning,about 8:30,when an elderly gentleman in his 80s came to the hospital . …… 2010全国卷(I)

对于论述文,首句表明了论述的 主题。起到揭示主题的作用。例如: A man who knows how to write a personal letter has a very powerful tool. A letter can be enjoyed, read and 21 . ……………. 2010全国卷(II)

结合选项
词汇题

高考完形填空 考什么?

句际关系

篇章结构 (语境)

词汇题

1.上下文和 前后句的提示

(复现、同/近义词、反义词)

1.( 2010北京卷)Mrs. Neidl would ask me for my 37 . She wanted to know how I thought …… She believed I had opinions, opinions so I began to ……. 37. A.opinion B.impression C.information D.intention

语境-原词重现

2. (2010陕西卷) I had some 28 in my pocker, but I would not give them to him, thinking to myself he would 29 ( only) use the money to feed his addiction to drugs or alcohol. 28. A. chocolates B. coins C. tins D. drugs
语境-同义词、近义词复现

3. Many old people don?t have good ____. They can?t watch TV, but they can listen to music or news over the radio .
A hearing B health C eyesight D time

4. Some parts of the water are very shallow. But in some places it is very, very______. A. deep B.high C. cold D. dangerous

5. I climbed the stairs slowly, carrying a big suitcase,my father following with two more.By the time I got to the third floor ,I was___ D and at the same time feeling lonely.( NMET2000 )
A helpless B lazy

C anxious

D tired

6. … and then both ended up from the same high school. Just three weeks before_____, Bill asked Mark A if they could talk.(2003北京)
A graduation C separation B movement D vacation

7.The amount of usable water has always been of great

interest in the world. Holding springs and streams
sometimes means control, particularly in the 22

areas like the desert.

22.A.dry

B.distant C.deserted

D.wild

8.The correct water supply forecast is based more on the water from the 34 than from the below.

34.A.clouds

B.sky

C.air

D.above

9.In 1964 Shirley graduated from Gallaudet and looked for _44_.She wanted to be independent and work full time.

44.A.information

B.help

C.a job

D.an assistant

10. The stone men face 41,rather than out to sea, and their eyes are focused upon the sky. 41. A. forward B. outward C. onward D. inward

11.The art experts who work at the gallery say they used modern chemistry technology to 45 the paint on the picture. These checks found traces(痕迹) of paint deep in the picture dating from about 1814. 45. A. try B. remove C. wash D. check

2.词语的习惯用法

和固定搭配

1. (2010全国I) …The nurse had him take a 36 in the waiting area, 37(telling) him it would be at least 40 minutes 38(before) someone would be able to see him . 36 A. breath B. test C. seat D. break 语境-固定搭配

2.The city(Washington) was named___George Washington, the first president of the United States. A. by B. for C. as D. after
3. It was 4 o?clock when the front doorbell rang. Mrs Clarke was ____ tea at the time. A. cooking B. making C. burning D. serving

4. Mark____ down and helped the boy pick up these articles.(2003 北京 春 50小题) A.fell B. sat C.lay D. knelt

5. … , but they are _____ damage to our houses and shops of historical interest,?? Said John Norris,one of the protesters.(NMET1999第30题)

A .doing
C. putting

B.

raising

D. producing

6.He’d

36

his life brewing beer for local breweries
37 had his father and grand-

only to make a living, father before him. 36.A. cost 37.A. like B. spent B. as if

C. take C. so

D. paid D. nor

7.I called my beer Samuel Adams, 51 the brewer and patriot(爱国者)who helped to start the Boston Tea party. 51 A. for B. at C. in D. after

3.根据词汇的

意义及用法辨析词义

1.(2010江苏卷) My father 36 me to her with these words:“I would like you to meet the fellow who is …… 36.A.rushed B.sent C.carried D.introduced 语境-词义辨析 2.(2010全国I)The happiest people don?t 53(necessarily ) have the best of everything;they just 54 the best of everything they have . 54 A. learn B make C.favor D.try 语境-词义辨析

3. Soon I heard a ___ like that of a door burst in , and then a climb of feet. A. sound B. cry C. voice D.shout 4. The boy was ___ ① ____ the water and his canoe was _②___ away. ① ② A. on B. within

C. in A. running C. flowing

D. under B. floating D. pulling

5 .?? Give me a hand,?? he shouted__ he got near the boat. A. while B. till C. for D. as
四个选项都可以表示时间。while强调一段时间 内进行的动作,常与进行时连用;till表示的是 动作持续到某时或到某时才开始;for表示的是 动作持续了一段时间;as连接的是一个与谓语 动作几乎同时发生的动词。答案应选D,表示他 一边向船靠近一边大声喊。

6. remember recognize realize
1.Her face was familiar to me, but I could not r_______ emeber where and how I had seen her.

2.All at once I r_______ ealized where I had seen her. ecognizedher from the 3.Then I explained that I had r________ photo I found in the purse.

7.The trainer decided it was useless trying to finish. He called to Trudy to 45 . C. give up D. take up

45.A. keep up B. slow down

8.The forest began to disappear, which 53 all the animals

dying out.
53. A. resulted in B. resulted from C. created D. lay in

4.根据动作发出者确 定所选的词

1. When the papers were____ she discovered that twelve boys had made exactly the same mistakes throughout the test. A. collected B. completed C. marked D. answered 2. And video cameras can be used to ___people?s actions at home. A. keep B. make C. record D. watch

3. Japan is an island country and its_①__ go all over the Pacific looking for fish to _②__. ① A. fishing boats B. lifeboats C. planes D. trains ② A.buy B. catch C.hold D.weigh 只有fishing boats能够到太平洋捕 鱼,因此第一个空答案A为。捕鱼用 动词catch,第二个空答案为B。

5.根据生活常识

及文化背景知识进行选择

1. I made my sandwich that afternoon while waiting for Cassie. 39 the butter-cream gave me an idea. A. Spreading B. Boiling C. Baking D. Holding

生活常识
2. (2010福建)Born in America , I spoke English not Chinese, the language of my ancestors . When I was three . my parents flashed cards with Chinese 36 at my face , but I pused them 37 (aside ) , ……
36. A. custorn B. games C .characters D. language

常识、背景知识

3. …,you __①__the international dateline.By agreement, this is the point where a new day__②__. ① A. see B. cross C. are D. are stopped by ②A.is coming B. is discovered C.is invented D. begins
the international dateline是‘‘国际日期变 更线’’,是人们所规定的,看不见,摸不着, 但是可以越过。它是新的一天开始的地方。答 案分别为B 和D

4. The space is left to let the rail expand when it gets ___. A. wet B. cold C. hot D. dry 5.In 1967 she was asked to work at Gallaudet University as a dorm supervisor(宿舍监管员). Shirley supervised young women who _47_ in the university during the school year. 47. A. worked B. studied C. lived D. played

6.Interest is rising in the ways to increase rainfall by man-made methods, and to get water from the winter snow on mountain 36 . 36.A.rocks B.tips C.tops D.trees

句际关系

1.语法手段 2.逻辑手段

1.语法手段

1.(2010 陕西卷) I then 32 (realized ) I had no right to place myself above 33 just because he was busking. 33. A. it B. all C. him D. them

语法-指代

2.(2010天津卷) “ As a policeman,I saw 27 there was violence, drugs were always behind it. They have a damaging 28(impact) on the kids. ” 27. A. where C. as B. unless D. whether

语法-句型

3. When Ed first phoned and ___ we play, I laughed quietly,figuring on an easy victory.(NMET2003 , 37 题) A.declared B. mentioned C.persuaded D. suggested

4. I realized that____ I had done that I would have lost a new friend and missed all the fun we would have together.(2003 北京 春季 53题) A.before B.if C. while D. as 5. As my father,____worked three jobs,once told me, …(2003 北京 54 题) A.he B. that C. who D.whoever

2.逻辑手段
顺序关系
并列关系 让步关系

逻辑手段
因果关系 解释关系 转折关系



1.(2010江苏卷) Then she looked at my father and replied,“You are 40(wrong). This is not the worst boy at all, 41 the smartest one who hasn?t yet found an outlet(释放的途径)for his enthusiasm.”

41. A.but

B.so

C.and

D.or

语境-转折关系、搭配

2.(2010湖南卷) Bean is a white

dog, quite handsome and very
38 .

38. A. smart B.sweet C.slow D.shy

语境-同类并列关系

3.(2010安徽卷) First of all, a pen should fit comfortably in your hand, ... Then the writing point of the pen…… 52 ,the pen should make a thick, dark line. 52. A. Meanwhile B. Generally C. Afterwards D. Finally

语境-顺序关系

4. A transistor radio is sometimes very small.It is very easy to carry…___,radio broadcasts are better for blind people. A. Besides B. However C. Yet D. Sometimes 5. At first nothing happened,____ suddenly a large rat rushed out of the… A.and B. or C. so D.then

6. My main responsibility(职责) were clearing tables and washing dishes,____sometimes I helped cook.(2003 北京 第40题) A. or B. so C. but D. even

7.The explorers found that the island had good soil 37 the 200 natives living there survived with little food.

37. A. and

B. but

C. however

D. still

8.Her father had promised her two things. One was not to
pull her out of the water _____ she asked. 36.A. as B. unless C. even if D. when

语篇理解

作者观点、态度

1.Life is very

55

, so don’t rush to make decisions.

Life doesn’t let you plan.

55.A. hard

B. busy

C. short

D. long

2.Dr. Shirley Jeanne Allen has traveled many roads and followed many rainbows searching for her dream. With courage and _55_, she never gave up. 55.A.determination B. intelligence C. strengthD. pride

3.This is because the most important character of creative people is a very strong 40 to find a way out of

trouble.
40.A.desire B.inspire C.influence D.attitude

小结:完型填空考查内容
语篇信息(语境理解) 词汇手段
原 词 复 现
同 义 近 义 复 现

语法手段
指 句 语 法 项 代 型 目 转 折 关 系

逻辑手段
并顺 列序 关关 系系 让 步 关 系 解 释 关 系 因 果 关 系

反 义 词

为 动 作 发 出 者

.

作者观点、态度

解题过程中应做到
注意上下文语境 了解常识背景 掌握习惯搭配 运用词义辨析 运用语法分析 运用逻辑分析 运用排除法

实战演练

Once upon a time the colors of the world started to quarrel. Green said, "Clearly I am the most important. I am the sign of life and hope. I was chosen for grass, trees and leaves. Without me, all animals would 36 ." Blue interrupted, "You only think about the 37 , but consider the sky and the sea. 38 the water that is the basis of life and drawn up by the clouds from the deep sea.Without my peace, you would all be 39 ." Yellow chuckled (笑道), "You are all so serious. I bring laughter, fun, and __40__ into the world."

Orange started next to blow her trumpet, "I am the color of health and strength. I may be 41 , but I am precious for I serve the needs of human life. When I fill the sky 42 , my beauty is so striking that no one gives another 43 to any of you.” Red could stand it 44 and he shouted out, "I am the ruler of all of you. I am the color of danger and of bravery. I am willing to 45 truth. I am also the color of passion and of love."

Then came Purple and Indigo (深蓝). … The colors went on boasting, each convinced of his or her own __46__. Their quarreling became louder and louder. Suddenly there was a startling flash of bright lightening thunder. Rain started to pour down __47__. The colors crouched(蜷缩) down __48__, drawing close to one another for comfort. In the midst of the clamor (叫嚷), rain began to speak, “You foolish colors, fighting 49 yourselves, each trying to dominate(支 配) 50 .

Don't you know that you were each made for a special purpose, 51 ? Join hands with 52 and come to me." Doing as they were told, the colors 53 and joined hands. They formed a colorful rainbow. From then on, whenever a good rain 54 the world, a rainbow appears in the sky. They remember to 55 one another.

Once upon a time the colors of 36.A.stay B.leave C.go out D.die the world started to quarrel. Green said, "Clearly I am the most 语境-词义 37. A.earth B.moon important. I am the sign of life and C.star D.sun hope. I was chosen for grass, trees 38 . A.That is and leaves. Without me, all animals B.I am 语法 强调句 would 36 ." 语境-转折.对比.排除 C.It is Blue interrupted, "You only think 语境-词义 D.This is about the 37 , but consider the sky 39.A.anything and the sea. 38 the water that is B.nothing C.something the basis of life and drawn up by the D.Everything clouds from the deep sea.Without my peace, you would all be 39 ." 40.A.warmth B.sadness Yellow chuckled (笑道), "You C.depression are all so serious. I bring laughter, D.anxiety 语境 fun, and __40__ into the world. " -同类并列

41.A.usual Orange started next to blow 语境-转折对比 B.normal her trumpet, "I am the color of C.common health and strength. I may be 语境-常识 D.scarce 41 , but I am precious for I serve 42.A.at midnight B.at noon or at night the needs of human life. When I C.at sunrise or sunset fill the sky 42 , my beauty is so D.during the day striking that no one gives another 43.A.gift B.honor C.thought D.respect 43 to any of you.” 语境-搭配 44.A.for more Red could stand it 44 and he B.any more shouted out, "I am the ruler of all C.very much of you. I am the color of danger D.no longer 45.A.turn to and of bravery. I am willing to B.fight for 45 truth. I am also the color of C.struggle with passion and of love." D.bend over 语境-搭配
语境-词义

46.A.superiority Then came Purple and Indigo B.disadvantages (深蓝). … 语境-近义词再现 C. reputation The colors went on boasting, D.weakness each convinced of his or her own 47.A.gently B.quietly __46__. Their quarreling became 语境-词义. C.violently louder and louder. Suddenly there D.peacefully 常识 was a startling flash of bright 48.A.with care lightening thunder. Rain started to B.in fear pour down __47__. The colors 语境-词义 C.by chance crouched(蜷缩) down __48__, D.on purpose drawing close to one another 49.A.among for comfort. B.by C.for 语境-词义辨析 In the midst of the clamor (叫 D.against 50.A.others 嚷), rain began to speak, “You B.themselves foolish colors, fighting 49 C.the other yourselves, each trying to dominate D.the rest (支配) 50 语境 . -搭配

51.A.equal and simple B.ordinary and similar were each made for a special C.more or less D.unique and different purpose, 51 ? Join hands 52. A.each other with 52 and come to me." B.me C. them 语境 搭配 Doing as they were told, D. one another the colors 53 and joined 53.A.combined 语境-近义词 hands. They formed a B.separated 再现 colorful rainbow. From then C.united D.divided on, whenever a good rain 54.A.cleans B. washes C.brightens 54 the world, a rainbow 语境D.dampens appears in the sky. They 常识 55.A.appreciate remember to 55 one B.quarrel with another. C.ignore D.praise 语境-词义
语境-近义词 再现you Don't you know that

英语完形填空解题步骤
1. 2. 3. 4. 通读全文,统揽全局。首句主题 逐句分析,确定选项。比较选项 通盘理解,上下一致。作者思想 复读全文,核对答案。第一感觉

总结--解题方法:
总的原则: “先完意,后完形”。 八字方针: 上下求索,瞻前顾后。 三步曲: 读——填——读


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