Unit 3 Life in the future Grammar
Past participle (3)
used as Adverbial & Attribute
过去分词是非谓语动词的一种 形式,表示完成和被动的动作。它 在句子中可以充当状语、定语等成 分。
/>过去分词与现在分词作状语 过去分词表完成 、 被动,与主句主语 之间是被动关系;现在分词表进行,主动,与 主句主语之间是主动关系。如果一个被 动的动作发生在谓语动词之前,则可使用 现在分词的完成被动式或过去分词。
可表时间, 原因, 让步, 结果, 方式, 条件
Once published, his works (=Once his works was published, ) became famous for the absence of rhyme at the end of each line.
PP作时间状语,相当于一个时间状语从 句有时过去分词前可加连词when或 while来强调时间概念。
1. When it is heated, ice will be
changed into water.
When heated, ice will be changed
2. When it is seen under a microscope, a fresh snowflake has a delicate sixpointed. Seen under a microscope, a fresh snowflake has a delicate six-pointed shape.
过去分词作原因状语 1. Since/ As she was given advice by the
famous detective, the young lady was
no longer afraid.
Given advice by the famous detective,
the young lady was no longer afraid.
2. Because it was done in a hurry, his
homework was full of mistakes.
Done in a hurry, his homework was
full of mistakes.
1. If they had been given more attention, the cabbages could have grown better. Given more attention, the cabbages could have grown better.
2. If I am compared with you, we still
have a long way to go.
Compared with you, we still have a
long way to go.
1. The hunter left his house, followed by his dog. The hunter left his house, and he was followed by his dog.
2. She sat by the window, lost in thought. She sat by the window, and she was lost in thought. lost 表示一种迷失心理状态
1) 过去分词在句子中可以作时间状语、 原因状语、伴随状语、条件状语和
过去分词作状语: 过去分词有两大特点： 1. 表示被动的动作； 2. 表示已经完成的动作, 因此,当过去分词
作状语的时候一定要搞清楚分词与主语 的逻辑关系－－被动, 例如:
Rewrite with proper conjunctions
1. United we stand, divided we fail. If we are united, we will stand, but if we are divided, we will fail.
2. Asked what had happened, he told us about it. →When he was asked what had happened, he told us about it. 3. Well known for his expert advice, he received many invitations to give lectures. →Because he was well known for his expert advice, he received many invitations to give lectures.
4. Given more time, we would be able to do the work much better. If we were given more time, we would be able to do the work much better. 5. Once translated into Chinese, the book became very popular among Chinese teenagers. Once it was translated into Chinese, the book became very popular among Chinese teenagers.
6. Deeply interested in medicine, she decided to become a doctor. Because she was deeply interested in medicine, she decided to become a doctor. 7. Left alone at home, Sam did not feel afraid at all. Although he was left alone at home，Sam did not feel afraid at all.
1. As I was worried about the journey,
I was unsettled for the first few days.
→ Worried about the journey, I was _______________________
unsettled for the first few days.
2. If he is given time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player. → _________ , he’ll make a first-class Given time tennis player. 3) As I was confused by the new surroundings, I was hit by the lack of fresh air. → ______________________________, I Confused by the new surroundings was hit by the lack of fresh air.
4) When he was questioned by the
police about the fire, he became tense.
→ __________________________ Questioned by the police ______, he became tense. about
Find out the sentences with same meaning. 1. As I was worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days. Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.
2. While I was confused by the new surroundings, I was hit by the lack of fresh air. Confused by the new surrounding, I was hit by the lack of fresh air. 3. As I was exhausted, I slid into bed and fell fast asleep. Exhausted, I slid into bed and fell fast asleep.
1. Following the old man, we went
upstairs.—we followed (跟
2. Followed by the old man, we went
upstairs. (we were)
3. 从上面看,体育场好像一个鸟巢。 ____ from the top, the stadium looks like a bird nest. A. Seeing B. Seen 4. 从太空看, 宇航员看不到长城。 ____ from the space, the astronaut can not discover the Great Wall. A. Seeing B. Seen
Difference between the Present Participle and the Past Participle _____for a long time, the book looks old. Used 由于用了很长时间，这本书看上去很旧. ______ the book, I find it useful. Using 在使用的过程中，我发现这本书很有用. Looking ________ at her, he jumped with joy. _______at by her, he jumped with joy. Looked
注意：选择现在分词还是过去分词， 关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是 主句的主语发出，分词就选用现在分 词，反之就用过去分词。
Complete each sentence using the Past Participle of the right verb.
1) Frightened by noises in the night, the _________ girl no longer dare to sleep in her room. 2) The lady returned home, ________ followed by two policemen.
3) If _______ in a burning building, trapped
you should send for help.
4) Although ____in the leg, he shot
continued firing at the police.
过去分词作定语 过去分词作定语与其所修饰的词之间存 在着逻辑上的被动关系,且表示该动作已经 完成。单个的过去分词作定语,通常置于被 修饰的词的前面,而分词短语作定语,则须置 于被修饰词的后面。
1. Last Sunday we went on an organized trip
to the forest.
2. A letter posted today will reach him the day
分词作定语可以转换成定语从句: ?He worked as a worker building roads. (主动) = ?He worked as a worker who/ that built roads. ?This is a picture painted by my father. (被动) = ?This is a picture which was painted by my father.
?I know the young man sleeping on the bench. (在进行) = ?I know the young man who is sleeping on the bench. ?The letter mailed last night will reach him tomorrow. (已完成) = ?The letter which was mailed last night will reach him tomorrow.
Some of them, born and brought up in
country villages, had never seen a train.
单个的过去分词作定语, 通常放在被 修饰的名词之前, 表示被动和完成意 义。
an honored guest 一位受尊敬的客人 The injured workers (受伤的工人)are now being taken good care of in the hospital.
a retired teacher 一位退休的教师 They are cleaning the fallen leaves (落 叶) in the yard.
过去分词短语作定语时, 通常放在被 修饰的名词之后, 它的作用相当于一个 定语从句。 This will be the best novel of its kind ever written. = that has ever been written Who were the so-called guests invited (= who had been invited ) to your part last night?
如果被修饰的词是由every/some/any/no + thing/body/one所构成的复合代词或指 示代词those等时，即使一个单一的分词 作形容词用，也要放在被修饰词的后面。 例如： Is there anything unsolved? There is noting changed here since I left this town.
1. The Olympic Games, ___ in 776 B. C., didn’t include women until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be playing
简析: 首先,根据语法分析可知,待选部 分是一个作定语、修饰 The Olympic Games的后置分词短语;再根据 The Olympic Games 对于动词 play 来说 只能是被动承受,且已完成 (in 776 B. C.)。因此,该题应选C。
2. What’s the language ___ in Germany? A. speaking be spoken B. spoken D. to speak C.
简析: 该题应选B。测试过去分词作后 置定语表达被动,等于定语从句 which is spoken。
3. Most of the artists ____ to the party were from South Africa. A. invited B. to invite
C. being invited
D. had been invited
4. The computer centre, ___ last year, is very popular among the students in this school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened 简析: 该题应选D。测试过去分词短语作 定语放在所修饰的名词后,可以用非限制 性定语从句“which was opened last year”代替。
5. The first textbooks ____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written 简析: 该题应选D。测试过去分词作后置 定语表达被动,等于定语从句which were written。
立主格结构或 with 复合结构来替代。
例: The murderer was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied 简析: 很显然,待选部分的逻辑主语是 his hands,而不是句子的主语 The murderer, 而 his hands 对于动词 tie来说,只能是被 动承受。因此,该题应选D。
6. When _____ if she would request a rise, the actress said that money was not important. A. asked B. asking C. having asked D. being asked
7. Yesterday I saw in the newspaper a teaching post _____ at a school close to my home and I wanted to apply for it. A. advertises B. advertising C. advertised D. to advertise
Filling in the blanks.
1. I like reading the novels ______ (write ) written by Zhang Ailing. 2. The girl ______ (write) a letter in the writing study is my cousin. 3.There is something wrong with my car and I have to get it _______ (repair).
4. I want the doors of my new house ______ painted(paint) white. 5. There was a ________ (surprise) look on surprised his face. 6. He was ______ (excite) at the good news. excited 7. The story was so ______ (move) that he was ______ (move) to tears.
用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空。 1. _____ (use) in this way, the word Used shouldn’t be taken as a verb. 2. Armed(arm) with special guns, knives _____ and brushes, two space walking astronauts practiced fixing the spacecraft. 3. Though caught(catch) in a traffic jam, _____ we managed to arrive at the airport.
4. Susan is not easy to get along with. But once gained (gain), her friendship will last _____ forever. 5. Henry didn’t attend the party _____ held (hold) at Tom’s house last night, for he was busy preparing for his exam.