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一、一般现在时 1.一般现在时表示经常发生、习惯性动作、客观真理、科学事实、格言,目前的特征、状态、能力等。 2.主句是一般将来时,时间、条件状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来。 If it rains tomorrow, I will not go there. 3.在以 here,there 开头的句子里,go,come 等少数动词的一般在时表示正在发生的动作。 There go

es the bell.铃响了。There comes the bus.汽车来了。Here she comes.她来了。 二、现在进行时 1.表示正在进行的动作。 2.表示按计划安排即将发生的动作。 She is leaving for Beijing.她要去北京。 He is working as a teacher tomorrow.从明天起他要做老师。 My father is coming to see me this Saturday.这个星期六我爸爸要来看我。 3.代替一般现在时,描绘更加生动。 The Changjiang River is flowing into the east.江水滚滚向东流。 The sun is rising in the east.太阳从东方冉冉升起。 4.大多数动词可用于进行时,但也有些动词不用于进行时。 常见的有:exist, live, understand, mean, owe, belong to, know, doubt, suppose, remember, forget, believe, trust, want, wish, refuse, like, hate, dislike, prefer, mind, hope 等。 三、现在完成时 1.表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果,或说话时已完成的动作。 I have finished the report./ She has cleand the room. 2.表示从过去开始,待续到现在的动作或状态,往往和“for…”, “since…”表述的一段时间状语连用。 He has learned English for six years./ They have worked here since they left college. 3.现在完成时与一般过去时的区别: 1)用两种时态来表述发生在过去的某一动作,现在完成时强调这一过去动作对现在产生的影响或结果,而 一般过去时只表达过去的动作或状态,和现在关系不大。 She was very clean. She is very clean and she has cleaned the room. 2)汉语中的“了”、“过”、“曾”等词常用完成表达, I have seen that film.我看过那部电影了 但是如果是在特定的过去时间“看了”、“做过”,就不可用完成时而必须用一般过去进来表达。 When did you see that film? I saw it yesterday.(你什么时候看了那部电影?我昨天看的。) 不能说:When have you seen that film?I have seen it yesterday. 4.表示“曾经到过某地(人已回来)”用“have/has been to”, 表示“到某地去了(还未回来)”用“have/has gone to”. ——Where is Li Hua? -He has gone to the reading-room. ——She knows a lot about Shanghai.-She has been there. 5.瞬间动词 join,lose,buy,borrow,leave,go,come,arrive,die,marry,finish,complete,begin,start,break out 在完成时态中,其肯定式不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。 (×)He has finished the work for three hours 他已完成工作三小时了。 1)“ago 法”:He finished the work three hours ago. 2)“延续法”:He has been through(with)the work for three hours. 3)“since 法”:It is/has been three hours since he finished the work.


四、现在完成进行时 1. 用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在(或今后还要继续一去)的动作。 He has been doing the maths problems since 8:00. It has been raining for two days. 五、一般过去时 表达特定的过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状况, 或过去某一时间内经常发生或反复发生的动作或行为。 六、过去进行时 1. 表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作(这一过去时间须用时间状语表示) 。 He was preparing his lecture all day yesterday. 2. 表示动作在另一过去动作发生时进行。 They were still working when I left. 3. 用在两个过去进行时动作同时发生。 I was writing while he was watching TV. 4. 表示过去将来动作。 He said she was arriving the next day. 七、过去完成时 1. 表示在过去某一时间以前已经完成的动作。 He had shut the door before the dog came up./ Everything had been all right up till this morning. 2. 表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到另一个过去时刻才完成,甚至还要继续下去。 At the age of ten,he had learned 500 English words.He had been ill for a week when we learned about it. 3. 常用 hope,expect,think,intend,want,suppose 等动词的过去完成时来表示未实现的希望、打算或意图。 We had expected that you would be able to win the match. 八、一般将来时 一般将来时表示将来要发生的动作和存在的状况。有下列一些形式: 1. will/shall do (侧重将来行为,不突出计划安排去做某事) 2. be going to do (主观上打算或客观上可能发生) 3. be doing (按计划将要发生,常和表示最近的将来时间连用) 4. be about to do (按计划即将发生) 九、将来完成时 用来表示在将来某个时刻(前)将完成的动作。常和 by 短语,when,before 引起的时间状语连用。例如: We will have finished senior Book 2 by the end of this term.


主动和被动 一、注意短语动词和含有情态动词的被动语态 That old man was often laughed at. 那位老人常受人嘲笑。 The doctor has been sent for. 已经派人请大夫去了。 Time must be made good use of. 时间一定要充分利用。 The plan will be given up. 那计划就要被放弃了。 Bad habits have been done away with. 坏习惯已经改掉了。 He must be prevented from going. 必须阻止他去。 二、get + 过去分词可以表示被动,此结构比较口语化 She got married last week. 她上周结婚了。 The patient got treated once a week. 那位病菌人一周得到一次治疗。 He fell off the car and got killed. 他从车上摔下来,摔死了。 三、主动形式表被动意义 1 系动词 look, sound, feel, smell, taste, appear, seem, go, prove, turn, stay, become, fall, get, grow, keep + 形容词/名词构成系表结构。 The steel feels cold. His plan proved (to be) practical. It has gone bad. 2 表示开始、结束、运动的动词 begin, finish, start, open, close, stop, end, shut, run, move 等。 Work began at 7 o’clock this morning. The shop closes at 6 p.m. every day. 3 表示主语的某种属性特征的动词 read, write, act, iron, cut draw, drive, sell, wash, clean, wear, open, cook, lock, shut, dry, eat, drink 这类动词一般不单独使用,常用一个修饰语。 This coat dries easily. 这种外衣容易干。 Nylon cleans easily. 尼龙容易洗干净。 The door won’t lock. 这门锁不上。 Food can keep fresh in a fridge. 食物在冰箱里能保鲜。 Your speech reads well. 你的演说讲得好。 This material has worn thin. 这个材料已经磨薄了。 His book does not sell. 他的书没有销路。 Your pen writes smoothly. 你的笔好写。 This lock won’t catch. 这锁锁不上。 The match won’t catch. 火柴擦不着。 The plan worked out wonderfully. 这计划制定得很好。 The recorder won’t play. 这录音机不转。 The engine won’t start. 引擎发动不起来。 This knife cuts well. 这把刀子很快。 The cloth washes well. 这布很耐洗。 4 少数动词用于进行时,其主动形式表示被动含义 print, cook, fry, hang, build, make。 The books are printing. 这本书正在排印中。 The neat is cooking. 肉在煮。 5.介词 in, on, under 等+名词构成介词短语表被动意义 表示方位的介词与含动作意义的名词合用,其意义相当于该名词相应的被动形式,名词前不用冠词。 under control (受控制) under treatment (在治疗中) under repair (在修理中) under discussion (在讨论中) under construction (在施工中) beyond belief (令人难以置信) for sale (出售) in print (在印刷中) in sight (在视野范围内) on sale (出售) on show (展出) on trial (受审) out of control (控制不了) out of sight (超出视线之外) out of one’s reach (够不着) The building is under construction (is being constructed). The rumor is beyond belief ( = can’t be believed ). His honest character is above all praise. ( = His honest character cannot be praised enough.) That house is for sale. ( = That house is to be sold.) The book is not yet in print ( = is not yet printed ). Today some treasures are on show in the museum ( = are being showed). The plane was out of control (can’t be controlled). He took two days off within the teacher’s permission. 6. 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语: fit, have, wish, cost, agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to This key just fits the lock. Your story agrees with what had already been heard.



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