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9. American


Exercises I. Choose the one that best completes each of the following

statements. 1. The state of is the largest in area of all the states. A. Alaska B. Hawaii C. Texas D. Florida

2. The largest river in the U. S. is . A. the Missouri River B. the Mississippi River C. the Ohio River D. the Colorado River 3. Some of the world famous universities like Harvard, Yale and MIT are located . A. in the South B. along the Pacific Coast C. in New England D. in the Midwest 4. —— is located on the U. S. – Canadian border between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. A. Yellowstone National Park B. The Grand Canyon C. Niagara Falls D. The Great Salt Lake

Exercises
5. The native Alaskan population includes the following except the . A. Indians B. Eskimos C. Aleuts D. Blacks 6. The largest minority in the United States is the . A. Pacific Islanders B. Blacks C. Native Americans D. Asians 7. The Immigrants Act of 1924 restricted the further immigration into the United States, particularly from . A. Europe B. Asia C. Africa D. South America 8. The characteristic of dominant American culture is . A. English-speaking, northern European, Roman Catholic and middle-class B. English-speaking, western European, Roman Catholic and upper-class C. English-speaking, northern European, Protestant and upper-class D. English-speaking, western European, Protestant and middle-class

Exercises
II. Read the following statements carefully and decide whether they are True or False. 1. The eastern highlands formed by the Appalachians hold one third of the country's continental territory. 2. The climate in the United States can be classified as temperate, with some mild subtropical and tropical zones. 3. Almost through the middle of the United States, north to south, runs a well--known 50-centimeter rainfall line. 4. New York is the commercial and financial center of the United States , and it is composed of five boroughs including Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Staten Island, and Queens.

Exercises
5. San Francisco is the second largest city after New York and the world famous Hollywood and Disneyland are located here. 6. During the 1830s and 1840s, many northern Europeans and Irish immigrants came to America. 7. Almost half of the immigrants coming to the United States in the 1980s were Asians. 8. Basic American cultural values are freedom, equality and desire to work hard for a higher standard of living.

American History

Chapter 9 American History
I. America in the Colonial Era II. The American War of Independence III. The American Civil War IV. America in the 20th Century V. America in the 21st Century

Colonization of North America (1607-1776)
1

Indians
The discovery of America Early Colonial Era

2

3

Indians: The “first Americans”

The Discovery of the New World
Christopher Columbus

Amerigo Vespucci

Why did the early settlers come to America?
? Opportunity
– It drew English merchants who dreamed of establishing great new estates out of the wildness. – It drew carpenters, bakers, tailors and other skilled workmen who could not find job in England. – It drew the poor and the homeless from farmlands and villages.

– It drew many English in search of religious freedom.

English

Settlements

The first successful English colony in the Americas was founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607; the settlement was financed by a London company which expected to make a profit from the settlement.
Jamestown:詹姆斯敦

?

? Pilgrim Fathers

In 1620, a tiny ship called the “May flower” sailed from England for the New world, with 102 passengers. 50% were Pilgrims. Landed in what is now Plymouth( 普利茅 斯), Massachusetts.

The Puritans

? The Puritans were wealthy, well-educated gentlemen. They wanted to purify the Church of England and threatened with religious persecution, the Puritans leaders saw the New world as the a refuge provided by God for those He meant to save.

English Settlements
In 1621, the puritans gathered in a large crop and the settlers fixed a date to celebrate their harvest in order to express their thanks to God and the help of the Indians. This is the beginning of the holiday called Thanksgiving. Thanksgiving Day:(美国是11月的第四个星期四)

The Founding of the 13 Colonies

– Between 1607 and 1733 the British established 13 colonies along the east coast of North America.

The Founding of the 13 Colonies
? Unlike most other nations, the United States never had a feudal aristocracy. Land was plentiful and labor was scarce in colonial America, and every free man had an opportunity to achieve economic independence, if not prosperity. The English king appointed many of the colonial governors, but they all had to rule in cooperation with an elected assembly. Voting was restricted to landowning white males. Britain could not exercise direct control over her American colonies. The colonists were too independent-minded.

?

The Causes of the American Revolution Britain’s victory of the Seven Years’ war led directly to a conflict with its American colonies. The British government argued that Britain had spent large sums of money to defend their American colonies in those wars, so the colonists should pay a part of the expenses.
The British government began to charge new taxes—the Stamp Act印花税法案.

The Quartering Act驻军食宿法 passed by British Parliament forced the colonies to house and feed British soldiers.
But the Americans feared that new taxes would make trading difficult, and that British troops stationed in the colonies might be used to crush the civil liberties which the colonists had enjoyed.

How was the War of Independence started? – The “Boston Tea Party”
Where there’s oppression, there’s revolution.

? On December 16, 1773, when ships of tea reached Boston to be distributed, several dozen Boston residents boarded the ship at night and threw $75,000 worth of tea into the harbor.

First Continental Congress
In September, 1774, the First Continental Congress, a meeting of colonial leaders who opposed British oppression in the colonies, met in Philadelphia费城. disobey the Intolerable Acts to boycott British trade began to organize militias 民兵组织 and store weapons to defend themselves

The War of Independence
? The start of the war
? On April 18, 1775, about 1,000 British soldiers were sent from Boston to seize the military supplies of the American militia. When they arrived at Lexington they were met by the armed militiamen. Suddenly a shot was fired and the War of Independence began.

Second Continental Congress
In May, 1775, a Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia: began to assume the functions of a national government. founded a Continental Army and Navy under the command of George Washington. George Washington: One of the founding fathers of the United States.

The Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army (大陆军总司令)in the American Revolution.
The first President of the United States.

"Father of his country"美国国父
(1732 – 1799)

Declaration of Independence
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson , assisted by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin . Adopted by the Congress on July 4, 1776 . The Declaration officially proclaimed the independence of 13 North American colonies.

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

John Adams (1735-1826)

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

It declared:
all men were equal and that they were entitled to have some unalienable rights such as life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It also explained the philosophy of governments: the powers of governments came from the consent of the governed and the purpose of governments was to secure the rights mentioned above.
The theory of politics and the guiding principles of the American Revolution mainly came from John Locke . He was an English philosopher regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding《人类理解论》 Locke never married nor had children.
(1632 –1704)

Declaration of Independence
On July 4, 1776, the Congress formally declared the independence ? The Declaration states: “We hold these truths to selfevident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, …”
“我们认为下述真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物主赋 予他们若干不可让与的权力,其中包括生存权、自由权和追求幸福的权 力。为了保障这些权利,人类才在他们中间建立政府,而政府的正当权 力则是经被统治者同意所授予的。任何形式的政府一旦对这些目标的实 现起破坏作用时,人民便有权予以更换或废除…”

Thomas Jefferson

The Battle of Saratoga
? Date: 17th October 1777 ? Place: Saratoga in New York State ? Combatants: British and German troops VS. the Americans and ? Result:

? Turning Point
? An alliance between the U.S and France

The Battle of Yorktown
? Date: October 1781 ? Place: Virginia ? Combatants: ? Americans and French Vs. ? the British

The Battle of Yorktown

The United States of America was born

The War of Independence came to an end in 1781 with the victory of North America

The first official flag

Signed by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay (representing the United States) David Hartley (a member of the British Parliament representing the British Monarch) ?recognized the independence of the United States and granted the new nation all the territory north of Florida, south of Canada and east of the Mississippi River.

What’s the influence of the War of Independence?
* It had great international influence. * The colonies in Spanish America rose up one after another to overthrow Spanish colonial rules.

* The French Revolution
* After the War of Independence, capitalism got a chance for freer development. * Territorial expansion

In 1788, 13 colonies become the United States of America

By 1796, a few more states have been created.

America buys Louisiana from France in 1803

The Louisiana Purchase (1803)

By 1837, new states have been created around the Mississippi.

1843: One thousand people travel to Oregon

1848: USA wins Texas in the Mexican War
1849: California gold rush 1862: A new law gives free land to settlers

By 1850, Oregon and California become states.

The Situation Before the War

P114

? Three Great Tides ? “Westward Movement” ? Two economic systems in the North and the South

?

North

Capitalist Economy

? South Plantation ? The Growth of the working class ? Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Uncle Tom’s Cabin
? 1852 ? Harriet Beecher Stowe ? An antislavery novel which had great political influence. ? "So this is the little lady who made this big war.“ ? ---Lincoln

《解放黑奴宣言》

American Civil War
? In 1860, with the North support, Lincoln won the election. Then 11 states proclaimed themselves an independent nation – the Confederate States of America, and the American civil War began.

Abraham Lincoln

Union States and Confederation States

Fall of Fort Sumter Started Civil War
? Fort Sumter

? A fort in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, where on April 12,1861, the troops of the Confederacy fired the shots, that began the Civil War

Union army Vs. Confederate army
? 23 states (3/4) ? 11 states

? Industrial superiority
? Abundant facilities ? Merchant marines, navy ? Wealthy (2/3)

? Agricultural
? Military.
? Preparing for the war.

?
?

Superior military
Robert E. Lee

leadership.

? Fighting on its own soil

Emancipation Proclamation
? - On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation,

which granted freedom to all slaves in areas controlled by the confederacy. - This transformed the war from a war to save the Union, to a war to abolish slavery

Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863)
The turning point

Gettysburg Address ? “Government
? of the People

? by the People and for the People shall not perish from the earth”
? 民有、民治、民享的政 府将不致从地球上消失

American Civil War
? On April 2, 1865, Lee was forced to abandon Richmond, the Confederate capital. A week later, he surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, and all other Confederate forces soon surrendered.
commander-in-chief Of the Union army in the Civil War. He was 18th president of U.S. Commander-in-chief of the Confederate army in the American Civil War.

Ulysses Simpson Grant 格兰特

Robert Lee 罗伯特 · 李将军

American Civil War
? On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated by the actor John Wilkes Booth, a sympathizer with the Southern cause.

O Captain! My Captain!
? O Captain! My Captain! our fearful trip is done; The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won; The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring: But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead.

Significance and Effect of the War
The Civil War was an epoch-making event in American history. It was a bourgeois revolution in nature. The war resolved two fundamental questions that had divided the United States since 1776. It put an end to slavery, which was completely abolished by the 13th Amendment to the Constitution in 1865. It also decided, once and for all, that America was not a collection of semi-dependent states, but a single indivisible nation.
美国南北战争是 美国历史上第二次资 产阶级革命,虽然伤 亡人数超过100万, 但它废除了黑人奴隶 制度,维护了国家统 一,为美国资本主义 的加速发展扫清了道 路,并为美国跻身于 世界强国之列奠定了 基础。

The Gilded Age – 1865 to 1890 Reconstruction era (1865 – 1877)
@

The 13th Amendment, ratified in December 1865,
ended slavery in the United States. South responded by creating white terrorist society --- KKK (Ku Klux Klan)

@

KKK

The Ku Klux Klan was originally founded by veterans of the Confederate Army in the southern states after the Civil War to oppose social change and black emancipation by violence and terrorism. Members disguise themselves in white robes and hoods, and often use a burning cross as a symbol of their organization. Its main purpose was to resist Reconstruction , and it focused on putting down the freed slaves (奉行白人至上主义,美国种族主义的代表性组织)

American History (1900-1945)
Economic Development Theodore Roosevelt’ “Big Stick”

WW I and the US
The United States in the 1920s The Great Depression and the New Deal WWII and the US

Theodore Roosevelt
? The Big Stick: It was taken from
an African proverb, "Speak softly and carry a Big stick; you will go far."手持大棒口如蜜,走遍天涯不着急 (Smiling Softly but Carrying a Big Stick) ? the policy of aggression and expansion.

Theodore Roosevelt
? President Theodore Roosevelt's contributions were threefold : (1) the withdrawal of 200 million acres of public land as forest reserve and initiation of large-scale irrigation projects such as the Roosevelt Dam in Arizona and under the supervision of the Federal government; (2) the active use of the Sherman Antitrust Act to stop monopolistic business mergers; and (3) the adoption of the Hepburn Act of 1906 to regulate railroad prices and do away with rebates (reductions).

World War l
? 1914-1918

? the Central Powers Vs. the Allies
? Neutrality ? Pro-Ally partiality ? Causes that made the U.S. enter the war (PP.115)

World War l
? Major European powers were divided into two military blocs: ? The Triple Alliance--- Germany, Austria and Italy ? The Triple Entente--- Britain, France and Russia ? American neutrality

World War l
? Causes that made the U.S. enter the war:

? 1) German used submarine to sink ships going

to England, it would hurt American trade. ? 2) German’s Scheme of Alliance with Mexico. ? 3) Germany sent spies to destroy the factories or ships of US. ? 4) both fighting sides grow weary.

The Paris Peace Conference
? After the end of WWI, 27 victorious nations (including China) ? Attended ~on Jan. 18th, 1919 ? To divide the spoils and redivide the colonies. ? Controlled by America, England, France, Italy and Japan. ? Treaty was signed at Versailles.

The Versailles Treaty
? The peace treaty was finally signed at Versailles near Paris, on June 28, 1919. ? But the U.S. Congress refused to ratify the treaty as almost the points Wilson had proposed were rejected.

Post WWI to the 1940s
? The booming 1920s – The 1920s election—the first for women voted for a presidential candidate. – prevailing prosperity, conservative governmental policy – private business received substantial encouragement

The False Prosperity in the 1920’s
? 1920’s = boom, prosperity, isolationism ? a period of material success and spiritual

frustration or confusion
and purposelessness

The Great Depression
? 1930’s = Great Depression, the New Deal

? The stock market
crash in1929 ? Massive unemployment,

factory and mill
closings, and mortgage foreclosures

The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange just after the crash of 1929. On Black Tuesday, October twenty-ninth, the market collapsed. In a single day, sixteen million shares were traded--a record--and thirty billion dollars vanished into thin air. Cynical New York hotel clerks asked incoming guests, "You want a room for sleeping or jumping?"

People Waiting for Relief

Withdrawal of Cash Hoover Village

Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1945
? The 32nd President,a Democrat. ? Asserted in his Inaugural Address, ―the only thing we have to fear is fear itself‖. ? Advanced the New Deal
? The only president elected 4 times ? Made contributions in the World War II.

New Deal
? President Franklin D.

Roosevelt
? The aim was to save American democracy and

the capitalist system
? The programs and policies to promote economic recovery and social reform

WWII and the US
? 1939 – 1945
? Background of the war – The World Spread economic crisis

? Germany and Italy began their ways of fascism and military expansion.
? Japan meant to conquer China and Southeast Asia by military expansion ? the Axis powers Vs. the Allies

the Axis Powers

the Allies ? ? ? ? ? Britain the US France Soviet Union China and others

? Germany ? Italy ? Japan

Why did the U.S. enter the war?
? At first US kept a so-called neutral stand and the business men carried on the wartime trades, making huge profits. ? the base of the American Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor was suddenly attacked by the Japanese air force and navy, the US entered the war in 1941.

WWII and the US
?
On the morning of December 7, 1941, Japanese air force attacked the US Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. It was the direct cause for America’s
entrance into the war.

? The two war arenas: ? European arena ? Pacific arena

Post WWII Years
? The Cold War

– The conflict between the two superpowers Russia and the US increased and later led to the Cold War.
? Truman Doctrine

? In the Spring of 1947, President Truman declared the
―Truman Doctrine‖ so as to expand American sphere of influence and establish the US hegemony (霸权). ? This marked the beginning of the Cold War.

* Marshall Plan: economic aid to Western European

countries

The Postwar America
The Korean War (1950-1953)
The US aggressed Korea in June 1950 Another step of the US to contain Communist expansion.

The Vietnam War (1950-1975)
@ the anti-war movement

@ the Civil Rights movement
@ the counterculture movement @ the feminist movement

The Civil Rights Movement
?It was a fight between the White and the Blacks and the fight of the Blacks for racial segregation and racial discrimination. ?The Little Rock Incident ?In 1957, when the courts ordered 12 black students admitted to the local high school, Arkansas governor used State National Guard to prevent the admission of African-American students to all white schools in Little Rock. In return, President Eisenhower sent US troops to give protection to the black students going the
school.

The Civil Rights Movement
@ Martin Luther King, Jr @ Civil Rights Act of

1964 – prohibited
discrimination in public facilities

Counterculture Movement
a movement of revolt in the 1960s against the moral values, the aesthetic standards, the personal behavior and the social relations of conventional society.
?Its adherents, mostly white, young, and middle class, adopted a lifestyle that embraced personal freedom while rejecting the ethics of capitalism and experimenting with drugs, rock music, race relations, sexual morals and woman’s rights.

US Relations with China
? hostility the diplomatic relations @ “Ping-Pong diplomacy” @ On Feb. 20, 1972, President Nixon issued a joint communiqué. @ the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1979 re-establishment of

Post WWII Years
Q. What contributions did Richard Nixon make in promoting the Sino-US relationship?
? Table Tennis Foreign Policy ? Nixon–first US president visited Beijing. ? The ―Shanghai Communiqué‖—a new US policy: – there was one China; – Taiwan was part of China; – a peaceful settlement of the dispute by the Chinese themselves was in American interest.

Richard Nixon & Premier Zhou Enlai

Watergate Scandal of Nixon
? President Richard Nixon in 1972 ? the illegally sabotage and espionage of Nixon’s Committee to Re-elect the President. ? “ The Watergate Scandal” ? Impeachment

Post WWII Years
? America Since 1980’s

Bill Clinton

Ronald Reagan

George Herbert Walker Bush

American History (1980-2008)

? Ronald Reagan planed to cut taxes and social spending while increasing the defense budget
- “Star Wars” program=strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) ? George H. W. Bush, “Attack on Iraq” ? Bill Clinton: an economic growth for 9 years ? George W. Bush: Sept.11event,Invasion of Iraq

? Post WWII Years
? Ronald Regan

– At sixty nine, Reagan became the oldest person ever elected as US President in 1980.
? Economic program
– reductions in income taxes and business taxes

– deep cuts in federal spending in every area except defense

– Reagan proposed a wide-ranging program of legislation.

Post WWII Years
? George H. W. Bush

? Bush concentrated on social and economic
problems.

? Two Wars

? The Gulf War
—On August 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait & seized downtown Kuwait City

? Desert Storm
—Bush rallied the United Nations and Congress and sent troops to Iraq. —Destruction of Iraqi Army: weeks of air and missile bombardment & 4 days ground attack

Post WWII Years
? Bill Clinton

? the third youngest person ever elected as president
at forty-six. ? Economic recovery

? When he was elected, unemployment—7.4 %. ? When voters went to choose his successor in 2000,
unemployment—3.9 %.

? NAFTA—the North American Free Trade Agreement among the US, Canada and Mexico

? Called for ending restrictions on the flow of goods,
services and investment

? Called for the elimination of most import taxes

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