高中定语从句汇总讲解学案（Oliver） ◆英语谚语欣赏 1. He who knows nothing but pretends to know everything is indeed a good-for –nothing.不懂装懂，一事无成. 2. It’s the first step that costs.千里之行，始于足下 3. He that makes hims
elf a sheep shall be eaten by the wolf. 甘当小绵羊，迟早要喂狼. Ⅰ. 概念： (1) 定语从句： (2) 先行词： (3) 引导定语从句的词叫关系词，分为关系代词和关系副词。 关系词的作用： 1) 2) 常用的关系代词: 常用的关系副词 定语从句解题三步法： Ⅱ. 几个关系词的基本用法： 组一 ：1. A letter that/which is written in pencil is difficult to read. (主语) 2. Do you know the gentleman that/who spoke just now? 3. You can take anything ( that) you like. （宾语） 4. What is the question (that/which) they are talking about? 5. Here is the man ( who/whom/that ) you want to see. 6. She's no longer the girl ( that) she used to be before.（表语） 7. Our hometown is no longer the one (that) it used to be. 总结： 组二 1. The book which/that was on the desk was bought by my father.（主语） 2. The book (which/that) I bought yesterday is very interesting.（宾语） 3. The factory in which his father works is far from here. 4. He was proud, which his brother never was. （表语） 5. Tom spent four years in college, during which time he learned French.（定语） 6. He may be late, in which case we ought to wait for him. 总结: which: 指物；在定语从句中作主语，宾语，表语，定语。 ： 组三 I like the students who/that work hard. （主语） All who heard the story were amazed. (代词如 he, they, any, those, all, one 等后多用 who.) Chaplin, for whom life had once been very hard, was a success as an actor. （宾语） He's a man from whom we should learn. = He's a man (whom/who/that) we should learn from. A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.（指人） I'd like a room whose window faces south. （指物） =I'd like a room of which the window faces south. =I'd like a room the window of which faces south. There is a teapot shaped like a Chinese duck, out of whose mouth tea is supposed to come ●who, whom, whose: who: whom: whose: 组四 He came last night when I was out. We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather would be better. 总结： 比较: I still remember the day when /on which my brother joined the army.（作状语） I still remember the days which/that we spent together. （作宾语） Next month, when you will be in your hometown, is just around the corner. Next month which/that you'll spend in Harbin, I'm sure, will be exciting.
组五 This is the place where I was born. I live in the room where /in which he used to live. 总结：Where 指地点，在定语从句中作地点状语。其先行词是表示地点的名词，如：place, school, factory, 注意：1. 比较: Is this the school where you study? Is this the school which/that you visited last year? 2. The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point where he can walk correctly and safely. I think you have got to the point where a change is needed, or you would fail. I think you have got to the point which/that is important. Government reports, legal papers and most business letters are the main situations where English is used. He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he's likely to lose control of the plane. He's got himself into a dangerous situation which/that he must pay much attention to. 3. The small mountain village where we spent our holiday last month lies in what /the place which is now part of Hubei. 组六 The reason why / for which he didn't attend the meeting was that he was ill. I don't believe the reason (that/which) he gave me. （作宾语） Have you asked him the reason that/which may explain his success? （作主语） 比较: He was late .That's because he got up late. He got up late. That's why he was late.(表语从句) (the reason) why/for which he was late. (定语从句) 总结： 组七 as 的用法:(as 引导定语从句, 在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语) ①如为限制性的，多用于 the same …as ; the same as；such …as …; as many/much as；so …as 等结构 中。 如： have the same book as you (have). 我有一本和你的一样的书。 ※I Her attitude to him was quite the same as it had always been. (关系代词 as 和指示代词 same 连用, 在从句中用作表语, 先行词是 same.) ※.---Why didn't you mention that in face of the police just now? --- I thought it was such a minor detail as was hardly worth mentioning. We will only discuss such problems as have something to do with our own interests. 比较：I live in the same house that he used to live in. I'm wearing the same shirt as you wore yesterday. 比较：Here is so big a stone as no one can lift. （定语从句） Here is so big a stone that no one can lift it.（结果状语从句） ②如为非限制性的，多单独引导一个定语从句，这种定语从句可置于句首，句中或句尾，译为"正如，这 一点"。 （动词常为 know, see, expect, point out, etc.） ※As we all know, smoking is harmful to one's health . (as 作宾语) =As is known to all, smoking is harmful to one's health . （as 作主语） =It's known to all that smoking is harmful to one's health . =Smoking is harmful to one's health , as we all know .（as 作宾语） =Smoking, as we all know, is harmful to one' health. ※He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent. (宾语, 先行词是前面整个句子) 组八 当先行词为 way 时，定语从句常用 that, in which,或 how 引导，that 常可以省略。way 后的定语从句 的引 导词不用时较多。但如果关系词在句中作主语或宾语时，则用 which 或 that 引导。如: 比较: Please do the experiment in the way（that/which）I have shown you This is the way (that) /in which I do such things. 几个易混淆的关系代词的比较: ●that & which: 在定语从句中，which 和 that 在指代事物时，一般可以互换使用，但并非在任何情况下都是这样，这里介 绍宜用 that, 而不宜用 which 的情况. ①先行词为不定代词,all,much,something,everything,anything,nothing,none,the one 等, 1.We should do all that is useful to the people . 2.There's nothing that can be said about it . ②先行词被 only, any, few, little, no, just, very, one of 等词修饰时。
1.The only thing that we could do was to wait. 2.That's the very word that is wrongly used. 比较 *This is one of the best novels that were published last year. *This is the only one of the best novels that was published last year. ③先行词是序数词时或被序数词修饰时。 1.When we talk about Wuxi, the first that comes into mind is Tai Lake. 2.This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term. ④先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时。 1.This is the best that can be done now. 2.The most important thing that should be done right now is how to stop him from going on. ⑤先行词既有人又有物，用 which 和 who 都不适合，这时宜用 that. 如： 1.The writer and his novel that you have just talked about is really well known . 2.The rider and his bike that had run over an old woman were held up by the police. ⑥被修饰词为数词时. 1.Yesterday I caught two fish and put them in a basin of water .Now you can see the two that are still alive . ⑦如果有两个从句，其中一个关系代词已用 which ,另一个关系代词宜用 that，以避免语言的单调或重复。 Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before. ⑧疑问词是 who 或 which，关系代词宜用 that，以避免重复。 1. Which is the book that you like best? 2. Who is the man that is standing at the gate? ⑨主句是 There be 结构，修饰其主句的定语从句宜用 that 作关系代词. 如： 1. There is still a seat in the corner that is still free. ⑩被修饰成分为表语时，或者关系代词本身是定语从句的表语时,该关系代词宜用 that . 1. That's a good book that will help you a lot. 2. My home village is no longer the place ( that ) it used to be . 定语从句中宜用 which 而不宜用 that 的情况:（了解） ①当关系代词的前面有介词时. 1.A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition. ②在非限制性定语从句中. 1.Crusoe's dog, which was are now very old, became ill and died . ③在一个句子中有两个定语从句，其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了 that, 另一个宜用 which . 1. Let me show you the novel，that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us. (B) who & that: who 和 that 指代人时，有些情况宜用 who, 而不宜用 that ①先行词为 anyone, anybody, those, all, one, ones, they, he, people 时. 如： 1.The person I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works well. 2.Anyone who (=Whoever) failed to come to the meeting yesterday must give his reason . ②在 There be 结构中，修饰主语的定语从句宜用关系代词 who 指代人. 如： 1.There is a gentleman who wants to see you . 2.There are several students in our class who are still not sure about the use of attributive clauses. ③当先行词有较长的后置定语时. 如： 1. I met a foreigner in the park yesterday afternoon who could speak Chinese very well. ④一个句子中带有两个定语从句， 其中一个定语从句的关系代词是 that ,另一个则宜用 who, 以免重复. 如： 1. The student that was praised at yesterday's meeting is the monitor who is very modest and works very hard . ●as & which: as & which 引导非限制性定语从句的区别： ①位置的不同：which 引导的定语从句只置于所限制的 句子后；as 位置较灵活，也就是说 as 可置于所限 制的句子前面；插在句子中或放在句子后。如： 1. He was late again, which made his teacher very angry. 2. Jack, as you know, is an honest man. 或 Jack is an honest man , as you know. 或 As you know, Jack is an honest man. ②先行词的不同：as 引导非限制性定语从句时，其先行词多为一个句子；which 引导非限制性定语从句时， 其先行词可以是一个词，一个短语或一个句子。 ※He was proud, which his brother never was. （先行词是一个词） She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was. He was proud, which I dislike very much.（先行词是一个句子） ※He is an honest man, as is known to all.
He was a foreigner, as I know from his accent. ③as 一般译为"正如""就像"，"这一点" as we all know；as you know; as is known to all; as you see; as we can see; as has been expected; as we have imagined. 关系代词作介词宾语:（了解） 关系代词在定语从句中用作介词宾语时, 介词可放于从句之首, 也可放于从句之末. 但以放于句首较为正 式.（介词前置，必须注意不影响动词词组的含义。关系代词 who 和 that 用作介词宾语时, 介词必须放在 句末.） This is the book for which you asked. =This is the book (that/which) you asked for. Do you know the person with whom I shook hands？= Do you know the person (whom/who/that) I shook hands with? Ⅳ. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别： （了解） 1. 形式上，非限制性定语从句往往用逗号隔开。 2. 语法上，非限制性定语从句一般不用 that. 3. 语义上，限制性定语从句与先行词关系紧密，起限定作用，如果去掉了这个定语从句，整个句子就不完 整或者会改变意思；而非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不是很紧密，对先行词起补充说明或描述的作用。 This is the book I like best. 这就是我最喜欢的那本书。 Beijing, which has been China's capital for more than 800 years , is rich in cultural and historic relics. 北京是中 国八百年之久的古都，它有着丰富的文化和历史遗产。 4. 翻译时，限制性定语从句可译为一句（较短的一般译为"的"字结构） ；而非限制性定语从句可译为两句。 比较: He has a sister, who is a musician. He has a sister who is a musician. 训练题汇总 六年高考题荟萃 2010 年高考题 1. （10 福建 24） Stephen Hawking believes that earth is unlikely to be the only planet life has developed gradually. A. that B. where C. which D. whose 2. （10 湖南 28） I've become good friends with several of the students in my school I met in the English speech contest last year. A. who B. where C. when D. which 3.（10 江西 31） The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre with her sister ______ she would stay for an hour. A where B who C which D what 4. （10 山东 24） That’s the new machine ______ parts are too small to be seen. A. that B. which C. whose D. What 5. （10 山东 38） Wind power is an ancient source of energy we may return in the near future. A. on which B. by which C. to which D. from which 6.（10 天津 8） Can you believe I had to pay 30 dollars for a haircut? You should try the barber’s I go. It’s only 15. A. as B. which C. where D. that 7． （10 四川 10）After graduating from college，I took some time off to go travelling， turned out to be a wise decision． A．that B．which C．when D．where 8. （10 全国Ⅰ24） As a child , Jack studied in a village school ,_____ is named after his grandfather. A. which B. where C. what D. that 9. （10 江苏 32） The newly built café the walls of_______ are painted light green, is really a peaceful place for , us, specially after hard work. A. that B. it C. what D. which 10. （??陕西 11）The old temple _______ roof was damaged in storm is now under repair. A. where B. which C. its D. Whose 11. （10 全国Ⅱ16） I refuse to accept the blame for something ________was someone else’s fault. A. who B. that C. as D. what 14. （北京 27） Children who are not active or diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly. A. what B. whose C. which D. that 15.（重庆 28）In china, the number of cities is increasing ________development is recognized across the world. A. where B. which C. whose D. that
16． （10 浙江 3）The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people, many of left their village homes for a better life in the city. A．whom B．which C．them D．those 2009 年高考题 1.(09 山东 24)Whenever I met her, _________ was fairly often, she greeted me with a sweet smile. A. who B. which C. when D. that 2.(09 宁夏海南 28)She brought with her three friends, none of I had ever met before. A. them B. who C. whom D. these 3.(09 江苏 23)Because of the financial crisis, days are gone _ local 5-star hotels charged 6,000 yuan for one night. A. if B. when C. which D. since 4.(09 天津 5)A person ___ e-mail account is full won’t be able to send or receive any e-mails. A. who B. whom C. whose D. whoever 5.(09 陕西 11) Gun control is a subject Americans have argued for a long time. A. of which B. with which C. about which D. into which 6.(09 上海 34)Mozart’s birthplace and the house ______ he composed ‘The Magic Flute’ are both museums now A. where B. when C. there D. which 7.(09 江西 26)The house I grew up ________ has been taken down and replaced by an office building. A. in it B. in C. in that D. in which 8.(09 四川 20)She’ll never forget her stay there _ _ she found her son who had gone missing two years before. A. that B. which C. where D. when 9.(09 辽宁 23)They’ve won their last three matches. ________I find a bit surprising A. that B. whenC. what D. which 10.(09 福建 24)It’s helpful to put children in a situation they can see themselves differently. A. that B. when C. which D. where 11.(09 浙江 14)I have reached a point in my life ______ I am supposed to make decisions of my own. A. which B. where C. how D. why 12.(09 重庆 34)Life is like a long race _____we compete with others to go beyond ourselves. A. why B. what C. that D. where 13.(09 湖南 26)I was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, a city name will create a picture of beautiful trees and green grass in our mind. A. which B. of which C. that D. whose 14.(09 全国Ⅱ17)My friend showed me round the town, was very kind of him. A. which B. that C. where D. it 15.(09 北京 26)—What do you think of teacher ,Bob？ —I find it fun and challenging. It is a job ___ you are doing something serious but interesting . A. where B. which C. when D. that 2008 年高考题 1.(08 北京 28)I’ll give you my friend’s home address， I can be reached most evenings.? A.which B.when C.whom D.where 2.(08 安徽 26)All the neighbors admire this family， the parents are treating their child like a friend.? A.why B.where C.which D.that 3.(08 江西 35)Later in this chapter cases will be introduced to readers consumer complaints have resulted in changes in the law. A.where B.when C.who D.which 4.(08 湖南 31)The growing s peed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors， are beyond our control. A.most of them B.most of which ? C.most of what D.most of that 5.(08 陕西 13)The man pulled out a gold watch， were made of small diamonds.? A.the hands of whom B.whom the hands of ? C.which the hands of D.the hands of which 6.(08 四川 4)For many cities in the world，there is no room to spread out further， New York is an example. A.for which B.in which C.of which D.from which 7.(08 重庆 21)They will fly to Washington， they plan to stay for two or three days. A.where B.there C.which D.when 8.(08 浙江 8)Yesterday she sold her car， ______ she bought a month ago. A. when B. where C. that D. which 9.(08 福建 31) By nine o’clock，all the Olympic torch bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma， appeared a rare rainbow soon. A.of which B.on which C.from which D.above which 10.(08 江苏 24)The Science Museum， we visited during a recent trip to Britain，is one of London’s tourist attractions. A.which B.what C.that D.where
11.(08 山东 26)Occasions are quite rare I have the time to spend a day with my kids. A.who B.which C.why D.when 2005-07 年高考题 1.(07 全国Ⅰ22)Some pre-school children go to a day care center， they learn simple games and songs. A.then B.there ? C.while D.where 2.(07 北京 23)We shouldn’t spend our money testing so many people ， most of are healthy.? A.that B.which C.what D.whom 3.(07 上海 37)His movie won several awards at the film festival was beyond his wildest dream.? A.which B.that C.where D.it 4.(07 天津 11)Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity sight matters more than hearing. ? A.when B.whose C.which D.where 5.(07 安徽 34)Last week， only two people came to look at the house， wanted to buy it.? A.none of them B.both of them ? C.none of whom D.neither of whom 6.(07 江西 32)After graduation she reached a point in her career she needed to decide what to do.? A.that B.what C.which D.where 7.(07 湖南 32)By serving others，a person focuses on someone other than himself or herself， can be very eye-opening and rewarding.? A.who B.which C.what D.that 8.(07 陕西 20)Today，we’ll discuss a number of cases beginners of English fail to use the language properly.? A.which B.as C.why D.where 9.(07 四川 27)It is reported that two schools， are being built in my hometown，will open next year. ? A.they both B.which both ? C.both of them D.both of which 答案 D 10.(07 北京 23) Women drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those don’t.? A.who;/ B./;who C.who;who D./;/ 11.(06 天津 12) The Beatles， many of you are old enough to remember，came from Liverpool.? A.what B.that C.how D.as 12.(06 天津 14) There is much chance Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race.? A.that B.which C.until D.if 13.(06 辽宁 25) I was told that there were about 50 foreign students Chinese in the school，most were from Germany.? A.study;of whom B.study;of them ? C.studying;of them D.studying;of whom 14.(06 浙江 13) I was given three books on cooking，the first I really enjoyed.? A.of that B.of which C.that D.which 15.(06 福建 22) Look out!Don’t get too close to the house roof is under repair.? A.whose B.which ? C.of which D.that