一、 独立主格结构的含义和实质 “独立主格结构” （absolute construction）又叫“独立结构” ，是带有自己主语的非谓语 动词分句和无动词分句。由于在语法上有自己的逻辑主语，结构上与主句不发生关系，因此 传统语法叫做“独立主格结构” 。其实，所谓“独立主格结构”并非真正独立，它还是一种 从属分
句，与主句紧密联系在一起，共同表达一个完整的意思，通常在句中起状语分句的作 用。独立主格结构可放于句首、句尾，用逗号和主句隔开。 二、 独立主格结构的基本形式和功能 独立主格结构可以分为两部分：一部分是名词或代词，起逻辑主语的作用；另一部分是 非谓语动词分句（现在分词、过去分词、不定式）或无动词分句（名词、形容词、副词、介 词短语） ，表示前面名词或代词的动作或状态。 基本形式是：名词普通格/代词主格+现在分词/过去分词/不定式/名词/形容词/副词/介词 短语，with 引导的复合结构。 1． 名词/代词+ 现在分词 现在分词表示前面的名词或代词主动进行的动作或状态等。 例 The man lay there, his hands trembling. So many students being absent, the meeting had to be put off. His homework having been done, Tom went to sleep. 注： “独立结构”中的 being 或 having been 有时可以省去，这样就成了无动词分句或 过去分词分句。 2． 名词/代词+过去分词 过去分词表示前面的名词或代词被动完成的动作或所处的一种状态。 例 The boy lay on his back, his hands crossed under his head. The job not finished, we couldn’t see the film. Her shirt caught on a nail, she could not move. 后面两个句子也可以看成省略掉了 having been，being。如果加上，这两个句子就又变 成了现在分词分句。 3． 名词/代词+不定式 不定式表示的是将来的动作。 例 He suggested going for a picnic, Mary to provide the food. These are the first two books， the third one to come out next month. We shall get together at 7:30, the procession（游行） to start moving at 8 sharp. 4. 名词/代词+名词 名词一般做前面名词或代词的同位语。 例 Many people joined in the work, some of them women and children. He fought the tiger，a stick his only weapon. 5． 名词/代词+形容词短语 形容词（短语）说明前面名词或代词的性质，状态，原因等。 例 The floor wet and slippery, we had to stay outside for a while. I heard that she got injured in the accident， my heart full of sorry. 这两个句子也可以看成是省略了 being,如果加上，就变成了现在分词分句。 6． 名词/代词+副词 副词说明前面名词或代词的状态。
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例 The meeting over, we all went home. Nobody in, he left a message on the board. He sat at the table, head down. 7. 名词/代词+介词短语 介词短语说明伴随前面名词或代词的方式或者状态。 例 The teacher came in, a book under his arm. The hunter entered the forest， gun in hand． Nobody at home, the thief took a lot of things away. 8． with 引导的复合结构, 也可以认为是一种独立主格结构 例 A woman got on the bus with a baby around her arms. The teacher came in with several students following behind. With a lot of things to deal with, he will have a difficult time. With the work done, he went out to eat. He left the office with the lights on. Mary rushed out of the house with the door open. 三、 学习独立主格结构应注意的一些问题 1． 独立主格结构中分句和主句的主语不一致 从以上例子我们可以看出，含有独立主格结构的句子，前后主语是不一致的，这也是 独立主格结构和非谓语分句作状语的最重要区别。 例 (1) Hearing the news, he was very excited. (2) Winter coming, it gets colder and colder. 在这两个句子里，第一个句子，前后的主语是一致的，都是 he, 也就是说动词 hear 的 动作发出者是主语 he , 因此它是一个现在分词短语作状语表示原因的句子；而第二个句子， 我们可以发现，有两个主语，第一个是动词 come 的逻辑主语 winter, 而第二个主语是句子 真正的主语 it，非谓语动词 coming 和 it 之间没有任何关系，因此它是一个独立主格结构。 2． 在独立主格结构中，动词是用现在分词还是过去分词 一般来说如果逻辑主语和动词之间是主谓关系，用现在分词。如：Time permitting, we will go out to play.一句中，time 和 permit 之间是逻辑上的主谓关系－－－ “时间允许” ， 因此用现在分词。 如果逻辑主语和动词之间是动宾关系，并且有被动的意思，用过去 分词。如： “More time given,we should have done it better. ”一句中，time 和 give 之间的关 系是动宾关系，有被动的意思---“如果被给更多时间” ，因此用过去分词。 3． 独立主格结构相当于一个状语从句 独立主格结构不是一个句子，而是相当于一个状语从句,可以表示时间、原因、条件、 方式和伴随情况等。 例 Work done, John went home.相当于一个表示时间的状语从句：When the work has been done, John went home. 例 There being no buses, we had to walk home.相当于一个表示原因的状语从句：Because there are no buses, we had to walk home. 4． 完成时态的运用 在独立主格结构中如果强调分词的时间发生在主句动作时间之前， 常用现在分词的完成 时态 having done， 根据情况确定是用主动还是被动。 例 The last bus having gone, we had to walk home. His wallet having been stolen, he didn’t know what to do next.
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非谓语动词作状语时， 它的逻辑主语应该是句子的主语。 但有时非谓语动词带有自己的主语， 从而在结构上与主语不发生关系，我们称之为独立主格结构（Absolute Construction） 。其实， 所谓“独立主格结构”也并非真正独立，它还是一种从属的结构。 一、 非谓语动词独立主格结构
在独立主格结构中，非谓语动词和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。 Such an able man to help you，you will surely succeed sooner or later. 有这么能干的人来帮你, 你迟早一定会成功的。 （such an able man 和 to help you 之间存在 着主谓关系） = Since such an able man will help you, you will surely succeed sooner or later. He seating himself at the desk, his mother began to tell him a story. 他在书桌旁坐好后，他母亲开始给他讲故事。 （seating himself at the desk 拥有了自己的逻 辑主语 he，注意是“主格” ） = When he seated himself at the desk, his mother began to tell him a story. The key to the bike lost, he had to walk to school. 由于丢了自行车钥匙，他只好步行去学校。 （lost 的逻辑主语是 the key，lost 也可以用完 成式 having been lost） = Because the key to the bike had been lost, he had to walk to school. A． 不定式“独立主格结构”
在“逻辑主语+动词不定式”结构中，动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的 主谓关系。这种结构也可用一个从句或并列分句来表达。 1．动词不定式用主动的形式 在独立主格结构中，动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。 His mother to come tonight，he is busy preparing the dinner. 他母亲今晚要来,他正在忙着准备饭菜。 （= As his mother is to come tonight, he is busy preparing the dinner.） ——will you go to the comcert tonight 你今晚去听音乐会吗？ ——sorry.So many exerise-books to check,I rially can't afford any time. 对不起，有这多的作业要批，我真的抽不出时间。 （＝Because I shall check so many exercise-books tonight,I really can't afford any time.） The four of us agreed on a division of labour,each to translate a quarter of the book. 我们四人同意分工干，每人翻译全书的四分之一。 （＝The four of us agreed on a division of labour and each is to translate a quarter of the book.） Many trees,flowers,and grass to be planted,our newly-built school will look even more beautiful. 种上许多的树， 花和草后， 我们新建的学校将看上去更美。 (=If many trees,flowers,and grass are planted,our newly-built school will look even more beautiful.) B．-ing 形式“独立主格结构”
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动词的-ing 形式作状语时，其逻辑主语一般应与句子的主语保持一致。 Being ill, he went home. 由于生病,他回家了。 （= As he was very ill, he went home.） Seating himself at the desk, he began to read a magazine. 在课桌旁坐好后，他开始看杂志。 （= When he had seated himself at the desk, he began to read a magazine.） 1． 表示时间的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” Everyone being ready, the teacher began his class. 每个人都准备好后，老师开始上课。 （相当于一个时间状语从句 When everyone was ready) The chairman began the meeting , everyone being seated. 每个人坐好后，主席开始开会。 （相当于一个时间状语从句 after everyone was seated） 2． 表示原因的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” The boy leading the way, we had no trouble finding the strange cave. 由那个男孩带路，我们 没有困难就找到了那奇怪的洞。 （相当于一个原因状语从句 Because the boy led the way） Many eyes watching him, he felt a bit nervous. 许多眼睛看着他，他感到有点儿紧张。 （相当 于一个原因状语从句 As many eyes were watching him） 必背： 含有 being 的独立主格结构。 It being National Day today，the streets are very crowded. 今天是国庆节,街上很拥挤。 = As it is National Day today, the streets are very crowded. There being no further business to discuss, we all went home. 没有别的事可讨论，我们都回 家了。 = As there was no further business to discuss, we all went home. 3． 表示条件的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” Time permitting, we will have a picnic next week. 时间允许的话，我们下星期将进行一次野炊。 （相当于一个条件状语从句 If time permits) My health allowing, I will work far into the night. 我的健康许可的话，我愿工作到深夜。 （相当于一个条件状语从句 If my health allows） 4． 表示方式的-ing 形式作“独立主格结构” The students are walking in the school happily, each wearing a card in front of his chest. 学生们快乐地在学校里走着，每个人胸前都带着一张卡。 （相当于一个并列分句 and each wears a card in front of his chest） The boy lay on the grass, his eyes looking at the sky. 男孩躺在草地上，眼睛看着天空。 （相当于一个并列分句 and his eyes were looking at the sky） C．-ed 形式“独立主格结构” 与逻辑主语+动词的-ing 形式一样，如果-ed 形式的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致的话，就 需要用-ed 形式的独立主格结构。 The book written in simple English, English beginners were able to read it. 该书是用简单英语写的，英语初学者也能看懂。 = As the book was written in simple English，English beginners were able to read it.
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The workers worked still harder, their living conditions greatly improved. 由于工人们的生活条件大大提高，他们工作得更起劲了。 = As their living conditions were greatly improved, the workers worked still harder. He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. 他上课专心听讲，眼睛紧盯着黑板。 = He was listening attentively in class, and his eyes were fixed on the blackboard. The task completed,he had two months' leave. 任务完成以后， 他休了两个月的假。 （=When the task had been completed,he had two months' leave.） 比较： 动词不定式表示动作没有发生或即将发生，动词-ed 形式表示动作已经结束，动词-ing 形 式往往表示动作正在进行。 The manager looks worried， many things to settle. 经理看上去很着急, 有这么多的事情要处 理。 （事情还没有处理，而且是由经理本人来处理，用不定式 to settle） The manager looks relaxed, many things settled. 许多事情已经处理好了， 经理看上去很轻 松。 （事情已经处理好了，用动词-ed 形式 settled 表示动作已经结束） The food being cooked, the boy was watching TV. 小孩一边做饭，一边看电视。 （两个动作 同时进行） The food cooked, the boy went to bed. 饭做好了，小孩去睡了。 （两个动作有先后，饭已 做好，小孩才去睡觉的）一、 动词独立主格结构 “逻辑主语+being+其他”是独立主格结构中的“逻辑主语+动词-ing 形式”的一种形式。 在这种结构中，being 往往可以被省去，这种省去 being 的结构，称之为无动词“独立主格 结构” 。 A．逻辑主语+名词 Ten students entered for the competition, the youngest a boy of 12. 十个学生报名参加了这次竞赛， 年纪最小的是个 12 岁的男孩。 （the youngest 和 a boy of 12 之间省去了 being） 注意： 独立主格结构中的 being 在下列两种情况下一般不能省略，一是在“There being + 名词” 结构中，二是在逻辑主语是代词的情况下。 There being no bus, we had to walk home. 由于没有公共汽车，我们只好走回家。 It being Sunday, all the offices are closed. 因为是星期日，所有办公室都关门。 B．逻辑主语+形容词 He turned to me, his eyes sleepy. 他睡眼惺忪地转向 = He turned to me, and his eyes were sleepy. He stood there, his mouth wide open. 他站在那里，嘴张得大大的。 （his mouth 和 wide open 之间省去了 being） = He stood there, and his mouth was wide open. C．逻辑主语+副词 School over, we all went home.
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放学了，我们都回家了。 （school 和 over 之间省去了 being） = School was over, and we all went home. He sat at his desk, his shoes off. 他坐在课桌旁，没穿鞋子。 （his shoes 和 off 之间省去了 being） = He sat at his desk and his shoes were off. D．逻辑主语+介词短语 He is standing in front of the blackboard, his back towards us. 他站在黑板面前，背对着我们。 = He was standing in front of the blackboard, and his back was towards us. The new teacher came in, a smile on her face. 新老师面带微笑走了进来。 = The new teacher came in and she had a smile on her face. The teacher came into the classroom，a rule in his hand. 老师走进教室，手里拿着一把直尺。 = The teacher came in and a ruler was in his hand. 提示： 在“逻辑主语+介词短语”构成的独立主格结构里，如果名词用单数，可以不用冠词，同 时介词短语里的限定词也可省略。 The music teacher stood at the door, violin in hand. 音乐老师站在门口,手里拿着一把小提琴。 （= The music teacher stood at the door, a violin in his hand.） 二、 withwithout 引导的独立主格结构
介词 withwithout +宾语+宾语的补足语可以构成独立主格结构，上面讨论过的独立主格结 构的几种情况在此结构中都能体现。 A． with+名词代词+形容词 He doesn 誸 like to sleep with the windows open. 他不喜欢开着窗子睡觉。 = He doesn 誸 like to sleep when the windows are open. He stood in the rain, with his clothes wet. 他站在雨中，衣服湿透了。 = He stood in the rain, and his clothes were wet. 注意： 在“with+名词代词+形容词”构成的独立主格结构中，也可用已形容词化的-ing 形式或-ed 形式。 With his son so disappointing，the old man felt unhappy. 由于儿子如此令人失望,老人感到很不快乐。 With his father well-known, the boy didn 誸 want to study. 父亲如此出名，儿子不想读书。 B． with+名词代词+副词 Our school looks even more beautiful with all the lights on. 所有的灯都打开时，我们的学校看上去更美。 = Our school looks even more beautiful ifwhen all the lights are on.
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The boy was walking, with his father ahead. 父亲在前，小孩在后走着。 = The boy was walking and his father was ahead. C． with+名词代词+介词短语 He stood at the door, with a computer in his hand. 或 He stood at the door, computer in hand. 他站在门口，手里拿着一部电脑。 = He stood at the door, and a computer was in his hand. Vincent sat at the desk, with a pen in his mouth. 或 Vincent sat at the desk, pen in mouth. 文森特坐在课桌前，嘴里衔着一支笔。 = Vincent sat at the desk, and he had a pen in his mouth. D． with+名词代词+动词的-ed 形式 With his homework done, Peter went out to play. 作业做好了，彼得出去玩了。 = When his homework was done, Peter went out to play. With the signal given, the train started. 信号发出了，火车开始起动了。 = After the signal was given, the train started. I wouldn 誸 dare go home without the job finished. 工作还没完成，我不敢回家。 = I wouldn 誸 dare go home because the job was not finished. E． with+名词代词+动词的-ing 形式 The man felt very happy with so many children sitting around him. 有这么多的孩子坐在他周围，那男子感到很高兴。 = The man felt very happy when he found so many children sitting around him. The girl hid her box without anyone knowing where it was. 小女孩把盒子藏了起来，没有人知道它在哪里。 = The girl hid her box and no one knew where it was. Without anyone noticing, he slipped through the window. 他趁没人注意的时候，从窗口溜走 了。 = When no one was noticing, he slipped through the window. F． with+名词代词+动词不定式 The little boy looks sad, with so much homework to do. 有这么多的家庭作业要做，小男孩看上去很不开心。 = The little boy looks sad because he has so much homework to do. The kid feels excited with so many places of interest to visit. 有这么多的名胜可参观，小孩很激动。 The kid feels excited as there are so many places of interest to visit. 提示： 在 withwithout 的复合结构中，多数情况下 with 能省略，但 without 不能省略。 Without a word more spoken, she left the meeting room. 她没再说什么话就离开了会议室。 （without 不能省略）四 、 独立主格结构的句法功能
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独立主格结构在句中除了能充当原因状语、时间状语、条件状语和伴随状语外，还能作定 语。在形式上， “独立主格结构”可位于句首、句中或句尾，并通常用逗号与主句隔开。 A．作状语 独立主格结构作状语，其功能相当于一个状语从句或并列分句。 1．表示时间 Night coming on, we put ourselves up in a small hotel. 夜幕降临，我们在一家小旅馆住了下 来。 （= When night came on, we put ourselves up in a small hotel.） All the guests seated, they began their dinner. 所有的客人就坐后，他们才开始吃饭。 （= When all the guests were seated, they began their dinner.） With everything she needed bought, Grace took a taxi home. 所需要的都买好后，格雷斯打的回家了。 （After everything she needed was bought, Grace took a taxi home.） 2．表示原因 With a lot of difficult problems to settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. 有许多难题要解决，新当选的总统日子不好过。 （= As he has a lot of difficult problems to settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard time.） There being no means of transportation, he had to walk home at midnight. 由于在半夜没有交通工具了， 他只好步行回家。 (= As there was no means of transportation, he had to walk home at midnight.) 3．表示条件 Weather permitting, we will hold our yearly sports meeting next week. 如果天气允许的话，我们下星期将举行每年一次的运动会。 （= If weather permits，we will hold our yearly sports meeting next week.） All the work done, you can have a rest. 所有工作做好后，你可以休息。 （=As long as all the work is done, you can have a rest.） Everything 提示： 表示时间、原因、条件的独立主格结构一般放在句首，并且不能保留连词。 【误】When class being over, the students left their classroom. 【正】Class (being) over, the students left their classroom. 下课了，学生都离开了教室。 【误】The moon appearing and they continued their way. 【正】The moon appearing, they continued their way. 月亮出来了，他们继续赶路。 4．表示伴随情况或补充说明 The strange man was walking down the street, with a stick in his hand. 那个奇怪的男人在街上走着,手里拿着根手杖。 （= The strange man was walking down the street, and he carried a stick in his hand.） The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back. 杀人犯被带了进来，手被捆在背后。 （=The murderer was brought in, and his hands were tied behind his back.） Two hundred people died in the accident, many of them children. 有两百人在事故中丧生，其中许多是儿童。
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（Two hundred people died in the accident and many of them were children.） B．作定语 独立主格结构作定语，其功能相当于一个定语从句。 He is the person with a lot of questions to be settled. (with 的复合结构作定语,修饰 the student) 他就是有许多问题要解决的那个人。 = He is the person who has a lot of questions to be settled. You can use a large plastic bottle with its top cut off. (with 的复合结构作定语,修饰 bottle) 你可以使用一个颈被砍掉的大塑料瓶。 = You can use a large plastic bottle whose top was cut off. He was walking along the road without any street lights on its both sides. 他走在一条两边没有路灯的马路上。 (without 的复合结构作定语,修饰 the road ) = He was walking along the road that didn’t have any street lights on its both sides. 提示： 在这里我们讨论了很多用连词连接的两个句子改为独立主格结构的情况。需要提示的是， 不是所有用连词的地方都可以改为独立主格结构。 If you stand on the top of the mountain，the park looks more beautiful. 如果你站在山顶上, 公园看上去更美。 （不要改为独立主格结构） If you check your test paper carefully, some mistakes can be avoided. 如果你仔细检查试卷的话，有些错误是可以避免的。 （不要改为独立主格结构）
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