第 四 十 八 篇 Researchers Discover Why Humans Began Walking Upright
Most of us walk and carry items in our hands every day. These are seemingly simple activities that the ma
jority of us don’t question. But an international team of researchers, including Dr. Richmond from GW's Columbian College of Arts and Sciences，have discovered that human walking upright, may have originated millions of years ago as an adaptation to carrying scarce, high- quality resources. The team of researchers from the U. S., England, Japan and Portugal investigated the behavior of modern-day chimpanzees as they competed for food resources，in an effort to understand what ecological settings would lead a large ape — one that resembles the 6 million-year old ancestor we shared in common with living chimpanzees — to walk on two legs. “These chimpanzees provide a model of the ecological conditions under which our earliest ancestors might have begun walking on two legs, "，said Dr. Richmond. The research findings suggest that chimpanzees switch to moving on two limbs instead of four in situations where they need to monopolize a resource. Standing on two legs allows them to carry much more at one time because it frees up their hands. Over time，intense bursts of bipedal activity may have led to anatomical changes that in turn became the subject of natural selection where competition for food or other resources was strong. Two studies were conducted by the team in Guinea. The first study was conducted by the team in Kyoto University’s “ outdoor laboratory ” in a natural clearing in Bossou Forest. Researchers allowed the wild chimpanzees access to different combinations of two different types of nut — the oil palm nut，which is naturally widely available, and the coula nut, which is not. The chimpanzees’ behavior was monitored in three situations:(a) when only oil palm nuts were available,(b)when a small number of coula nuts were available，and(c) when coula nuts were the majority available resource. When the rare coula nuts were available only in small numbers, the chimpanzees transported more at one time. Similarly, when coula nuts were the majority resource, the chimpanzees ignored the oil palm nuts altogether. The chimpanzees regarded the coula nuts as a more highly-prized resource and competed for them more intensely. In such high-competition settings，the frequency of cases in which the chimpanzees started moving on two legs increased by a factor of four. Not only was it obvious that bipedal movement allowed them to carry more of this precious resource, but also that they were actively trying to move as much as they could in one go by using everything available 一 even their mouths. The second study, by Kimberley Hockings of Oxford Brookes University, was a 14-month study of Bossou chimpanzees crop-raiding, a situation in which they have to compete for rare and unpredictable Resources. Here, 35 percent of the chimpanzees activity involved some sort of bipedal movement, and once again, this behavior appeared to be linked to a clear attempt to carry as much as possible at one time. 词汇：
scarce adj.缺乏的，不足的；稀有的 chimpanzee n.黑猩猩 ape n.无尾猿; 类人猿 bipedal adj. 二足的 anatomical adj.解剖的 coula nuts( coula 也可写作 cola 或 kola)可乐果 注释： 1. GW’s Columbian College of Arts and Sciences:乔治?华盛顿大学哥伦比亚艺术与科学学院。 乔治· 华盛顿大学（George Washington University)的英文简称为 GW，是美国顶尖的私立大学 之一，于 1821 年建校，位于美国首都华盛顿。 2. ecological settings: 生态环境 3. bipedal activity：双足活动 4. anatomical chaiige: 解剖学上的变化 5. Kyoto University:京都大学，是继东京大学之后成立的日本第二所国立大学，于 I897 年 建校。京都大学主要校区位于日本历史名城京都市。 6. Bossou: 博苏,几内亚的一个地名。博苏森林生活着黑猩猩群落。 7. oil palm nut: 油棕榈坚果 8. increased by a factor of four:增加了四倍 9. in one go: —口气 10. Oxford Brookes University: 牛津布鲁克斯大学，创立于 1865 年，是英国最具特色的综合 性大学之一。牛津布鲁克斯大学位于世界学术名城——牛津。这里学风浓郁、精英荟萃，历 来为求学圣地。 练习： 1. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the first two paragraphs? A Many people question the simple human activities of walking and carrying items. B Chimpanzee’s behaviors may suggest why humans walk on two legs. C Human walking upright is viewed as an adaptation to carrying precious resources. D Our ancestors' ecological conditions resembled those of modern-day chimpanzees. 2. Dr. Richmond conducted the experiment with the purpose of finding A when humans began walking on two legs. B what made our ancestors walk upright. C what benefits walking upright brought to our ancestors. D how walking upright helped chimpanzees monopolize resources. 3. Kyoto, University's study discovered that chimpanzees. A regarded both types of nut as priced resources. B preferred oil palm nuts to coula nuts. C liked coula nuts better than oil palm nuts. D ignored both types of nut altogether. 4. Why did the chimpanzees walk on two limbs during Kyoto University's experiment? A Because they imitated the human way of walking just for fun.
B Because they wanted to please the researchers to get more coula nuts from them. C Because they wanted to get to die nut-rich forest faster by walking that way. D Because they wanted to carry more nuts with two free limbs. 5. What can we infer from the reading passage? A Chimpanzees are in the same process of evolution as our ancestors were. B Chimpanzees are similar to humans in many behaviors. C Walking on two limbs and walking on four limbs each have their advantages. D Human walking on two legs developed as a means of survival. 答案与题解： 1. A 第一段第一句和第二句说明，大多数人对人类直立行走习以为常,并不质疑这种习惯。 而 A 的内容正好与此相反，所以是答案。其他选项所述内容均可从第一段和第二段推断出 2. B 文章报道， 科学家通过实验证实黑猩猩直立行走是为了解放前肢， 让前肢搬运对其生 命至关重要的资源， 从而推断出人类祖先也经历了从四足到二足的进化过程。 科学家想通过 对黑猩猩的实验解释人类直立行走的成因。所以 B 是答案，A、C、D 选项不是科学家进行研 究的目的。 3. C 第五段明白无误地描述了黑猩猩全然不顾油棕榈坚果（ ignored the oil palm nuts altogether),集中精力抢运可乐果。所以 C 是答案，B、C、D 的内容不符合文章原意。 4. D 黑猩猩用后肢直立行走，搬运资源的效率提高了四倍。选项 D 符合原意，是答案。选 项 A、B、C 的内容文章中没有提到，所以不是答案。 5. D 了解了通篇文章的意思，就会选择选项 D。人类直立行走是受生态环境所迫，是人类 生存的一种手段，直立行走是自然选择的结果。选项 A 和 C 的内容文章中没有涉及。文章 中有选项 B 的内容，但它不是文章的主旨。 译文： 我们大多数人每天都走路而且手里搬着东西。这样的活动看似太简单，大多数人没有疑问。 但是一个国际研究者（包括乔治?华盛顿大学哥伦比亚艺术与科学学院的 Richmond 博士） 团队已经发现了人类直立行走可能源于数百万年以前适应搬运稀有的、 高质量的资源。 这些 来自美国、英国、日本和葡萄牙的研究者研究了当代黑猩猩争抢食物时的行为特征，试图对 什么样的生态环境竟然导致大猿 （一种我们与现存的黑猩猩一样的 600 万年前的祖先） 直立 行走作出解释。 “这些黑猩猩居住的生态环境和我们最早的祖先开始直立行走时是相同的，” Richmond 博士 说。研究结果显示，当黑猩猩需要独占一种资源时，它们就从四肢行走转换为直立行走。由 于直立行走可以解放它们的双手，这使得它们能搬更多的东西。久而久之，双足活动的强烈 爆发可能导致了解剖学上的变化，因此这种变化也就成为自然选择的主题，在那种情况下， 对食物或其他资源的争夺是十分激烈的。 有两项研究是在几内亚完成的。第一项研究是在京都大学博苏森林的一块天然空地——“室 外实验室”进行的。研究者们允许森林里的黑猩猩能得到两种不同的坚果，一种叫油棕榈坚 果，自然界随处可见，一种叫可乐果，自然环境中不常见。人们监控黑猩猩在下列三种情形
下的行为：(a)只有油棕榈坚果； （b)只有少量的可乐果，大多数是油棕榈坚果;(c)大多数是可 乐果，少数是油棕榈坚果。 当稀有的可乐果数量很少时，黑猩猩一次就会拿得多。同样，当大部分是可乐果时，黑猩猩 对油棕榈坚果根本视而不见。 黑猩猩认为可乐果才是珍贵的资源， 并为得到可乐果激烈竞争。 处于这种激烈竞争的环境中，黑猩猩直立行走的频率增加了四倍。很显然，双足行走可以使 它们拿走更多的稀有资源，而且，为了尽可能地一口气多拿，它们积极利用可用到的任何方 法，甚至嘴巴。 第二项研究是在牛津布鲁克斯大学的 Kimberley Hockings 进行的。 该研究历时 14 个月， 主题 是博苏的黑猩猩抢劫粮食， 场景是它们不得不为稀有和不可预知的资源竞争。 在这项研究中， 黑猩猩 35%的活动是直立行走。 而这一次研究再一次证实了黑猩猩的直立行走与它们试图一 次搬走尽可能多的东西有关。
第五十篇 Cell Phones Increase Traffic, Pedestrian Fatalities
Cell phones are a danger on the road in more ways than one. Two new studies show that talking on the phone while traveling, whether you're driving or on foot, is increasing both pedestrian deaths and those of drivers and passengers, and recommend crackdowns on cell1 use by both pedestrians and drivers. The new studies, lead-authored by Rutgers University, Newark, Economics Professor Peter D. Loeb2, relate the impact of cell phones on accident fatalities to the number of cell phones in use, showing that the current increase in deaths resulting from cell phone use follows a period when cell phones actually helped to reduce pedestrian and traffic fatalities. However, this reduction in fatalities disappeared once the numbers of phones in use reached a "critical mass" 3 of 100 million, the study found.These studies looked at cell phone use and motor vehicle accidents from 1975 through 2002, and factored in4 a number of variables, including vehicle speed, alcohol consumption, seat belt use, and miles driven. The studies found the cell phone-fatality correlation to be true even when including factors such as speed, alcohol consumption, and seat belt use. Loeb and his co-author determined that, at the current time, cell phone use has a "significant adverse effect on pedestrian safety" and that “cell phones and their usage above a critical thresholds adds to motor vehicle fatalities." In the late 1980s and part of the 1990s, before the numbers of phones exploded, cell phone use actually had a "life-saving effect" in pedestrian and traffic accidents, Loeb notes. "Cell-phone users' were able to quickly call for medical assistance when involved in an accident. This quick medical response actually reduced the number of traffic deaths for a time," Loeb hypothesizes. However, this was not the case when cells were first used in the mid-1980s, when they caused a "life-taking effect" among pedestrians, drivers and passengers in vehicles. In those early days, when there were fewer than a million phones, fatalities increased, says Loeb, because drivers and pedestrians probably were still adjusting to the novelty of using them, and there weren't enough cell phones in use to make a difference in summoning help following an accident, he explains. The "life-saving effect" occurred as the volume of phones grew into the early 1990s, and increasing numbers of cells were used to call 911 following accidents, leading to a drop in
fatalities, explains Loeb. But this life-saving effect was canceled out6 once the numbers of phones reached a "critical mass" of about 100 million and the "life-taking effect" - increased accidents and fatalities outweighed the benefits of quick access to 911 services, according to Loeb. Loeb and his co-authors used econometric models to analyze data from a number of government and private studies. He and his co-authors recommend that governments consider more aggressive policies to reduce cell phone use by both drivers and pedestrians, to reduce the number of fatalities. 词汇：crackdown n.制裁，严惩 outweigh v.超过 fatality n.死亡者 econometric adj.计量经济 的 hypothesize v.假设，假定 注释： 1. cell：cell phone 的缩写。 2. The new studies, lead-authored by Rutgers University, Newark, Economics Professor Peter D. Loeb ...第一作者为罗格斯大学纽瓦克分校的经济学教授 Peter D. Loeb 的新研究成果?? lead-author：第一作者;lead-authored 为动词的过去分 词形式，具有被动意义。罗格斯大学 纽瓦克分校是美国新泽西州最负盛名的文理学院。 3. critical mass：临界数量。 4. factored in：包括，把??计算在内。 5. a critical threshold：指的是前文所说的 critical mass。见注释 3。 6. was canceled out：被抵消。 练习： 1. The two new studies, lead-authored by Professor Peter D. Loeb A show that talking on the phone while driving or walking in the street increases deaths of drivers and pedestrians. B show that talking on the phone while driving increases pedestrian deaths. C recommend that strict measures be taken to restrain cell phone use. D both A and C. 2. According to the second paragraph, when did cell phones actually help to reduce pedestrian and traffic fatalities? A Right after cell phones were invented. B Before the number of cell phone users reached a critical mass C When cell phone users totaled to a certain number. D When the number of cell phones decreased to a certain number. 3. What is said about cell phone use in paragraph 4? A The number of cell phones in use exploded in the late 1980s and part of the 1990s. B The number of traffic deaths was reduced in the late 1980s and part of the 1990s due to cell phone use. C Cell phone users are likely to be involved in traffic accidents. D The use of cell phones has a life-saving effect for pedestrians and drivers. 4. What is said about cell phone use in the mid-1980s in paragraph 5? A It had a life-taking effect because there weren't enough cell phones in use then. B The increased use of cell phones then caused a "life-taking effect."
C Traffic fatalities increased then because the number of cell phones in use decreased. D Traffic fatalities decreased then because the number of cell phones in use increased. 5. Which of the following statements DOES NOT answer the question "What caused the "life-saving effect" to occur in the early 1990s?" A There were more cell phone users during that period. B The number of cell phone users reached about 100 million. C More cell phones were used to call 911 when accidents occurred. D Cell phones enabled people to have quick access to 911 services. 答案与题解： 1. D 根据短文第一段的内容，Loeb 教授的最新研究发现，开车或行路时打手机使司机和行 路人的死亡率上升，并建议采取严厉措施限制司机和行路人使用手机。B 是错误理解， 因 为只有行路人被提到。 2. B 短文第二段最后两个句子提供了答案：在手机使用者达到 1 亿的临界点之前，手机的 使用的确减少了交通事故的死亡率。A、C 和 D 的表述内容都没有在文章中提到。 3. B A 是错误选择，因为该段的第四个句子 In the late 1980s and part of the 1990s, before the numbers of phones exploded, ...表明。手机数量在 80 年代末期和 90 年 代早期还未激增。 C 的表述内容没有在文章中提到。句子?cell phone use actually had a “life-saving effect”用 的是过去式，说的是发生在 80 年代末期和 90 年代早 期的事情，而 D 句用的是一般现 在时，表示通常的状况，所以是错误的选择。 4. A 第五段的大概意思是， 80 年代中期， 交通事故的死亡率增加， 因为人们还在适应这一 新 事物，没有足够的手机让人们在发生交通事故时及时求救。该段没有讨论 80 年代中 期手 机数量的增减问题，所以 B、C 和 D 都是错误选择。 5. B 第六段最后一个句子说，当手机使用者数量达到 100 万时，life-saving effect 就被 抵消 了，life-saving effect 超过了手机使用者能迅速呼叫 911 服务的优点。所以，B 不是问题的 答案。其他选项都表述了该段的内容。
第四十二篇 Renewable Energy Sources
Today petroleum provides around 40% of the world’s energy needs, mostly fuelling automobiles. Coal is still used, mostly in pover stations, to cover one-quarter of our energy needs, but it is the least efficient, unhealthiest and most environmentally damaging fossil fuel. Natural gas reserves could plug some of the gap from oil, but reserves of that will not last into the 22nd century either. Most experts predict we will exhaust easily accessible reserves within 50 years. We could fast reach an energy crisis. We need to rapidly develop sustainable solutions to fuel our future. Less-polluting renewable energy sources offer a more practical long-term energy solution. They may benefit the world’s poor too. “Renewable” refers to the fact that these resources are not used faster than they can be replaced.
Hydroelectric power is now the most common form of renewable energy, supplying around 20% of world electricity. China’s three gorges Dam, which has just been completed, is the largest ever. At five times the size of the US’s Hoover Dam, its 26 turbines will generate the equivalent energy of 18 coal-fired power stations. It will satisfy 3% of China’s entire electricity demand. In 2003, the first commercial power station to harness tidal currents in the open sea opened in Norway. It is designed like windmill, but others take the form of turbines. As prices fall, wind power has become the fastest growing type of electricity generation – quadrupling worldwide between 1999 and 2005. Modern wind farms consist of turbines that generate electricity. Though it will be more expensive, there is more than enough wind to provide the world’s entire energy needs. Wind farms come in onshore and offshore forms. They can often end up at spots of natural beauty, and are often unpopular with residents. And turbines are not totally benign – they can interfere with radar and leave a significant ecological footprint, altering climate and lilling sea birds. Migrating birds may have more luck avoiding them. Scotland is building europe’s largest wind farm, which wil power 200,000 homes. The UK’s goal is to generate onefifth of power from renewable sources, mainly wind, by 2020. But this may cause problems, because wind is unreliable. 练习： 1. What are the energy resources that are not renewable according to the article? A Petroleum and coal. B Natural gas. C Wind and water. D A and B. 2. China's Three Gorges Dam A is the first hydroelectric dam in the world. B is of the same size of the US's Hoover Dam. C is the largest of all the hydroelectric dams in the world. D supplies around 20% of the world electricity. 3. Which is the country with thefirst commercial power station that makes use of ocean currents produced by tides? A China. B Norway. C England. D America. 4. Which of the following statements is true of wind power? A There is plenty of wind to provide the world's entire energy needs. B It is the most rapidly growing type of electricity production. C It may not be reliable. D All of the above. 5. According to the article, resources such as wind A are sustainable but not replaceable.
B are renewable so sustainable. C are sustainable so renewable. D are irreplaceable. 答案与题解 : 1. D 文章的第一段提到石油 (petroleum)、煤(coal)和天然气(natural gas)三种矿物燃料 (fossil fuel)，并且说这些可采掘到的燃料将在 50 年的时间里用完，所以需要开发再生能源， 文章后几段提到了水资源和风能这两种 renewable resources。 根据这一理解 D 是正确选项。 2. C A 是错误选项.因为第二段第二句说世界上第一个水利大坝建在英国 ;B 是错误的选 项，因为该段第五句指出三峡大坝比美国的 Hoover 大坝大五倍 ;该段第三句说水力发电为 世界提供 20%的电能，所以 D 也是错误的选项。该段第四句则明确告诉我们 C 是答案。 3. B 文章第三段说 2003 年挪威首次运营利用潮汐进行发电的商业电站。 所以 B 是正确 选项。 4. D 文章的第四段提到了 A、B、C 的内容，所以 D 是正确选项。 5. B 这个问题的理解依赖对整篇文章内容的理解。文章的第一段昀后一句说 :refers to the fact that “Renewable”these resources are not used faster than they can be replaced.其意思 是 :再生能源消耗的速度很慢，以至于不会被替代。所以这种能源是 sustainable。 译文： 可再生能源 现今， 汽油满足了世界上约百分之四十的能源需要， 大多用来为汽车提供燃料。 煤仍被使用， 主要是在发电站，以解决我们四分之一的能源需求。但煤却是最无效率，最不健康，最不环 保的矿物燃料。天然气的储量可填补部分石油短缺。但这些储量也不能维持到 22 世纪。许 多专家预计，我们很容易在 50 年内耗尽可采掘的燃料储备。我们将很快遇到能源危机。我 们需要立即发展可持续的方案来为未来提供能源。 污染少的可再生能源为我们提供了一个更 现实的长期解决方案。这些能源也会对世界上的穷人有益。“可再生”是指这些能源被使用的 速度低于其被更新的速度。 2000 多年前，中国人和罗马人使用风车。但第一个水电大坝是 1870 年建于英国。现在的水 力发电已是最常见的可再生能源，占世界电力总量的 20％。中国刚建成的三峡大坝是最大 的一个发电站。 它是美国胡佛发电站的 5 倍大。 它的 26 台涡轮机可产生相当于 18 个烧煤的 发电站所发的电量。它将满足中国电力总需求的 3％。令人吃惊的是，有人说，水电站排放 大量温室气体、2003 年，第一个利用大海上的潮汐能发电的商业电站在挪威建成。它的设 计好像一个风车，但其他方面则采用了涡轮的形式。 由于费用降低，风力发电已成为了发展最迅速的一种发电方式——1999 年到 2005 年翻了两 番。现代风力农场由发电的涡轮机组成。尽管成本更高，却会有源源不断的风力来满足全世 界的所有能量需求。风力农场分向岸和向海两种形式。它们常常会出现在美丽的环境中，并 常常人烟稀少。 涡轮机也并非百无一害的。 它们可干扰雷达信号， 并在生态环境中留下痕迹， 改变气候，杀死海鸟。迁徙的鸟类可以更幸运地避开它们。苏格兰正在建造欧洲最大的风力 农场， 可为 20 万户家庭提供电力。 英国的目标是截至 2020 年达到五分之一的电力来自可再 生能源，主要指风能，但这样做也有问题，因为风是不可靠的。
第三十七篇“Don’t Drink Alone” Gets New Meaning
In what may be bad news for bars and pubs，a European research group has found that people drinking alcohol outside of meals have a significantly higher risk of cancer in the mouth and neck than do those taking their libations with food. Luigino Dal Maso and his colleagues studied the drinking patterns of 1,500 patients from four cancer studies2 and another 3，500 adults who had never had cancer. After the researchers accounted for the amount of alcohol consumed, they found that individuals who downed a significant share of their alcohol outside of meals3 faced at least a 50 to 80 percent risk of cancer in the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus, when compared with people who drank only at meals. Consuming alcohol without food also increased by at least 20 percent the likelihood of laryngeal4 cancer. “ Roughly 95 percent of cancers at these four sites5 traced to smoking or drinking6 by the study volunteers，” Dal Maso says. The discouraging news, his team reports, is that drinking with meals didn’t eliminate cancer risk at any of the sites. For their new analysis，the European scientists divided people in the study into four groups， based on how many drinks they reported having in an average week7. The lowest-intake group included people who averaged up to8 20 drinks 狂 week. The highest group reported downing at least 56 servings of alcohol weekly for an average of eight or more per day.9 Cancer risks for the mouth and neck sites rose steadily with consumption even for people who reported drinking only withmeals. For instance, compared with people in the lowest-consumption group, participants who drank 21 to 34 alcohol servings a week at least doubled their cancer risk for all sites other than the larynx10. If people in these consumption groups took some of those drinks outside meals, those in the higher consumption group at least quadrupled their risk for oral cavity and esophageal cancers. People in the highest-consumption group who drank only with meals had 10 times the risk of oral cancer, 7 times the risk of pharyngeal cancer, and 16 times the risk of esophageal cancer compared with those who averaged 20 or fewer drinks a week with meals. In contrast, laryngeal cancer risk in the high-intake, with-meals-only group11 was only triple that12 in the low-intake consumers who drank with meals. “Alcohol can inflame tissues. Over time, that inflammation can trigger cancer. ” Dal Maso says. He suspects that food reduced cancer risk either by partially coating digestive-tract tissues or by scrubbing alcohol off those tissues. He speculates that the reason laryngeal risks were dramatically lower for all study participants traces to the tissue’s lower exposure to alcohol. 词汇： cavity n.腔 pharynx n.咽 pharyngeal adj.咽的 esophagus n.食管 esophageal adj.食管的 larynx n.喉 scrub v.擦净，擦掉 注释： 1. …than do those taking their libations with food： 这是一个倒装句， 其正常语序为 than those taking their libations with food do。 这里的 do 是一个代词， 代替上半句中的 have a significantly
higher risk of cancer in the mouth and neck。 2. drinking patterns of 1,500 patients from four cancer studies ：取自四项癌症研究的 1，500 个病例的饮酒习惯模式 3. downed a significant share of their alcohol outside of meals：在就餐时间以外灌下大量烈 酒。down：在此作动词用，意为：“喝下，灌下”；significant：意为“large in amount”（大量 的） 。 4. laryngeal：larynx (喉）的形容词形式。 5. these four sites：指该段前两句提到的 oral cavity，pharynx, esophagus, larynx。 6. traced to smoking or drinking：根源就是抽烟或喝酒。trace to:回溯到…… 7. in an average week：平均每星期 8. up to：高达 9. 56 servings of alcohol weekly for an average of eight or more per day：每周 56 杯，平均每 天 8 杯以上。eight 后省略了 servings 意为“(食物或饮料的）一份”。 10. for all sites other than the larynx：除喉以外的全部部位。other than：除了。 11. high-intake, with-meals-only group：(酒精）高摄入、仅在就餐时饮酒的（实验）组。 high-intake 和 with-meals-only 在此都是合成形容词，修饰 group。 12. was only triple that：是它的三倍。that 指该句前半句中的 laryngeal cancer risk。 练习： 1. Researchers have found that the risk of cancer in the mouth and neck is higher with people A who drink alcohol outside of mealsur B who drink alcohol at meals. C who never drink alcohol. D who drink alcohol at bars and pubs. 2. Which of the following is NOT the conclusion made by the researchers about “drinking with meals”? A It has a lower risk of cancer than drinking without food. B It may also be a cause of cancer. C It increases by 20 percent the possibility of cancer in all sites. D It does not eliminate cancer risk at any of the sites. 3. Approximately how many drinks do the lowest-intake group average per day? A 3 drinks. B 8 drinks. C 20 drinks.D 56 drinks. 4. Which cancer risk is the lowest among all the four kinds of cancer mentioned in the passage? A Oral cancer. B Laryngeal cancer. C Pharyngeal cancer. D Esophageal cancer. 5. According to the last paragraph, tissue’s lower exposure to alcohol A explains why inflammation triggers cancer. B accounts for why food can coat digestive-tract tissues. C is the reason why food can scrub alcohol off tissues. D reduces the risk of laryngeal cancer.
答案与题解. 1. A 文章第一个句子就是答案。 2. C 第二段的第二句说的是餐外饮酒使得喉癌几率增加了 20%，而不是就餐饮酒的情况。 所以 C 是正确答案。其他三项均在文中直接或间接提到。 3. A 第三段第二句告诉我们，酒精摄人量最低的一组每星期饮酒量达 20 杯，因此，大约 每天在三杯左右。 4. B 文章第四段的第一句和第二句是由连接词 in contrast 连接的两个句子。in contrast 表 达的是句间的反比关系。 第一句说明酒精消费量最大的一组， 患其他三种癌症的几率与低酒 精摄入量组相比，分别是他们的 10 倍、7 倍和 16 倍，而第二句告诉我们，相比之下，其患 喉癌的机率只是另一组的 3 倍。因此，B 是正确选项。 5. D 文章最后一句提供了答案。
译文： 一定程度上， 这对酒吧可能是一个坏消息， 欧洲的一个研究小组发现人们在就餐时间以外饮 酒会使患口腔和颈部癌症的几率比就餐时饮酒更高。Luigino Dal Maso 和他的同事们研究了 取自四项癌症研究的 1，500 个病例的饮酒习惯模式和另外 3，500 个从没患癌症的成年人 的饮酒习惯模式。 在研究者分析了饮酒的总量后， 他们发现和只在就餐时饮酒的人相比， 在就餐时间以外灌下 大量烈酒的人面临至少 50%?80%的患口腔癌、咽癌和食道癌的危险。在就餐时间外饮酒也 会使患喉癌的可能性增加至少 20%。“被研究者的情况说明大约 95%患以上四种癌症的原因 就是抽烟或饮酒。” Dal Maso 说。他的研究小组提供的报告中令人沮丧的消息是就餐时饮酒 不会消除患以上任何一种癌症的危险。 为了进行新的分析， 欧洲科学家根据每星期平均饮酒量将被研究者分为 4 组。 饮酒量最少的 一组包括每周平均饮酒量达 20 杯的人，饮酒量最高的一组每周饮酒至少 56 杯，平均每天 8 杯以上。 患口腔癌和颈部癌的危险随着饮酒量而稳定上升， 即使是那些只在就餐时饮酒的人。 例如，和低饮酒量的人相比，每周饮酒 21?34 杯的人患除喉癌以外其他部位的癌症的危险 增加了一倍。 如果这几组中的人在就餐时间以外饮酒， 那些属于高饮酒量组的人会使他们患 口腔癌和食道癌的危险至少增加 3 倍。 和每周只在就餐时平均饮酒至多 20 杯的人相比，高饮酒量组的人在就餐时间饮酒患口腔癌 的危险是低饮酒量组的 10 倍，咽癌是其 7 倍，食道癌是 16 倍。相反，酒精高摄入且仅在就 餐时饮酒的人患喉癌的危险是酒精低摄入且仅在就餐时饮酒的人的 3 倍。 “酒精能使组织发炎，一段时间后，炎症可引发癌症。” Dal Maso 说。他认为食物降低了患 癌症的危险， 或是通过覆盖在消化道组织上或是通过将酒精从那些组织上擦掉。 他推测所有 被研究者患喉癌的几率比其他癌症低很多的原因是喉部组织被酒精侵害到的部分少得多。
第四十一篇 Too Little for Global Warming
Oil and gas will run out too fast for doomsday global warming scenarios to materialize, according to a controversial new analysis presented this week at the University of Uppsala in Sweden. The authors warn that all the fuel will be burnt before there is enough carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere to realize predictions of melting ice caps and searing temperatures. Defending their predictions, scientists from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change say they considered a range of estimates of oil and gas reserves, and point out that coal-burning could easily make up the shortfall. But all agree that burning coal would be even worse for the planet. The IPCC’s predictions of global meltdown pushed forward the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, an agreement obliging signatory nations to cut CO2 emissions. The IPCC considered a range of future scenarios, from unlimited burning of fossil-fuels to a fast transition towards greener energy sources. But geologists Anders Sivertsson, Kjell Aleklett and Colin Campbell of Uppsala University say there is not enough oil and gas left even the most conservative of the 40 IPCC scenarios to come to pass. Although estimates of oil and gas reserves vary widely, the researchers are part of a growing group of experts who believe that oil supplies will peak as soon as 2010, and gas soon after. Their analysis suggests that oil and gas reserves combined about to the equivalent of about 3,500 billion barrels of oil considerably less than the 5,000 billion barrels estimated in the most optimistic model envisaged by the IPCC. Even the average forecast of about 8,000 billion barrels is more than twice the Swedish estimate of the world’s remaining reserves. Nebojsa Nakicenovic, an energy economist at the University of Vienna, Austria who headed the 80-strong IPCC team that produced the forecasts, says the panel’s work still stands. He says they factored in a much broader and internationally accepted range of oil and gas estimates than the “conservative” Swedes. Even if oil and gas run out, “there’s a huge amount of coal underground that could be exploited”, he says that burning coal could make the IPCC scenarios come true, but points out that such a switch would be disastrous. Coal is dirtier than oil and gas and produces more CO2 for each unit of energy, as well as releasing large amounts of particulates. He says the latest analysis is a “shot across the bows” for policy makers. 练习： 1．What do the authors of the new analysis presented at the University of Uppsala intend to say? A The burning of coal will accelerate the arrival of Earth's doomsday. B The oil reserves are big enough to materialize the doomsday scenarios. C Melting ice caps and searing temperatures exist only in science fiction. D Oil and gas will run out so fast that Earth's doomsday will never materialize. 2．Nations that signed the Kyoto Protocol agree to A pay attention to global meltdown. B cut CO2 emissions. C use more green energy. D stop using fossil fuels. _.
3．What are the estimates of the world's oil and gas reserves? A 4,000 billion barrels by the average forecast. B 8,000 billion barrels estimated by the Swedes. C 3,500 barrels envisaged by IPCC. D 3,500 billion by a growing number of scientists.
4．Which of the following about Nebojsa Nakicenovic is true? A He thinks fossil fuels are as dirty as oil and gas. B He thinks green fuels will replace oil and gas eventually. C He thinks IPCC's view on the world's oil reserves is too optimistic. D He thinks that IPCC's estimates are more optimistic than the Swedes. 5．Which of the following is the near explanation of Nakicenovic's assertion that “... such a switch would be disastrous …”? A The IPCC scenarios would come true because burning coal will emit larger amounts of CO2. B A switch to burning coal would produce disastrous environmental problems. C Oil and gas to replace coal as fuel would speed up the process of global warming. D A switch from the IPCC scenarios to the policymakers' ones would be disastrous. 答案与题解： 1．D 第一段第一句 too fast for doomsday global warming scenarios to materialize 中包含 too … to 结构， 意思是“太……以至于不……”。 new analysis 的争议性 （controversial） 在于， 这 种分析认为，在大气含有足够多的二氧化碳触发地球末日到来之前，地球上所有的燃料 储 存都将巳耗尽。 2．B 第 3 第一句告诉我们，因为 IPCC 预言了全球性冰雪融化，这就导致了京都议定书的 出 台。京都议定书责成签约国减少二氧化碳的排放量。A、C 和 D 都不是作者所要表达的 意思。 3．D 第二段作者提到，越来越多的专家认为 2010 年将是石油供应的高峰期，紧接着就是 天 然气。他们认为石油和天然气的总量在 3,500 billion barrels 左右。而 IPCC 的估算是 5,000 billion barrels。 4．D Nebojsa Nakicenovic 认为瑞典人对石油储藏量的估算是保守的，少于 4 万亿桶，而 IPPC 的估算是 5 万亿桶，所以是 more optimistic 的。Nakicenovic 是 energy economist， 所以既是 经济学家，又是能源专家。他认为 IPCC 的估算考虑到一些国际认定的燃料储存。 A、B 和 C 都不符合文章的意思。 5．B 文章最后一段中的 he 指上段中的 Nebojsa Nakicenovic。他认为有大量的地下煤可以 开 采， 煤的燃烧能使 IPCC 的预言成为现实， 但是燃烧煤会产生灾难性的后果。 such a switch 指从使用石油和天然气到使用煤的转换。 注释: 1. run out:被用完 2. doomsday global warming scenarios:全球变暧这一世界求末的场景。 scenarios:指“预料或期 望的一系列事件的模式”，在戏剧中指“一场，一景”。 3. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC):政府间气候变化专门委员会 4. make up:弥补 5. push forward:抓紧进行，推进 6. Kyoto:京都（日本本州中西部一峻市） 。Kyoto Protocol:京都议定书（京都议定书是《联合 国气候变化框架公约》的约定俗成的称呼。京都议定书规定，到 2010 年，所有发达国家排
放的二氧化碳等六种温室气体的数量，要比 1990 年减少 52%。) 7. come to pass: happen, occur (发使) 8. the panel’s work still stands 委员会的工作结果 (即对世界燃料的存量估算 )仍然站得住脚。 9. factor in:包括，把……计算在内，如 :They factored sick days and vacations in when they prepared the work schedule. 当他们准备工作时间表时，他们把病假和假期都包括在内。 10. shot across the bows:泼冷水，使……打消计划和念头 译文： 全球变暖“缺油” 根据本周在瑞典乌普萨拉大学新发表的一个具有争议性的分析， 石油和天然气会在全球变暖 这一世界末日的场景到来之前耗尽。 作者警告说， 在使大气中含有足够的二氧化碳造成冰冠 融化和温度升高等场景出现之前， 石化燃料会先消耗殆尽。 来自政府间气候变化专门委员会 （IPCC）的专家为自己的预测变化说,他们是根据一系列的石油及天然气存量来预测，并指 出燃煤可减轻填补不足的差额。不过所有人都同意燃煤将会对地球造成更糟的影响。 IPCC 的全球冰雪融化预测推动了 1997 年京都协议书的签订， 签署国同意将缩减二氧化碳 的总排放量。IPCC 预测了一系列包含从无节制的使用石化燃料至快速过度到较环保能源所 将产生的未来场景。但是乌普萨拉大学的地质学家 Anders Sivertsson, Kjell Aleklett 和 Colin Campbell 表示，即使是 IPCC 最保守的 40 个预测场景，也没有足够的石油和天然气存量使其 成真。 尽管乌普萨拉大学对石油和天然气存量的估算差别很大，但越来越多的研究者认为 2010 年将是石油供应的高峰期， 紧接着就是天然气。 他们的分析表明石油和天然气的存储总量在 35，000 亿桶左右。而 IPCC 最乐观的估算是 50，000 亿桶左右。对世界石油和天然气存量 的平均预测是 8，000 亿桶，这甚至是瑞典人估算值的两倍。 Nebojsa Nakicenovic 是奥地利维也纳大学的能源专家和经济学家。 他领导了多达 80 人的 IPCC 研究小组并做出了上述预测。他说，IPCC 对世界燃料的存量估计仍然站得住脚。他认 为和保守的瑞典人相比，IPCC 的估算考虑到一些范围更广的、国际认定的燃料存在。 即使石油和天然气消耗殆尽，“还有大量的地下煤可以开采，”他说，煤的燃烧能使 IPCC 的预言成为现实。但他指出，这一转换会 灾难性的后果。煤比石油和天然气脏，每一能量 单位的使用会产生更多的二氧化碳， 并释放出大量的微粒。 他说最近的研究给政策制定者们 泼了盆冷水。
第四十九篇 U.S. Scientists Confirm Water on Mars
NASA1 scientists said that Mars was covered once by vast lakes, flowing rivers and a variety of other wet environments that had the potential to support life. Laboratory tests aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander2 have identified water in a soil sample; the lander's robotic arm delivered the sample Wednesday to an instrument that identifies vapors produced by the heating of samples. "We have water," said William Boynton of the University of Arizona, lead scientist for the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer3, or TEGA. "This is the first time Martian water has been touched and tasted. " The robotic arm is a critical part of the Phoenix Mars mission. It is needed to trench" into the icy layers of northern polar Mars and deliver samples to instruments that will analyze what Mars is made of, what its water is like, and whether it is or has ever been a possible habitat for life.
The soil sample came from a trench approximately 2 inches deep. When the robotic arm first reached that depth, it hit a hard layer of frozen soil. Two attempts to deliver samples of icy soil on days when fresh material was exposed were foiled when the samples became stuck inside the scoop. Most of the material in Wednesday's sample had been exposed to the air for two days, letting some of the water in the sample vaporize away and making the soil easier to handle. "Mars is giving us some surprises," said Phoenix principal investigator Peter Smith of the University of Arizona. "We're excited because surprises are where discoveries come from. One surprise is how the soil is behaving. The ice-rich layers stick to the scoop when poised in the sun above the deck, different from what we expected, from all the Mars simulation testing we've done so far. " Since landing on May 25, Phoenix has been studying soil with a chemistry lab, TEGA, a microscope, a conductivity probe and cameras. The science team is trying to determine whether the water ice ever thaws enough to be available for biology and if carbon-containing chemicals and other raw materials for life are present. The mission is examining the sky as well as the ground. A Canadian instrument is using a laser beam to study dust and clouds overhead. "It's a 30-watt light bulb giving us a laser show on Mars," said Victoria Hipkin of the Canadian Space Agency. A full-circle, color panorama of Phoenix's surroundings also has been completed by the spacecraft. "The details and patterns we see in the ground show an ice-dominated terrain as far as the eye can see," said Mark Lemmon of Texas A & M University, lead scientist for Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager4 camera. "They help us plan measurements we're making within reach of the robotic arm and interpret those measurements on a wider scale. " 词汇： foil v. 挫败，使成泡影 conductivity n. 传导陡，导电胜 scoop n. 铲斗 thaw v. 融化，融解 vaporize v. 使蒸发，使汽化 panorama n. 全貌，全景图 注释： 1.NASA：National Aeronautics and Space Administration(美国国家航空航天局)的缩写。NASA 总部设在华盛顿哥伦比亚特区， 是美国政府系统中的航空航天科研机构， 负责组织和协调美 国航空航天的研究工作并提供咨询。 2.Phoenix Mars Lander：凤凰号火星登陆器。其使命是探测火星地表下的冰层，分析冰层是 否曾经融化产生液态水，并计划检测火星土壤是否含有生命存活的有机物。 3.Thermal and Evolved—Gas Analyzer：热力与先进气体分析仪 4.Stereo Imager：立体图像 练习： 1. What was discovered by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Mars? A)Vast lakes. B)Flowing rivers. C)Water in a soil sample. D)Living things. 2. Why did the first two attempts to deliver samples fail?
A)The sample vaporized away. B)Fresh material was exposed to the air. C)The samples got stuck inside the scoop. D)The robotic arm hit a hard rock. 3. Which one of the following statements is NOT meant by the writer? A)Scientists have been trying to break the ice-rich layers of soil on Mars. B)Scientists have been surprised by how the soil on Mars behaves. C)Scientists have been trying to fend out if there is life supporting material on Mars. D)Scientists have been trying to know if water ice will melt. 4. Where are the scientists involved in the research from? A)They are from America. B)They are from Canada. C)They are from both America and Canada. D)They are from neither America nor Canada. 5. Which of the following do you think is the best description of Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager Camera, according to your understanding of the passage? A)It imitates human vision and is able to capture three-dimensional images. B)It imitates human voice and is able to record slight sounds while taking photos. C)It takes clear photos that show every detail of the object. D)It is this particular type of camera that can take wide angle pictures. 答案与题解： 1.C 短文的第一段告诉我们，NASA 科学家曾经说过，火星上有广阔的湖泊，流动的河流， 以及可能有支撑生命的潮湿环境。但这些只是科学家的假设，不是 NASA’S Phoenix Mars Lander 的发现，所以只有 C 是正确选择。 2.C 短文第五段的第三句提供了答案。 3. A 第六段的第三句所述内容说明 B 是作者想要表达的意思，第七段的最后一句所述内容 说明 C 和 D 也是作者想要表达的意思。文章里没有 A 所表述的内容。 4.C 短文的第八和第九段提到了加拿大宇航局的科学家为凤凰号的火星探索提供了激光设 备。 5. A 短文最后一段的第一句：A full—circle，color panorama of Phoenix’S surroundings also has been completed…告诉我们，使用这种照相机可以拍摄全景照片。panorama：全景，全景摄 影。 译文： 美国科学家确认火星上有水
美国国家航空航天局的科学家们称火星曾被巨大的湖泊、 流动的河流以及其他潮湿的自然环 境所覆盖，而这些都使其有了维持生命的可能。 在美国国家航空航天局的“凤凰”号火星登陆器的实验室所做的试验中， 已经在一份土壤样本 中鉴别出了水。 登录器的机器臂在星期三的时候把样本传送给了一个仪器， 此仪器可以鉴别 出通过样本加热而产生的水蒸气。 “我们找到了水”，热力与先进气体分析仪(也称 TEGA)的主要科学家、亚利桑那大学的威廉? 博尔顿说道，“这是我们第一次接触和品尝到火星上的水。” 登录器的机器手臂是“凤凰”火星计划重要的组成部分。它需要破开火星北极的冰冻地表，深 入到土壤伸出铲取样本，并将样本传送给仪器，使其可以分析火星的构成，火星上的水的形 态和火星是否适合或曾经适合人类居住。 土壤标本来自于一个大概 2 寸深的沟渠。 当机器臂第一次达到这个沟的时候， 它触到了一层 硬的冻土。当新鲜的冻土暴露在空气中的时候，机器臂曾经两次尝试对冻土样本进行传送， 但样本同铲斗粘在了一起， 使这两次尝试都以失败告终。 星期三所采集的大部分样本已经暴 露在空气两天，这使样本中的一些水分得以蒸发，从而使土壤更易处理。 “火星正在给我们一些惊喜，”“凤凰”计划的主要调查员、亚利桑那大学的彼得?史密斯说道， “我们很激动是因为发现源于惊喜。其中一个惊喜就是土壤的表现。当富冰层被悬挂于甲板 上方的太阳底下的时候，它会和铲斗粘在一起，这是我们从未预期到的，也不同于我们迄今 为止所做过的任何火星模拟实验。” 自 5 月 25 日登陆以来，凤凰号就利用一个化学实验室、热力与先进气体分析仪、一个显微 镜， 一根传导性探针和相机来研究火星土壤。 这只科学团队尝试确定火星上的水冰是否曾经 大量融化，从而能支持生物存在。同时，它还将寻找火星土中是否有以碳为基础的有机化合 物，这些化合物是形成生命的“原材料”。 这次任务同时对天空和地表进行研究， 加拿大所制造的仪器所发射的激光可以帮助研究头上 方的尘埃和云层。 “这是一个 30 瓦的灯泡，它在火星上给了我们一场激光秀。”加拿大航天局的维多利亚?西普 金说道。 航天器还成功采集了“凤凰”号着陆的周围地区的彩色全景图。 “我们获得的地表图案显示，火星基本上是一片以冰为主的地区。”“凤凰”号负责地表立体成 像首席科学家、德州 A&M 大学的马克?莱蒙说，“立体成像技术可以帮助我们在机器臂所及 范围之内的进行测量，同时帮助我们在更广的规模上解释这些测量结果。”