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2013届高考英语语法知识网络 专题02名词和主谓一致


(原创精品)2013 年普通高考英语科语法知识网络 专题 02
I. 名词的种类 专有名词 可数名词 国名地名人名,团体机构名称 个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 普通名词 不可数名词

名词和主谓一致

物质名词

特别注意名词类别的相互转换 个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换 例 句 意 义 名词性质 个体名词 抽象名词 抽象名词 个体名词 抽象名词

①She held some flowers in her hand. ②The trees are now in flower ①Youth is beautiful. ②He is a youth of twenty ①They have achieved remarkable success in their work. ②—How about the Christmas evening party? —I should say it was a success. 物质名词与个体名词的相互转换 例 句

花儿 开花 青春 年轻人 成功

成功的事

个体名词



义 铁

名词性质 物质名词 个体名词 物质名词

①Iron is a kind of metal. ②Please lend me your iron. ①He broke a piece of glass.

熨斗 玻璃

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②He broke a glass. ①I bought a chicken this morning ②Please help yourself to some chicken 抽象名词与个体名词的转换 ① — I’d like______information

玻璃杯 小鸡 鸡肉

个体名词 个体名词 物质名词

about

the

management

of

your

hotel,please. —Well, you could have____word with the manager. He might be helpful A.some,a ②They sent us 具有动作意义的抽象名 A.a B.an B.an,some C.some,some D.an,a

word of the latest happenings. 消息 (抽象名词) C./ D.the

词加用与某些动词(如: ③Could we have have 等)连 用,表示某一次短暂的 动作 词) A.a B.an

word before you go to the meeting? 话(个体名

C./

D.the

类例:have a dream/a rest/a smoke/a swim/a trip/a wash/a discussion/a look take a walk/a bath 点出发) /make a decision/make a change/give a cry of pain(发出痛苦的叫 声) /give a try make an advance(进步)/make an early start(早

表示知识和时间的抽象 名词转换为普通名词时 可以用来表示 其中的一部分

① Many people agree that___knowledge of English is a must in____international trade today.

A.a, /

B.the, an

C.the, the

D. /, the

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a knowledge of truth(知道实际情况) give a fuller knowledge of China(提供关于中国更为翔实的知识) have a knowledge of shorthand(有速记的知识) ②If there were no examination, we should have______at school. A.the happiest time B.a more happier time

C.much happiest time D.a much happier time ③ is money. B.A time C.Time D.Times

A.The time

①Oh, John. _____you gave me! A.How a pleasant surprise C.What a pleasant surprise 抽象名词转换为普通名 ②She looked up 词可用来表示“一次、 A.in a surprise 一阵、一种”具体的行 some surprise 为、事件、现象或结 其它例子:The gift came as a complete surprise to me. We have had some 果。这时名词前往往有 unpleasant surprise 形容词修饰 ③It is_____work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it. A.so unusual unusual II. 名词的数 规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es(参看有关语法书) 。英语里有些 名词的复数形式是不规则的,请看下表 规 则
用心 爱心 专心

B.How pleasant surprise D. What pleasant surprise

when I shouted. B.in the surprise C.in surprise D.in

B. such unusual

C.such an unusual

D.so an




3

1 2

改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 单复数相同

man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species

ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, 3 只有复数形式 contents 4 一些集体名词总是用作复数 部分集体名词既可以作单数 (整体) 也可以作复数 (成 5 员) government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, people, police, cattle, staff audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group,

customs( 海 关 ), forces( 军 队 ), times( 时 代 ), spir 6 复数形式表示特别含义

drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), mann

looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜), ruins( 加-s 单复数同形 7 表示 “某国人” 以 -man 或 -woman 结 尾 的 改 为 Englishmen, Frenchwomen -men,-women 将主体名词变为复数 8 合成名词 无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数 将两部分变为复数 III. 主谓一致 规则 情 况 举 例 sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches women singers, men servants

Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Eu Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese

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His father is working on the farm. To study English well is not easy. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. 以单数名词或代词动词不定式短语, 动名词短语或从句作主 What he said is very important for us all.



语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词 用复数形式。

由 what 引导的主语从句, 后面的谓语动词多数情况

但若表语是复数或 what 从句是一个带有复数意义 时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。 what I bought were three English books.



What I say and do is (are) helpful for you. Lucy and Lily are twins The writer and artist has come.

Every student and every teach is in the clas 致 由连接词 and 或 both?and 连接起来的主语后面, 要用复数 形式的谓语动词。但若所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物 时,它后面的谓语就用单数形式。由 and 连接的并列单数 主 语 前 如 果 分 别 有 no, each, every 或 more than a 原 Many a boy and many a girl likes it. No boy and no girl likes it. Each of us has a new book. Somebody is speaking in class. Is everyone

Everything a

(an)/one,many a (an) 修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 matter either, neither, each, every 或 no+单数名词和由 some, any no, every 构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。.

若 none of 后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动

数。若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数 以。 None of the sugar was left.



None of us has (have) been to America.

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Those who want to go please write their na 在定语从句里,关系代词 that, who, which 等作主语时, blackboard. 其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。

He is one of my friends who are working hard

He is the (only) one of my friends who is wo It is I who am going to the cinema tonight. 在强调句型中应与被强调部分一致

It is we who are going to the cinema tonight The police are looking for the lost child. The cattle are eating grass in the field.

His family has moved to the south .(他的一家 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数形式; His family are watching TV.(他的家人) 如果它指的集体的成员,其谓语动词用复数形式 Class four is on the third floor.(四班)

Class Four are unable to agree upon a monit 学生) There are a lot of people in the classroom.

Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is 由 a lot of /lots of/ plenty of/ a heap of/ heaps of/ the rest of/the majority of+名词构成的短语以及由分数 或百分数+名词构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词的数要根 据短语中后面名词的数而定。 50 percent of the students in our class are

此外,还有 a number of +复数名词有类似的用法

但 the number of +复数名词的数就得依 number 而 A number of students have gone to the farm farmer pick apples.

The number of pages in this book is three hu

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There comes the bus. pictures. 在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致 Such is the result.

On the wal

Such are t

Between the two hills stands a monument. Which is your bag? Are any of you good at English? 逻 What, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是单数, 也可是复数, 主要靠意思来决定。 辑 All have been taken out. Beijing. 意 Thirty minutes is enough for the work.. 表示时间重量长度价值等的名词的复数作主语时, 谓语动词 Twenty pounds is too dear. 义 通常用单数形式, 这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整 体。 Forty kilos of water are used every day. 一 若英语是书名名格言剧名报名国名等的复数形式, 其谓语动 词通常用单数形式。 致 表数量的短语 “one and a half”后面接复数名词作主语时, One and a half apples is left on the table. 其谓语动词要用单数形式。 原 一些学科名词是以-ics 结尾, 如: mathematics, politics, physics 以及 news, works 等。都属于形式上是复数的名 则 词, 实际意义为单数名词, 它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 I don’t think physics is easy to study. The United States is smaller than China. pen? All can be done has been done.

Which are yo

Has any o

All is go

All ha

如强调这类词的复数意义,则谓语动词要用复数形

“The Arabian Nights” is an interesting sto

The paper works was built in 1990.这家造纸厂建

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trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, scissors (剪刀) My glasses are broken. 等词作主语时,谓语用复数,但如果这些名词前有 a(the) The pair of shoes under the bed is his. pair of 等量词修饰时(clothes 被 a suit of 修饰)谓语 动词用单数。 “定冠词 the+形容词或分词” ,表示某一类人动词用复数; The old are taken good care of there. 若表示某一类东西时,动词用单数。 The beautiful gives pleasure to all.

Either the teacher or the students are our f 当两个主语由 either or, neither nor, not only but Neither he nor they are wholly right. also ,whether or 连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语保持一 Neither they nor he is wholly right. 致,即就近一致。 Is neither he nor they wholly right? 就 there be 句型中 be 动词的单复数取决于其后的主语。如 近 果其后是由 and 连接的两个主语, 则应与靠近的那个主语 /远 保持一致,即就近一致。 一 致 to China. 原 则 主语后面跟有 with, together with, except, but, like, A woman with a baby was on the bus. as well as, no less than, rather than, more than, besides, along with, including, in addition to 等引 She, like you and Tom, is very tall. 起的短语, 谓语动词要跟主语一致,即就远一致。 There is a desk and two chairs in the room.

There are two chairs and a desk in the room.

Mr. Green, together with his wife and childre

Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playgroun

The girls as well as the boy have learned to spea

No one except my teachers knows anything abo

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用心 爱心 专心

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