(一)据逻辑，猜词义 (2015·北京·C) Life in the Clear Transparent animals let light pass through their bodies the same way light passes through a window.These animals typically live betwe
en the surface of the ocean and a depth of about 3,300 feet—as far as most light can reach.Most of them are extremely delicate and can be damaged by a simple touch.Sonke Johnsen, a scientist in biology, says, “These animals live through their life alone.They never touch anything unless they're eating it, or unless something is eating them.” And they are as clear as glass.How does an animal become see?through? It's trickier than you might think. The objects around you are visible because they interact with light.Light typically travels in a straight line.But some materials slow and scatter(散射)light, bouncing it away from its original path.Others absorb light, stopping it dead in its tracks.Both scattering and absorption make an object look different from other objects around it, so you can see it easily. But a transparent object doesn't absorb or scatter light, at least not very much. Light can pass through it without bending or stopping.That means a transparent object doesn't look very different from the surrounding air or water.You don't see it—you see the things behind it. To become transparent, an animal needs to keep its body from absorbing or scattering light.Living materials can stop light because they contain pigments(色 素 ) that absorb specific colors of light.But a transparent animal doesn't have pigments, so its tissues won't absorb light.According to Johnsen, avoiding absorption is actually easy.The real challenge is preventing light from scattering. Animals are built of many different materials—skin, fat, and more—and light moves through each at a different speed.Every time light moves into a material with a new speed, it bends and scatters.Transparent animals use different tricks to fight scattering.Some animals are simply very small or extremely flat.Without much tissue to scatter light, it is easier to be see?through.Others build a large, clear mass of non?living jelly?like(果冻状的)material and spread themselves over it.
Larger transparent animals have the biggest challenge, because they have to make all the different tissues in their bodies slow down light exactly as much as water does.They need to look uniform.But how they're doing it is still unknown.One thing is clear：for these larger animals, staying transparent is an active process.When they die, they turn a non?transparent milky white. 文章大意： 你见过透明生物吗？本文介绍了透明的海洋生物。 作者为我们介绍了物体之 所以不能透明的原理，从而让我们理解没有什么器官组织的透明生物能够保持透明的奇特 性。 1．According to Paragraph 1, transparent animals________. A．stay in groups C．appear only in deep ocean B．can be easily damaged D．are beautiful creatures
答案：B 细节理解题。根据文章第一段第三句 Most of them are extremely delicate and can be damaged by a simple touch.可知，透明生物非常脆弱，轻轻的触碰都可能使 其致命，故选 B 项。 2．The underlined word “dead” in Paragraph 3 means________. A．silently C．regularly B．gradually D．completely
答案：D 词义猜测题。文中画线词所在句的句意为：其他的物质吸收光线，完全阻挡 光的传播途径。由后面一句中的 look different fromother objects around it 以及 you can see it easily 可知，物体不能透明是因为散射光线和吸收光线，光线被完全吸收时变得不 透明。由此可以判断句中的 dead 是副词，意为“完全地”。 3．One way for an animal to become transparent is to________. A．change the direction of light travel B．gather materials to scatter light C．avoid the absorption of light D．grow bigger to stop light 答案：C 细节理解题。根据第五段第一句 To become transparent, an animal needs to keep its body from absorbing or scattering light.可知，动物要想变透明就需要阻 止身体吸收或散射光线，故 C 项是变透明的一个方法。 4．The last paragraph tells us that larger transparent animals ________. A．move more slowly in deep water B．stay see?through even after death C．produce more tissues for their survival D．take effective action to reduce light spreading
答案：D 推理判断题。文章最后一段第一句说较大的透明动物面临巨大挑战，因为它 们必须尽可能让所有身体组织像水一样降低光线传播的速度。故选 D 项。 (二)由解释，猜词义 (2015·湖北·B) What Theresa Loe is doing proves that a large farm isn't a prerequisite for a modern grow?your?own lifestyle.On a mere 1/10 of an acre in Los Angeles，Loe and her family grow，can (装罐) and preserve much of the food they consume. Loe is a master food preserver，gardener and canning expert.She also operates a website，where she shares her tips and recipes，with the goal of demonstrating that everyone has the ability to control what's on their plate. Loe initially went to school to become an engineer，but she quickly learned that her enthusiasm was mainly about growing and preparing her own food.“I got into cooking my own food and started growing my own herbs(香草) and foods for that fresh flavor ， ”she said.Engineer by day ， Loe learned cooking at night school.She ultimately purchased a small piece of land with her husband and began growing their own foods. “I teach people how to live farm?fresh without a farm，”Loe said.Through her website Loe emphasizes that “anybody can do this anywhere.”Got an apartment with a balcony (阳台)？Plant some herbs.A window？Perfect spot for growing.Start with herbs，she recommends，because “they're very forgiving.”Just a little of the herbs “can take your regular cooking to a whole new level，”she added.“I think it's a great place to start.”Then？Try growing something from a seed，she said，like a tomato or some tea. Canning is a natural extension of the planting she does.With every planted food， Loe noted，there's a moment when it's bursting with its absolute peak flavor.“I try and keep it in a time capsule in a canning jar.”Loe said.“Canning for me is about knowing what's in your food，knowing where it comes from.” In addition to being more in touch with the food she's eating，another joy comes from passing this knowledge and this desire for good food to her children ： “Influencing them and telling them your opinion on not only being careful what we eat but understanding the_bigger_picture，”she said，“that if we don't take care of the earth，no one will.” 文章大意： 本文讲述了特丽萨·洛和她的家人以身作则， 号召大家自种自吃来保护环境 的事迹。
5 ． The underlined word “prerequisite”(Para.1)is closest in meaning to “________”． A．recipe C．requirement B．substitute D．challenge
答案：C 词义猜测题。根据文章第一段第二句可知，特丽萨·洛和她的家人在仅为十 分之一英亩的土地上种植， 装罐和保存了他们食用的许多食物， 与第一句中大农场与现代自 种自吃生活方式之间的关系形成对比，可知自种自吃并不需要大面积的土地。故选 C 项。 6．Why does Loe suggest starting with herbs? A．They are used daily. B．They are easy to grow. C．They can grow very tall. D．They can be eaten uncooked. 答案：B 细节理解题。根据文章第四段第七句 Start with herbs，she recommends, because “they're very forgiving.”可知，草本植物很好种植。forgiving 意为“宽恕 的；宽容的；宽大的”。故选 B 项。 7．According to Loe，what is the benefit of canning her planted foods? A．It can preserve their best flavor. B．It can promote her online sales. C．It can better her cooking skills. D．It can improve their nutrition. 答案：A 细节理解题。根据文章第五段第二句及第三句可知，洛认为每一种种植的食 物都有一个味道达到顶峰的时刻，罐装能将这一时刻保留。故选 A 项。 8．What is the “the bigger picture”(Para.6) that Loe wishes her children to understand? A．The knowledge about good food. B．The way to live a grow?our?own life. C．The joy of getting in touch with foods. D．The responsibility to protect our earth. 答案： D 词义猜测题。 根据文章最后一段最后一句可知． ..that if we don't take care of the earth，no one will.为同位语从句解释说明 the bigger picture 的内容，即我们 要关注地球，保护地球是我们的责任。故选 D 项。 (三)指代词，猜词义 (2015·重庆·D) There are many places to go on safari (观赏野生动物) in Africa，but riding a
horse through the flooded waters of Botswana's Okavango Delta must rank as one of the world's most exciting wildlife journeys. Several safari camps operate as the base for this adventure，providing unique rides twice a day to explore deep into the delta.The camps have excellent horses， professional guides and lots of support workers.They have a reputation for providing a great riding experience. The morning ride，when the guides take you to beautiful，shallow lakes full of water lilies，tends to be more active.It is unlike any other riding experience.With rainbows forming in the splashing water around you and the sound of huge drops of water bouncing off your body and face，it is truly exciting.You are very likely to come across large wild animals, too.On horseback it is possible to get quite close to elephants，giraffes and many other animals.The sense of excitement and tension levels rise suddenly though，as does your heart rate，as you move closer to them. In the evening，rides are usually at a more relaxed and unhurried pace，with golden light streaming across the grassy delta and the animals coming out to eat and drink.Sedate though they are ， rides at this time of day are still very impressive.As the sun's rays pass through the dust kicked up by the horses，the romance of Africa comes to life. Back at the camp you can kick off your boots and enjoy excellent food and wine.Looking back on your day，you will find it hard to deny that a horseback safari is as close as you will ever come to answering the call of the wild. 文章大意：本文介绍了非洲观赏野生动物的野营项目，在这个项目中，不同时间段你可 以享受到不同的美景与惊喜。 9．What does the underlined word “They” refer to? A．Flooded waters. C．Safari camps. 答案： C B．Wildlife journeys. D．Unique rides.
词义猜测题。根据文中第二段中 The camps have excellent horses ， have a reputation for
professional guides and lots of support workers. They
providing a great riding experience.可知此处 They 指代上文出现的名词 camps，故选 C 项。 10．What does the author find most exciting about a horseback safari? A．Seeing and feeling the real African life. B．Enjoying good food and wine at the camp. C．Hunting large animals just as our ancestors did.
D．Being part of the scene and getting close to animals. 答案： D 细节理解题。 根据文中第三段第三句 With rainbows forming in the splashing water around you and the sound of huge drops of water bouncing off your body and face...和最后一句可知选 D 项。 11．What does the underlined word “Sedate” probably mean? A．Wild and romantic. B．Slow and peaceful. C．Hungry and thirsty. D．Active and excited. 答案：B 词义猜测题。根据文中第四段的主旨句 In the evening，rides are usually at a more relaxed and unhurried pace...可知此处选 B 项。 12．The author introduces the riding experience in the Okavango Delta mainly by ______. A．following space order C．making classifications 答案：B B．following time order D．giving examples
推理判断题。此题考查文章结构。根据文中第三段中的 The morning ride
和第四段中的 In the evening 以及末段中的 Back at the camp 可知本文是根据时间顺序来 展开的。故选 B 项。 (四)由常识，猜词义 (2015·湖北枣阳统考) For foreigners, entering a public toilet in China can be a horrifying experience. In the 1990s, a third of all complaints to tourism officials in Beijing concerned the design, and the bad smell of public toilets. China has battled smelly toilets for at least 2,000 years. In the Kingdom of Wei (220—266 A. D. ), visitors to the palace bathrooms would find boxes to cover their nose and ward_off unpleasant smells. Both flushing (冲水) toilets and toilet paper were invented in China, however, only for the use of the emperor. Today Chinese scientists have claimed victory in their battle to improve public restrooms, introducing a bacterial spray that can almost get rid of all the bad smell. First, a set of six types of bacteria work to break down the smelly compounds and then a perfume made from orange skin lightly scents ( 使 芳 香 ) the air. The “smell?free toilet” study from the Chinese Academy of Science was declared the “ultimate” cure to an_“urgent”_national_issue. “Five scientists have worked on this from 2011 to the beginning of this year， ”
said Dr. Yan Zhiying, a bacteriologist with the academy's Chengdu Institute of Biology, adding that they had spent ￡140,000 on the project. “Some local government officials here visited a sewage (污水) plant and saw that the treatment technology had come from Japan. They wanted a home?grown solution so they asked us to work on it，” he added. “We obtained bacteria from all types of waste from humans, pigs, chicken and ducks, and we tested our compounds one by one，” he said. “The smells coming out of public toilets, or trash cans, are made up of more than 160 different compounds，” he explained, adding that their bacteria spray can change and absorb many of them. He boasted that the Chinese formula (配方), which costs only around ￡5 per liter, has no side effects and can be used to remove any bad smell. 文章大意：这是一篇说明文，介绍的是中科院成都生物研究所发明了一种细菌喷洒剂， 能够除去各种异味。 13．The underlined words “ward off” in Paragraph 2 can be replaced by ________. A．keep out C．give out B．take out D．come out
答案：A 词义猜测题。根据画线词前的 find boxes to cover their noses 可知用盒 子把鼻子盖住是为了挡住难闻的气味。 keep out 意为“阻止??进入”， 符合语境。 take out 意为“拿出”，give out 意为“分发；发出”，come out 意为“出版；被揭晓”，均不符 合语境。 14．The underlined phrase “an ‘urgent’ national issue” refers to ________. A．the treatment of sewage B．a horrifying experience C．the bad smell of public toilets D．the 160 smelly compounds 答案：C 词义猜测题。全文的焦点是中国公厕的臭味难闻，现在中科院正针对这个问 题进行研究，显然这个全国性的紧急问题就是厕所的臭味。故选 C 项。 15．Which has not been mentioned as an advantage of the bacteria spray? A．Low price. C．Removing bad smells. B．No side effects. D．Beautiful design.
答案： D 细节理解题。 依据文章最后一段 He boasted that the Chinese formula, which costs only around ￡5 per liter, has no side effects and can be used to remove any bad smell. 可知，这个除味喷剂的优点有：价格低、没有副作用、可去除臭味。文中没有 提到 D 项(设计美观)。故选 D 项。
16．Which can we infer after the spray is used in toilets in China? A．People needn't use flushing toilets. B．A perfume is given off in the air. C．Tourists' complaints will be reduced. D．Bacteria break down smelly compounds. 答案：C 推理判断题。根据第一段内容可知，三分之一的游客投诉是关于公厕的臭味 问题，下文讲到中科院已经研制出一种除味喷剂，可以去除厕所的异味。由此可以推断，这 种喷剂在中国的公厕中喷洒后，游客的投诉应该会减少。