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Unit 1 Inside View Conversation 1 Janet: Hi, it‘s me again, Janet Li. I‘m still a student at the University of Oxford in England. But I‘m not in Oxford right now. And I haven‘t gone back home to China either. It‘s the long vacation now, and believe it or not, it‘s the middle of summer. I‘m spending my summer in one of the world‘s greatest cities. I‘m in London, home to the Houses of Parliament, Big Ben, Tower Bridge …and the double-decker bus. I want to find out what it‘s like to live in this busy, lively city. So I‘m working for London Time Off, a website about what‘s on in London. This is Joe…, he‘s my boss, and this is Andy, who is a reporter. And what‘s my job? Well, I don‘t know yet, because it‘s my first day. But I‘m meant to be shadowing Andy, oh, what I mean is, I‘m going to be helping him. So can you tell me something about London, Andy? Andy: It‘s the greatest city in the world. . Joe: Except for New York! Andy: New York? Don‘t make me laugh! Joe: And your point is…? Andy: Look, if you want my opinion, London is greater than New York… Joe: No, I don‘t want your opinion, thank you very much. It‘s a fact. Andy: A fact! Are you serious? \Janet: And here we are in London, probably the greatest city in the world. Andy: What? Probably? Excuse me, I prefer to deal with this myself… Joe: Ah, dream on, Andy……… 珍妮特:嗨,又是我,珍妮特 .李。我目前还是一位英国牛津大学的学生,但我现在不在牛津,也还没有 回中国的家。现在在放长假,而且不管你信不信,现在是夏天的中期。我现在正在世界上最棒的 城市之一里度过我的夏天。我在伦敦,它是英国国会大厦、大本钟、塔桥?和双层巴士的故乡。 我想知道住在如此热闹和生气勃勃的城市里是什么感觉。所以,我现在在为伦敦下班网效劳。它 是一个报道伦敦时事的网站。这是乔,他是我的老板,而他是安迪,一位记者。我的工作是什么 呢?这个我也不知道,因为今天是我的第一天,但我会注定跟随着安迪。喔,我的意思是,我将 会协助他。那么安迪,你能告诉我一些关于伦敦的事情吗? 安 迪: 伦敦是世界上最棒的城市。 乔 乔 乔 : 除了纽约以外! : 那你的观点是… ? : 不,我不需要你的观点,非常感谢!这是事实! 安 迪: 纽约?别逗我笑了! 安 迪: 注意,如果你真的需要我的观点,伦敦确实比纽约棒… 安 迪: 事实!你是当真的吗? 珍妮特:我们现在在伦敦,或许是世界上最棒的城市。 安 迪: 什么?或许?对不起,我宁可自己处理这个… 乔 : 啊,安迪,继续做你的美梦吧.. Conversation 2 Janet:So when did you start working at London Time Off? Andy: About a year ago. Janet: And I hope you don‘t mind my asking ,but do you like working here? Andy: Yes, I love it. I mean, Joe and I get along quite well. He drives me crazy sometimes, because he‘s my

boss, and I wish I earned a bit more money, but…I think my job is really cool, because I get to see everything that‘s happening in London. And I didn‘t want to join the rat race. Janet: What do you mean by the rat race? Andy: You know, doing the same thing day in day out, and not doing anything creative, or having any time to enjoy life. It‘s the last thing I want to do. Janet: So do you mind telling me what you do exactly? Andy: Basically, we check out new events on the London music scene, you know, new clubs, the latest plays and films, as well as exhibitions in galleries and museums. Then we go and film interviews with the musicians or the actors, or anyone who has anything to do with the event. Janet: Ok, then what happens? Andy: We edit the interviews, and then we upload it all onto the website. We get 200,000 hits a week. We‘re London‘s biggest listings site. Janet: Can I ask you something else? Andy: Fire away. Janet: What are we going to do now? Andy: I need to go back to my flat, and get my research. Then we‘ ve got an interview to do. Let‘s get the tube back to my place. Janet: And what about Joe? Andy: Well, he‘s supposed to be on his way to the National Theatre, to do an interview with the director of a new play. But I kind of hope he gets lost on the way. Then he‘ll discover what a great place London is. Janet: I don‘t understand. Andy: I‘m joking! Come on, let‘s go! 珍妮特:那么你是什么开始在伦敦下班网上班的呢? 安 迪: 大约一年前。 珍妮特:我希望你不要介意我的发问,你喜欢在这里工作吗? 安 迪: 是,我非常喜欢。我的意思是,乔跟我相处得挺好的。虽然有时我快被他搞疯了,因为他是我的 老板,而且我又希望能多赚点钱,但…我认为我的工作是十分有趣的,因为我能够看到伦敦正在 发生的事情。再说,我不愿意自己处在商业中无意义的竞争里。 珍妮特:你说的商业中无意义的竞争是什么意思? 安 迪: 你知道,日复一日地做着同样的事情并且不做任何有创意的事或拥有任何可以享受生活的时间。 这是我最不想做的事情。 珍妮特:那你介意告诉我你具体都做些什么吗? 安 迪: 基本上,除了新的俱乐部、最新的戏剧和电影,还有美术馆和博物馆里的展览,你知道,我们会 关注伦敦乐坛的新动向。然后,我们去采访音乐家或演员或任何与此事件有关的人并将此采访的 内容录下来。 珍妮特:好的,那接下来呢? 安 迪: 我们编辑这些采访然后将它们全部都上传到网站上。我们一周就取得了二十万个网路点击数。我 们是伦敦最大的数据站点。 珍妮特:我能问你其他事情吗? 安 迪: 尽管问吧。 珍妮特:我们现在要做什么? 安 迪: 我需要回到我的公寓去拿我的研究调查。然后,我们得去做个采访。让我们乘地铁到我家去吧。 珍妮特:那乔怎么办?

安 迪: 他现在应该在去国家剧院的路上。他要去给一位新戏剧的导演做个采访。但我有点儿希望他在途 中迷路。然后,他将会发现伦敦是多么棒的一个地方。 珍妮特:我不明白。 安 迪: 我是在开玩笑!快点,我们走吧! Outside view Happiness is not what most students have in mind when they think of school. Yet a school in Germany has developed a novel way to raise the morale of its students, by teaching happiness in classes. Students at Heidelberg‘s Willy Hellpach School of Economics are learning how to achieve happiness as an official subject, alongside mathematics and languages. This is the first school in Germany to develop a happiness course, intended for 17- to 19-year-olds preparing for university entrance exams. Ernst Fritz-Schubert, the school‘s principal, is on a mission to change things. Ernst Fritz-Schubert: It was my idea-I‘ve been at this school for 31 years, and I feel that school and happiness have to be reunited. These are two terms which are not considered together, because one does not connect school with happiness. In some cases school comes behind the dentists on the popularity scale and we should try to push schools‘ popularity a bit. It has been proved by science that a happy student can learn more than an unhappy one, Unhappy students can concentrate for a while but do not use all their potential. The happiness classes are intended to help students fulfill their potential. They will help the students live happy and prosperous lives. The classes aim to help students in achieving a positive state of mind, by using all their own resources and boosting their self-esteem. In addition, they hope classes will increase self-awareness and physical comfort. Happiness classes are also intended to make students more aware about their environment and society as a whole. During classes students are encouraged to express themselves and observe their peers ‘ behavior. The classes are taught by Bjoern Bonn, an actor and visiting lecturer. Bjoern Bonn: One of the exercises I do is to have one of the students walk across the classroom, with the others copying his walk. Through this exercise, I hope they learn something about themselves. Why do I move like this? How do others see my way of walking? I hope that with a higher body awareness they ideally –of course it will take time-achieve a higher self-consciousness which could lead to happiness. Wolfgang Lang: We give these classes to students to help them find happiness. Now the question is: How do I define happiness? Happiness is for example a strengthening of the personality. We are providing helpful suggestions to make stronger people. People that ask“Who am I as a person? Am I really happy?‖ Pascal Gemble: It takes time and everybody has to find happiness for themselves. You cannot go into a coaching lesson and say teach me happiness. One can only get indications from teachers or the visiting lecturers. There are also happiness scientists, if we could talk to one of those, I am sure he would have some hints. Yosma Pinar Cetinkaya: You would think that the teachers are writing definitions on the board. Not true. Those who want happiness have to find it for themselves, you cannot really learn that. So what does it take to be happy and can you learn it at school? 当学生想起学校,快乐不是多数人想到的。目前,德国一所学校已经创造了一种新颖的通过在课堂上 教授快乐的方法来提升其学生们的精神面貌。 Heidelberg ?s Willy Hellpach School of Economics 正在研究 怎样将快乐实现为与数学和语言一样的官方课程。这是德国第一家开设快乐课程的学校,意欲为 17 至 19 岁的学生作高考的准备。 Ernst Fritz-Schubert,学校的校长,肩负着变革的使命。 Ernst Fritz-Schubert: “这是我的想法—我已经在这所学校呆了 31 年, 我认为学校和快乐必须被重组, 这是不被认为该在一起的两部分,因为学生不把学校与快乐联系起来。在某些情况下,学校在受欢迎程度

上落后于牙医,我们应该努力推动学校的受欢迎度。 科学已经证明一个快乐的学生能比一个不快乐的学生学到更多。不快乐的学生能在一段时间内集中 注意力,但不能发挥他们所有的潜力,这些快乐课程致力于帮助学生发挥他们的潜能,能帮学生生活在快 乐繁荣的生活中。‖ 这种课程旨在帮助学生们通过用他们自己的特长和激励他们的自尊来达到思想的积极状态。 另外, 他 们希望课程会增加自觉意识和身体素质,快乐课程还致力于让学生意识到环境与社会是作为一个整体存 在。课堂期间学生被鼓励表达自我和关注同伴的行为,课程由演员和客座讲师 Bjoern Bonn 讲授。 Bjoern Bonn: “我做的其中一个练习是让学生走过教室,其他学生模仿他的步伐。通过这个练习,我 希望他们从自己身上学得一些东西‘为什么我像这样行动?其他人怎样评价我走路的方式?’我希望伴随 着更高的身体意识他们原则上——当然这需要时间——实现更高的抵达快乐的自我意识。 ” Wolfgang Lang: “我们为学生们开设这些课程来帮助他们找寻快乐,现在问题是:我该如何给快乐下 定义?比如快乐是个性的加强。 我们正提供有帮助的建议来使学生更强健, 学生会问: 我是一个怎样的人? 我真的高兴吗?” Pascal Gembe: “这需要花时间,每个人必须为自己找寻快乐,你不可能去一个训练课说: ‘教给我 快乐’ 。一个学生只能从教师或客座讲师那得到暗示,另外也有研究快乐的科学家,如果我们能与他们之 一交流,我确信他能给一些暗示。 ” Yosma Pinar Cetinkaya: “你会认为老师在黑板上写下快乐的定义,那不正确。哪些想得到快乐的 学生必须为他们自己寻找,你不能真正通过学习得到。 ” 既然如此,得到快乐的代价是什么?你能在学校学到它吗? Listening in Passage one Interviewer: Can you tell me…how do you think you have changed as you have matured?What things have had a major influence on you? Speaker 1 : Well, let me think…I suppose going to university had a big impact on my life. It made me much more open-minded. I met so many different types of people there with weird and wonderful ideas and it changed the way I see the world. I‘m much more tolerant now… It made me a more rounded person. Interviewer: Great, and had any particular person had a central role in forming your character? Speaker 1: I guess that‘d have to be my grandfather. I was very close to him, and he taught me to stand up for my beliefs. He was always telling me about this… Interviewer: So what people or events have had an impact on your life? Speaker 2: I think that traveling my gap year made me grow up and see both the beauty of the world and, well…just the generosity of ordinary people. I traveled a lot around Asia and you know, I found that in some of the poorest countries, like Cambodia and Laos, people share whatever little they have, and they possess a real joy for life. It‘s probably made me a less selfish person. Interviewer: Interesting…so you would recommend that young people take a gap year to discover themselves and the world? Speaker 2: Interviewer: Definitely. It gives you an opportunity o learn about the world beyond the one you grew up in and I found it really… Could you tell me what things in your life have had the greatest influence in forming your personality? Speaker 3: Well…a couple of years ago I was on a reality TV show where a group of young people all lived in a house together. Each week some one was voted off by the audience. I got down to the final three! I suppose being on the show and seeing how the other contestants behaved made me

realize how selfish and spiteful some people can be just to get what they want. I also realized it ‘s best to just be yourself in life. If you pretend to be someone different people will eventually see through the lies. Interviewer: Right…And how did you feel when you were eventually voted off? Speaker 3: Interviewer: Speaker 4: Relieved, to be honest with you. But you know, a slight regret that I didn‘t win because I kind of… So you can tell me, what one thing do you think that has had the biggest impact on your life? Hmm, that‘s a difficult question. But I think helping victims of the tsunami in 2004 had a very great impact on me. I‘m half Thai and I‘d just arrived in Thailand for a family Christmas holiday. When I heard the news I knew I had to help-you couldn‘t not. I ended up acting as an interpreter for a group of volunteer doctors. It was an incredibly difficult time but you know, even in the middle of such a horrific tragedy there is still a huge amount of genuine human kindness. Interviewer: That‘s amazing! And has it changed the way you view your future… 采访者 你能不能告诉我…你认为在你渐渐成熟的过程中产生了怎样的变化呢?什么事情对你产生了主 要的影响? 发言人 1 嗯,让我想想… 我认为上大学对我的生活产生了重大的影响。大学生活让我的思想更加开明。 我在那遇到了太多不同类型的人,他们有着奇特而又令人称赞的想法。这让我改变了我看世界的 方式。我现在宽容多了… 上大学让我成为了一个更加全面的人。 采访者 太棒了…那有没有一些特殊的人在你的性格塑造上产生主要影响呢? 和我说… 采访者 那什么人或事对你的生活产生了重要的影响呢? 我去亚洲游玩了很多地方,你知道的,我发现在一些最贫困的国家,像柬埔寨和老挝,人们会分 享他们所拥有的一切,无论多少。因此他们拥有对生活最真的快乐。这很可能让我成为一个不那 么自私的人。 采访者:很有趣。所以你建议年轻人在大学前的那一年里去发现自己和整个世界么? 受访者 2::当然了,它能够给你一个机会去了解你生活环境之外的世界,而且我觉得它很?? 采访者:你介意告诉我,在你的生活中,什么事情对你的人格的形成起了最重要的影响么? 受访者 3:恩,几年前,我参加一个电视真人秀的时候,年轻人都住在同一个房子里。每一个星期,都会 有人根据观众的投票而离开。我坚持到了最后三名!我想通过参加这次活动,以及观察其他参赛 者的行为,让我认识到了一个人为了达到他的目的,可以多么的自私与居心叵测。同时我也认识 到了在生活中,最好做自己。如果你试图去做其他不同于自己的人,别人最终会看穿这个谎言。 采访者:那么,当你最后被投票要离开的时候,你是什么感觉? 受访者 3:说实话,我感觉如释重负。但是你知道,还会有一点儿遗憾,我有些?? 采访者:那么你可以告诉我,在你的生活中,什么事情对你起到了最大的影响么? 受访者 4:恩,这是个很难回答的问题。但是我想在 2004 年的时候帮助海啸受难者给我了巨大的影响。我 有一半的泰国血统,那时我刚刚到达泰国去参加家庭的圣诞聚会。当我听到这个消息的时候,我 知道我必须去帮助他们——你不可能什么都不做。我最终成为一名医生小组的口译员。那是一个 十分艰难的时期,但是你知道,即使是在这样巨大的灾难之中,仍然会有很多人性的善良。 采访者:真的很震惊!那么它改变了你对未来的想法么 Passage two Tony: Talking to us today in our Life Choices series is Joan Robinson, an academic counselor at Manchester 受访者 2 我认为在我的空档年旅行让我逐渐成长,让我同时看见了世界的美丽和…单单是普通人的慷慨。 受访者 1 我觉得这个人应该是我的祖父。我和他非常亲近,是他教会了我要坚持自己的信仰。他总是这么

University. She gives advice to school students on choosing the right subject to study at university. Joan, welcome to the show. Joan: Thanks Tony. Tony: So Joan, what do our listeners need to think about when choosing a course? It‘s a huge, potentially life-changing decision, isn‘t it? Joan: Yes. I generally give students advice in two areas. Firstly, know yourself, and secondly, think to the future. Tony: When you say ―know yourself‖ what do you mean? Joan: Basically, I mean evaluate your own personal strengths and weaknesses, your personality traits and the things you like. Tony: I see…So how can our listeners do this? Joan: Well, start by asking yourself questions to help reflect on your life so far. For example, what subjects are you good at? Are you an organized and self-disciplined person? Are you confident and outgoing? Do you like working with others in a team or do you prefer working alone? These kinds of questions will help you discover more about yourself. Tony: Sounds like good advice. How about your second point regarding the future? Joan: Well, your choice of major subject is likely to have a significant impact on your future career so it‘s important to look into this carefully. I recommend you check not only which academic subjects will help you get into a particular area of work, but also look carefully at what universities offer. Each university has its strengths so try to choose one that is the best in your chosen field. Find out what links the department has to related industries and leading companies in it. Tony: Good point. Now I‘d like to take some calls from our listeners. First up we have James on the line. Hi, James! How can we help? James: Hi. I‘m interested in career in IT and I‘d like to ask Joan whether she thinks it‘s better to go to a highly respected university, like Oxford, or to study somewhere that has more of a vocational focus? Joan: Well, James, you know it really depends on what you expect to get out of a university and how you see your future. Basically a handful of the brightest graduates are picked from the top universities around the world to join the leading IT companies. So I‘d say if you‘re a high-flyer then this is the route that might be for you. But if you are looking for a more mainstream career then you should consider a course that helps you acquire practical, transferable skills that you can use in the workplace…and look at which universities have the best levels of graduate recruitment for the kind of job you are aiming for. James: I see! Thanks a lot. That really helps me out… Tony:今天我们生活选择栏目的嘉宾是曼彻斯特大学的学校顾问乔恩·罗宾逊。她将会给学生们一些在大 学里如何去选择正确的学科的建议。乔恩,欢迎来到我们的节目。 Joan: 谢谢,托尼。 Tony:那么乔恩,我们的听众在选择课程时需要考虑些什么?这是一个重大的,可能改变生活的选择,对 吗? Joan:是的。我一般给学生们两个方面的建议。第一,要了解自己;第二,要对未来持有看法。 Tony:你说的“了解自己” ,具体是什么意思? Joan:基本上,我的意思是要评价自己的优缺点、性格特征和兴趣。 Tony:明白。那么我们的听众要怎么做到这一点呢? Joan:目前,要从自我反思开始。例如,你擅长哪一科?你是不是一个有条理的,能自律的人?你是不是 自信的,开朗的?你喜欢在一个团队中与别人合作还是孤军奋战?这些问题能帮助你更多地了解自

己。 Tony:听起来就是个好建议。那你的第二个关于未来的建议呢? Joan:你选择的主修课程很有可能对你以后的工作有重大的影响,所以,仔细地对专业进行调查是很重要 的。 我要求的不仅仅是调查哪一个专业能让你找到好工作, 而且要仔细地查阅一下学校提供的资源。 每一所大学都有自己的特色,所以要试着选择在你选择范围内的最好的一所。并且要找到那一所大 学与相关工厂和首席公司之间的关系。 Tony:好主意。现在我们进入到听众热线的环节。第一个连接上的听众是詹姆斯。詹姆斯你好!我们有什 么能帮助你的? James:你好。我对 IT 行业很感兴趣,我想问一下乔恩,她认为进入一所受到尊重的学校,例如牛津大学 好,还是选择一所更加注重技术实践的学校好? Joan:很好,詹姆斯,你知道这完全决定于你想要从大学里得到什么还有你对未来的看法。基本上,大把 的精英都是从世界顶尖高校中被挑选出来进入到领先世界的 IT 公司工作。我想说,如果你是一个 有野心的人,这可能是一条属于你的路。但是,如果你正在寻找主流行业,那么你应该考虑一门能 帮助你锻炼在工作中有用处的实践能力与可传递能力的课程,和比较一下在哪一间大学里,你的目 标专业的就业率最高。 James:明白了!非常感谢,这些建议真的让我豁然开朗。 Unit 2 Inside view Conversion 1 Janet Andy Janet Andy Janet Andy Hey, look at that! It‘s just like I‘ve seen it in the films! Welcome to London, my hometown. We are in Shoutwark, south of the river. there‘s London bridge off to your left, and there‘s Tower Bridge. I‘m really impressed. How old is it? It‘s only about 120 years old. well, that‘s quite old. the London Docks used to be around this area. What happened was that about three or four times a day, they raised Tower Bridge, so the bigger ships could come right into London. But because they couldn‘t go under London bridge, they had to stop and unload here. Janet Andy Does Tower Bridge still open? well, not so often. When I was a kid, I think I saw tower bridge go up fairy often, all the traffic had to wait for the ships to pass through the bridge. Anyway, just this side of London bridge were lots of warehouses, where they kept their cargo. But during the second world war, there was lots of bombing over London… Janet Andy yes, I read about that…the Blitz? that‘s right. And even when I was a kid, I remember that many of the buildings were still damaged. But in the late 1980s and 90s, this whole area was redeveloped, you can see for yourself, it‘s a trendy place to live now. Janet Andy Janet Andy is the river thames still polluted? well, it certainly used to be polluted. I remember it had a very distinctive smell, if you fell in, they used to take you to hospital. that‘s sounds revolting! yes, but in the 1960s, they cleaned it up, and in fact it ‘s now one of the cleanest city rivers in the world.

翻译: 珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪 Janet Andy Janet Andy Janet Andy 嘿,看那!和我在电影里看到的一样啊 ! 欢迎来到我的故乡伦敦。我们现在是在河的南边---southwark,在你的左边是伦敦大桥,那边是伦 敦塔桥。 真让人叹为观止啊!他有多长的历史了? 只有大概 120 年吧。 已经很久了。 轮的码头以前就在这附近,他们以前每天都会吧塔桥升起来三四次,以便让大船进入伦敦,但 船又不能通过伦敦大桥,所以只能在这停下来下货了。 塔桥现在还会开放吗? 嗯,偶尔吧。我小的时候经常看到塔桥升起来,当时所有的车都会停下来等桥下的船通过。伦 敦桥这边还有许多他们用来存放货物的仓库,但伦敦在二战期间遭到了许多轰炸。 是的,我在书上看到过,德国空袭,对吧? 没错,甚至在我小的时候,还有许多遗留下来的被毁建筑,但在 80 年代后期到 90 年代,这边 整个区域都重建了。你看,现在这已经是一个很时髦的居住地了! 泰晤士河现在还是污染的吗? 以前是,记得以前这有股很特别的味道,你一旦掉下去,就会被送去医院。 听起来有点恶心。 是的,但 60 年代已经被清理干净了,实际上它现在已经是世界上最干净的河流之一了。 It is very different from the parts of London I know. The thing about Southwark is that it‘s a typical suburb of London, full of old building s and shops. And this is where I grew up. I used to live in that building there. It‘s amazing. It looks very old. Yes, it‘s about 80 years old And where did you go to school? Let me see. Yes , it was about a mile away from here. From about the age of eight, I used to go by bike. We all made our way to school on our own, meeting up with friends along the way until there was a large gang of us kids as we got closer to school. These days parents are much more protective and take their kids to school by car. It‘s safer, but it‘s not as much fun. Anyway …where was I? Janet Andy Janet Andy Janet Andy Janet Andy Janet Andy Janet Andy You were telling me about your schooldays. That‘s right. Anyway, I stayed at school until I was 16,and then I went to a college of further education, and did my A levels. And after that, I decided to go to university. Your parents must have been proud of you. Yes, I think so. I was the first person in my family to go to uni. That‘s fascinating. And what about you? Oh, it was a typical childhood in Anshan, nothing much to tell. But I have no idea what a typical childhood is like in China. OK, I will tell you. Let me think… Oh, hang on! Do you mind waiting here for a minute? Let me go up to my flat and get my research, and then you can tell me about it while we‘re on our way back to the studio. OK Back in a minute…

Conversion 2

珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪

这和我看到的伦敦的其他地方很不一样啊。 守特瓦是一个很典型的伦敦郊区,这有许多古老的建筑和商场。这是我长大的地方,我以前就住 在那栋楼里。 哇!看起来很古老。 是的,有大概 80 年了吧。 对了,你去哪上学的? 让我想想… 对了,离这大概一里远。八岁起我就开始骑车上学,我们都是自己去的。一路上我 们会碰到很多同学,到学校的时候已经是一大帮人了。而现在的父母过度的保护自己的孩子,每 天送他们上学,这当然安全些,不过没有趣。而且……我说道哪了?

珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪 珍妮特 安迪

你在讲你的学生时代。 对了,而且我在学校呆到 16 岁后又进了进修学校,并且参加了大学入学考试。后来我又决定上 大学了。 你父母一定为你感到骄傲吧! 我想是吧,在家里我是第一个上大学的。 你太棒了。 你呢?你怎么样? 噢,那是在鞍山一个很典型的童年,没什么太多可讲。 但还不知道在中国典型的童年是什么样的啊! 好吧,我来告诉你,让我想想…… 噢,你先停下,在这等我一下好吗?我先回宿舍拿下调研资料,然后在回录音室的路上你再慢慢 讲给我听。 好吧。 我马上回来。

Outside view HELP THE CHILDREN Around the world,many children are living in poverty.Many children live in countries where there's war.Many children do not get enough to eat.Some of these children are suffering from malnutrition. Many children in the world can‘t go to school.One agency that is helping these children is UNICEF.UNICEF means the United Nations Children's Fund.UNICEF has more than seven thousand people working and one hundred and fifty_seven countries around the world to help children.One country where they are doing a great deal of work is Afghanistan.A whole generation of children in Afghanistan has never known peace,until recently.Now UNICEF is bringing food for malnourished children.They're bringing medicine.Here A medical team travels on horseback to bring medicine to a remote mountain village.And UNICEF is helping the children get an education."During the time of Taliban ,we have made a survey among 40000 kids.And ,they all say that the first thing they want is peace,and the second thing that they want is ,was education."The Taliban destroyed almost 2000 schools.Under the Taliban ,girls weren't allowed to attend school at all."Well,over 50 percent of the school has been destroyed completely,in the rest of the 50 percent schools which,eh,eh,needs repair.We are trying to accommodate all the children in the schools."Some of these schools are in people's home.This is a home school in Kabul.The teacher,Habiba Kilwati,has been running the school for 12 years.She supervises 26 other schools like it."We want to learn,so wo can become teachers,doctors,or engineers,and be like normal students."It was dangerous for children to go to school.Under the Taliban,police punished families whose children went to school.Today,children are happy to be in school."This morning I had some tea and an egg,and came to school.I have notebooks ,pencils,erasers,and friends,and fun here.―UNICEF is helping rebuild the educational system in

Afghanistan in many ways.UNICEF is helping to train teachers.They're rebuilding schools,they're printing textbooks,and delivering books and other supplies to schools.This girls school was closed under the Taliban.Now,it's opening again.It has room for 960 students.These girls are happy to be back to school."I'm very disappointed and sad that I wasted six years.There was no education then.I tried to study then with my parents,but it's not the same.It wasn't so bad,but now I'm much happier because the schools are reopening.""We plan to open the schools,and get these children enrolled,and back in school,and to give them back their education so they can read and write.""When the Taliban came to power and closed the schools,girls stayed at home.Now there's an oppotunity for them to continue their education.We are very happy about this.We can be proud of our girls,our young people.They can go back to school.UNICEF is working on its mission to bring food,medinine and education to the children of Afganistan.In the process,they're also bringing hope. 帮助儿童 当今世界,很多儿童生活在贫困中。他们生存在充满战争的国家。很多孩子食不果腹。他们中的一些 人甚至营养不良。他们不能上学。UNICEF 是一个帮助这些孩子们的组织,是各个国家联合帮助儿童的机 构。现有 700 人在这里工作,157 个国家联合帮助这些儿童。 其中需要做最多工作的国家是阿富汗。这里 的孩子们甚至从不了解和平,直到不久前。现在 UNICEF 为营养不良的儿童们带来了食物和药。医疗队骑 马为遥远山村里的人们送去药物。并且,他们还帮助孩子们重获教育。 ―在塔利班时期,我们在 40000 孩 子中做了调查。他们都说最渴望的事情是和平,然后是教育。‖塔利班摧毁了将近 2000 个校园。在这形式 下,女孩们根本不允许上学。 ―多于一半的学校被完全摧毁,另一半的,则需要重修。我们正努力使孩子 们都能上学。‖一些学校设在人们家里。这是一个在喀布尔的家庭学校。这位教师 Habiba Kilwati,已经管 理这家学校 12 年了。她像这样同时主管其他 26 所学校。―我们想学习,这样我们可以成为教师,医生, 或者工程师,就像其他正常的学生一样。 ‖孩子们上学其实是很危险的。在塔利班控制下,警方会惩罚那 些有孩子上学的家庭。现在,孩子们因为能上学而高兴。 ‖今天早上我喝了一些茶吃了一个鸡蛋,然后来上学。我有笔记本,铅笔,橡皮和伙伴们,而且还有快乐!‖ 在阿富汗 UNICEF 正通过许多方式来帮助重建教育系统,并培养教师。他们重修校园,印刷教材,并给学 校发书和其他所需物品。这是一所因塔利班而被迫关闭的女生学校。现在,它又开放了。它可容纳 960 个 学生。女孩们因可以重返校园而开心。―我因浪费了 6 年时光而感到沮丧和伤心。那时没有教育,我只能 向我父母学习,但现在不一样。虽然跟父母学习不是非常糟糕,因为现在学校重新开放我非常开心。‖―我 们打算开放校园,让孩子们入学,重返校园,并给他们教育使他们可以读书和写字。‖当塔利班执政并关 闭学校时,女孩们只能呆在家里。现在这是他们的机会去继续学业。我们因此而非常欣慰。我为我们年经 的女孩,年轻的孩子们感到骄傲,他们可以重返学校。UNICEF 不断尽职负责的工作,给阿富汗的孩子们 带来食物,药物和教育。在这过程中,他们不断给予了希望。 Listening in Passage1 One of the strangest feelings I‘ve ever had was when I returned by chance to a place where I‘d been happy as a child. My husband and I were visiting some friends for the weekend-----they lived about 200 kilometers away. We were driving along when I suddenly saw a church in the distance that I recognized. My favorite aunt had lived very near it on a farm that my brother and I used to visit once a year with our parents. We were city kids, brought up in the middle of London, and this was a working farm-----the real thing-----with cows in cowsheds, fields with ponds and a muddy yard full of smelly pigs-----we had the run of the whole place-----it was just paradise for us. And then-----there was the food-----home-made jam and bread and cakes, milk fresh from the cow. And my aunt Lottie-----a farmer‘s wife-----and her husband, uncle George and their kids, Katie and Ben, our two

cousins who my brother and I really got on with. It was heaven that week we used to spend there. They moved from the farm when I was… how old? ----- about 14. So I‘d never been back or seen it again. Anyway, there we were, and I‘d just seen the church-----, so we turned off and drove down this really narrow lane. And before I knew it we were in front of Aunt Lottie‘s farm. The extraordinary thing was that it hadn‘t changed------ not one tiny bit. It was a lovely old place with a typical country cottage garden, full of flowers. There were lots of barns and sheds-----they were next to-----next to the farm. And you know, I can‘t even begin to describe the feeling I had standing there. It was-----oh, what was it? an incredibly powerful feeling of longing-----nostalgia for the past-----for times I‘d been very very happy. But it was the past. I hadn‘t been there for 20 years and I couldn‘t go back, so also I had a feeling of huge sadness, that I couldn‘t have those times again. And-----at the same time-----great sweetness, because those times had been so happy, so innocent-----because I was a child. So there was this extraordinary mix-----of longing, sadness and sweetness, all at the same time. It was the strangest feeling I‘ve ever had. 译文: 我曾经有过的最奇怪感觉就是当我偶然间来到我童年时十分快乐的地方。当时我和丈夫在周末去看望 朋友们,他们都住在 200 公里外的地方。就在我们沿路开车的时候,我突然看见了在远处有个熟悉的教堂, 我最爱的婶婶曾经住在附近的农场,爸妈每年都带我和哥哥去那里。 我们我无法再拥有曾经的那段时光。但同时,我心中又如此甜蜜,只因那时的我是那样开在伦敦市中 心长大,是城里的孩子,而这个农场又是一个真正的劳作的农场,那里有住着奶牛的牛舍,带池塘的耕地, 满是臭猪的泥院子。我们在整个农场里疯跑,那里就像是我们的天堂。 然后,就是吃的,有自制的果酱、面包、蛋糕和刚挤出的新鲜的牛奶。我的婶婶 Lottie 和她的丈夫, 也就是我的叔叔,以及他们的孩子-----我们的两个侄子 Katie 和 Ben,我和哥哥跟他们都相处很好。那里是 我们曾经渡过每一天的天堂。但是,他们从农场搬走了,当我,呃,多大的时候?呃 ….大概是 14 岁的时 候吧。所以我再也没回去过或是看见过。 无论怎样,我们来了,我又看见了那个教堂,于是我们转弯开进这条很窄的小道。但我们不知道的是 我们到了 Lottie 的农场前面,更加奇妙的是它没有变,一点儿也没有。 那是一个可爱的有着满是鲜花的旧式传统乡村别墅花园。很多很多的仓库和小屋,一个一个的在农场 附近。你要知道,我甚至不知如何描述我站在那里的心情。那种心情,哦,是什么心情?一种难以置信的 强烈的留恋-----对过去的留恋------对曾经美好时光的留恋。 然而, 那已成为过往, 我已经离开那里 20 年了, 我之后也从没回去过,所以我仍有一种很强的失落感,因为心,那样天真,只因我那时是个孩子。所以我 心中同时拥有了一种及其奇妙的情感的混合,留恋,失落,甜蜜。那是我所拥有的最奇怪的感觉了。 Passage2 Script Interviewer: So what's your first memory of school, Kevin? Kevin: I was really looking forward to school, I remember that, I just couldn't wait. Yeah, Johnny, my brother, was a year older than me and he seemed so grown-up, with his red blazer and smart shoes. And I wanted to go to school and be grown-up too. I don't remember much of the first day actually, apart from this little boy lying on the floor and screaming and screaming and me thinking what a baby he was. Interviewer: Right! What about you, Eva? Eva: I just have this one memory of this coat rack with all our coats. And I was looking for my peg which had a little picture of an elephant next to it. I remember I was crying because I wanted to go home and I couldn't get my coat on. I was crying so much and then the teacher came and helped me. Interviewer: OK, so what about your first best friend at school?

Kevin: Oh, yeah, well, Steve, I remember him, because he's still my best friend! Interviewer: Still your best friend! Eva: That's so great! did our mums. Our families ended up going on holiday together and that kind of thing. But we used to fight a lot, Steve and I, and the teachers used to get very cross with us. But we were just having fun. Interviewer: Cool! And what about you, Eva? Eva: My best friend was a girl called Robina. She had short blond hair, I remember I thought she looks like an angel. We sat next to each other and held hands and played fairies in the playground. She left in Year 3 and I cried for days. Interviewer: Oh, how sad! So what about the day you left school? How was that? Eva: I had a lot of mixed feelings, I remember walking home with this amazing feeling of freedom, you know, no more rules, no more bossy teachers. But I also felt pretty sad, because I'd had some good times. I was in a group of girls who were so supportive of each other. Kevin: I couldn't wait to leave, I was counting the days.I just wanted to get a job, get a life, earn some cash. The day I left, I went out to celebrate with a couple of my mates and--had a very good time! 翻译 采访人:那么你对学校的第一印象是什么呢,凯文? 凯文:我真的很期待去学校,我记得当时我都等不及了。是的,我哥哥强尼只比我大一岁,但他穿上他的 红色夹克衫和时髦的鞋子,看上去那么成熟。于是我也想去学校,然后变得成熟起来。事实上我对 开学第一天的印象不是很深,只记得有个小男孩躺在地板上不停地哭闹,我觉得他真像个小宝宝。 采访人:是呀!那你呢,伊娃? 伊娃:我只对那个挂满我们外套的外衣架有记忆。那时我一直在找我的桩,它的旁边有一张大象的小图片。 我记得当时我因为想回家却穿不上外套而哭的很厉害,以至于后来引来了老师帮我。 采访人:好吧,那你们上学后第一个好朋友怎么样了? 凯文:嗯,史蒂夫,我记得他,因为他到现在还是我最好的朋友! 采访人;还是你最好的朋友! 伊娃:那太好了! 凯文:是呀!我们在开学前并不认识,但无论我们俩还是我们的妈妈都成了好朋友。我们两家常常一起度 假什么的。但以前史蒂夫和我两个人经常打架,老师也经常对我们发脾气。但我们还是觉得很开心。 采访人:真酷!你呢,伊娃? 伊娃:我最好的朋友是一个叫罗比娜的女孩。她有一头金黄色短发。我记得当时我觉得她看上去像一个天 使。我们坐在一起,一起举手回答老师的问题,一起在操场上玩耍。可是她在 3 年级的时候离开了, 我为此哭了很多天。 采访人:噢,太令人伤心了!那么你们离开学校那天怎么样?是什么情况? 伊娃:我当时百感交集。我记得我走在回家路上时有一种惊人的自由感。你知道的,再也没有规矩,再也 没有专横的老师们。但我还是非常难过,因为我也有过非常开心的时刻,我在一个互相支援的女孩 群体之内。 凯文:那时候我等不及的要离开,甚至在数日子。我只想找到一份工作,好好生活,赚点钱。在我离开学 校的那天,我和我的一群伙伴到外面去庆祝,并且玩得很开心! Unit4 Inside view Conversation 1 Kevin: Yeah, we didn't know each other before we started school but we became really good friends and so

Joe: Andy: Joe: Janet: Joe: Andy: Joe: Andy: Joe: Andy: Janet: Andy: Janet: Andy: Joe: Andy: Joe:

So, you‘re all set for the interview with Janet‘s Chinese friend? Sure, we‘re meeting him tomorrow at midday. And Janet, you‘re OK to give Andy a hand? Yes. Thank you very much for giving me another chance after last week. Just remind me...why are we interviewing this guy? It‘s part of our background series to ethnic restaurants in London. We did OK, well, just remember that there‘s no such thing as a free lunch! Now, anything else we need to do We‘ve got the upcoming London Video Games Festival in Trafalgar Square. Video games? In Trafalgar Square? Yes, about 100,000 people attended last year. But how did they do that outdoors? Well, they put up a huge tent ,and there were demos of the latest game software to try out. Is that the kind of event that we usually cover on London Time off? Sure, why not? It‘s very popular! Remember our slogan: the essential guide to going out and Let‘s plan something for that...Can we try to think about something which will go with it? You You mean people download music instead of buying CDs? Yes, or on how many people check out the music on You Tube first. That all sounds very promising.

Indian last month. for next week‘s guide?

staying in. know, something along the lines of how ways of getting music and TV into our homes have changed.

Maybe we can run a feature on traditional entertainment and new technology. Look, I‘ll let you get on with the rest of the planning and we‘ll speak after lunch. Joe: Joe: Joe: Andy: Joe: Joe: 那么,你们都要前往采访 Janet 的中国朋友? Janet,你能做好 Andy 的助手吧? 这正好提醒了我,为什么我们要采访这个家伙? 这是伦敦源民俗餐馆系列的一部分,我们上个月完成了印度那部分。 好的,不过记住―天下没有免费的午餐‖!现在,对于下周的导航节目我们还有什么事要做吗? 电子游戏? 在特拉法尔加广场? Andy: 当然,我们约好明天中午见面。 Janet: 嗯,经历上周那件事后,很感谢你还能再给我一次机会.

Andy: 我们打算做关于即将在特拉法尔加广场举行的伦敦节的内容。 Andy: 是的,去年将近 100,000 人参加了呢。 Janet: 但是他们是怎么在户外举办这次这场活动的呢? Andy: Janet: Joe: 他们搭建大的帐篷,那里有许多最新的游戏软件的示范产品可供试玩。 它就是那种我们经常在伦敦假日上报道的事吗? 让我们计划一下。尝试想一下什么东西可以与之相匹配。你知道的,现在获取音乐和电视节目的方

Andy: 当然,可不就是嘛。它非常流行,记住我们的口号:出门或居家,我们都不可或缺。 式已经改变了。 Andy: 你的意思是说人们通过下载音乐而不是购买 CD 来获取音乐? Joe: 是的,或者说关于现在有多少人在 You Tube 试听音乐。这些听起来都很不错。或许我们可以做一个 关于传统娱乐方式和现代科技的特别报道。我会让你们跟进剩余的计划。我们吃完饭再谈 Conversation 2 Janet: Going back to technology and tradition...why not we do something on the rise of e-book readers?

Andy: Janet: Andy: Janet: Janet: Andy: Joe: Janet: Andy: Janet: Andy: Janet: Andy: Janet: Andy:

That‘s a good idea. They‘re not like books. They‘re more like hand-held computers. But the trouble is, every time I read a book on-screen, it hurts my eyes. Yes, but the great thing about them is you‘ll never run out of things to read! But there is nothing quite like a good old-fashioned book. Excuse me. I‘d better check this. And you read more text messages than anyone else! Is someone using mobile in here? Can‘t you understand the sign? I‘m doing a recording in the other Oh, it‘s my fault. I should have realized... That serves you right! Oh no, I keep making such a mess of things! Just ignore him! It‘s no big deal! But what you‘re saying about e-readers, that‘s a good lead-in to a report on how new technology is It‘s good, smart thinking, Janet! And I also messed up the recording with Toby Jenkins. Forget about it, Janet! Everyone could have done that. Joe started the recording before I had time

Andy: Maybe, but don‘t you read more words online than on paper? I‘m sure I do.

studio, and I‘m picking up the electronic signal.

changing so fast.

to adjust the level. It wasn‘t your fault. Anyway, somebody once said, technology doesn‘t run an enterprise, relationships do. Don‘t beat yourself up about it. Janet: Janet: Andy: Janet: Andy: Janet: Andy: Janet: Andy: Joe: Andy: Andy: Janet: Andy: Janet: Andy: I suppose that‘s true. Well, I‘ll make sure I get it right next time. 回到科技与传统这个话题,我们何不在电子阅读器的增长这方面做些研究。 好主意,它们看起来并不像书,而更像是掌上电脑。 但是缺点是,每当我在电子屏幕前看书,眼睛就会觉得刺痛。 是的。但是他们也有个突出的优点,你永远不用为没有阅读材料而发愁。 但是他们始终比不上传统的好书。 或许吧。但难道你不觉得你在网络上的阅读量远大于在纸上的吗?我觉得是这样的。 不好意思,我最好还是看一下。 而且你能比其他人阅读更多的文本信息。 有人在使用移动电话吗?拿到你看不懂这个标志?我正在工作室录音,需要接收电子信号呢。 这是你应得的待遇! 忽略他吧,这没什么大不了的。 你刚说电子阅读器什么的。那是一个关于现代科技快速改变的报告的很好的引入。 非常好,你的思维很敏捷,Janet. 但是我同时也搞砸了 Toby Jenkins 的节目录制. 别把它放心上,Janet.每个人曾经都犯过这样的错误。在我还没来得及调整音量的时候 Joe 就已经

Janet: 噢,都是我的错。我本应该意识到的。 。 。 Janet: 唉,我为什么总是把事情弄的一团糟。

开始录制节目了。这不是你的错。无论如何,曾有人说过,科技不能创造成功,而关系可以。所以不要过 分自责。 Janet: 我希望如此。我下次会小心,不再犯这样的错误。 Outside view To fly like a bird. It‘s a desire that captures the human imagination. The Greeks told stories of Daedalus, an inventor who created wings made of wax and feathers and flew. The first person who seriously

tried to fly like a bird was an Italian artist and inventor, Leonardo da Vinci. Da Vinci designed complex and wondrous flying machines, but his designs never got off the ground. Early inventors, like da vinci, tried to fly by flapping, just like birds. Here is what happens when a bird flaps: When a bird flaps, thrust and lift and control are created at the same time. Lift is the force that keeps the bird elevated. Lift is generated by the air under the bird‘s wings. Thrust is the force that keeps the bird moving forward. Thrust is generated by powerful muscles in the bird‘s chest and wings. The bird maintains control by constantly adjusting its flapping. Much of a bird‘s control is generated by its tail. A successful flying machine needed to provide the same forces that a bird used, A successful flying machine needed to provide lift to overcome gravity, control to let the driver change direction. And thrust to make it move forward. And it needed to be light enough to stay in the air. Once inventors understood these three challenges separately, and stopped trying to flap,they made progress. One inventor was the Brazilian pilot and aviator Alberto Santos-Dumont. Santos-Dumont experimented with balloons. He flew his lighter-than-air flying machines in France. In 1901, Santos-Dumont was the first to fly from Sant Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back in a given time. Meanwhile other inventors were working on heavier-than-air flying machines. With these aircraft, lift was a big problem. German flyer, Otto Lilienthal, tackled the problem of lift. He built many large gliders, constantly refining their design. Lilienthal made thousands of flights from the top of a hill. Some that lasted as long as five hours. But he eventually died in a tragic crash. Lilienthal successfully mastered the challenge of lift, but he did not master the challenge of control. The Wright Brothers were inspired by Lilienthal‘s inventions. The Wright Brothers started to develop and test their own flying machines. In their Ohio workshop, they built a wind tunnel and study aerodynamics. Through trial and error, they discovered how the shapes of different wings affected lift. They added a tail that moved, a stabilizer that made the front steady, and wings that were more flexible. Their 1902 glider was the first aircraft that was completely controllable. The next year they added a customed-built engine that provided thrust. The engine powered them forward and increased distance and duration. On December 17 th, 1903, after about 1000 text flights, the Wright Brothers flew the first powered airplane over the sand dunes of North Carolina. Santos-Dumont invented heavier-than-air planes, too. In 1909, he developed a monoplane called Demoiselle, or the Grass Hopper. It was the first modern aircraft. After that, advances in aircraft design came quickly. More powerful engines were invented. New lightweight materials were developed so aircraft could go higher and faster. By World War Two, strong metal replaced the canvas and wood of earlier planes. In 1947, text pilot Chuck Yeager went faster than the speed of sound in a rocket-powered plane that looked like a bullet with wings. The invention of the jet engine made even higher speeds possible and pushed aircraft design in new directions. But technology doesn‘t always push to go faster. With new ultra-light materials, the human-powered gossamer makes it almost possible for people to fulfill the age-old desire and fly like a bird. 像鸟一样飞。这种渴望激发了人类的想象力。希腊人讲述了有关代达拉斯的故事,他发明了用蜡和皮 毛制作的翅膀并且飞了起来。第一个认真地尝试像鸟一样飞起来的人是意大利的艺术家、发明家李奥纳多 达芬奇。达芬奇设计了一种复杂奇妙的飞行机器,但是他的设计从未实现。像达芬奇一样早期的发明家, 试着通过鼓翼而飞,就像鸟一样。以下是当鸟拍打翅膀时发生的事: 当一只鸟拍打翅膀时,推力和升力以及对飞行的控制都在同时间产生。升力是保持鸟上升的力。它通 过鸟翅膀下的空气流动产生。推力是保持鸟向前运动的力,它由在鸟胸部和翅膀上强有力的肌肉产生。鸟 通过持续不断地调整摆翅从而维持对飞行的控制。一只鸟的飞行控制大部分是由它的尾巴实现的。 一个成功的飞行机器需要上述要素。一个成功的飞行机器需要提供升力来克服重力,还能够操控好让 驾驶员改变方向,并且要有推力使其前进。同时它还需要足够轻才能待在空中。一旦发明家们了解了这三 个难题,并且停止继续尝试鼓翼的方法,他们就能够取得进步。有位发明家叫作 Alberto Santos-Dumont,

他是巴西的飞行员。他用气球做实验,在法国起飞他的轻飞行器。1901 年,Santos-Dumont 是第一个在规 定时间内往返飞行于圣克劳德和埃菲尔铁塔的人。其间,其他的发明家也在努力研发着重飞行器。对于这 些飞行器,升力是个巨大的问题。德国飞行家 Otto Lilienthal 克服了这个问题。他建造了许多大型的滑翔 机,并且不断地改良着设计方案,在一山丘的顶上进行了成千上万次飞行实验,有些持续飞行了 5 小时之 久。但是他最终在一次悲惨的撞击中去世了。Lilienthal 成功解决了升力的难题,可惜却没能掌握机身的 控制。莱特兄弟被 Lilienthal 的发明所鼓舞,开始改进并测试他们自己的飞行器。在他们俄亥俄州的车间, 他们建造了一个风洞和机翼模型,帮助他们了解学习空气动力学。通过无数的试验和错误,他们终于探索 出不同形状的机翼是如何影响升力的。 莱特兄弟们在飞机上增加了机尾, 以及使前端更加稳定的稳定装置, 并且使用了更加灵活柔韧的机翼。他们 1902 年发明的滑翔机是第一个能够完全可控的飞行器。次年他们 添加了一个定制的引擎来提供推力。 这个引擎为他们前进、 增加飞行距离和飞行持续时间提供了动力。 1903 年 12 月 17 日,在将近 1000 次的试飞后,莱特兄弟在北卡罗纳州的沙丘上飞起了第一假机动飞机。 Santos-Dumont 也发明了重飞行器。1909 年,他改进了单翼机,命名为 Demoiselle 或者叫 Grass Hopper。 它是第一架现代飞行器。在那以后,飞机的设计飞快地进步着。更多强劲的引擎被发明出来。新型轻型材 料也改进了,以至于飞机能飞得更高更快。二战前,坚固的金属取代了早期飞机的帆布和木头。1947 年, 试飞员 Chuck Yeager 在一假长得像带翅膀的子弹的火箭推进动力飞机里飞得比声音还快。喷气式引擎的 发明使得更快的速度成为可能,同时促使飞机向新的方向设计。但是技术并不总是向更快迈进,借着超轻 型材料的出现,如薄纱做的人力驱动飞机使得满足人们像鸟一样飞翔的夙愿成为可能。 Listening in Passage1 Traditional jobs like the chimney sweeps and coal miners from our history lessons don't really exist anymore. During the 20th century the number of people working in agriculture and manufacturing decreased significantly. In contrast, the number of people doing office-based jobs has more than doubled from 18 percent of the working population in 1901, to over 40 percent by the end of the 20th century. Modern society has changed the way we work but these changes are not always positive. They can also create problems we may not be aware of. What does the modern office mean for the nation's health, for example? Well ,firstly, office jobs are sedentary. We're sitting at our desks all day working on computers. And this means we're not exercising our bodies in the way people used to when they did more traditional jobs. It's not surprising then that we're all putting on weight .In fact, a fifth of adults over 16 were classified as over weight in 2001. But there are other less obvious dangers connected with office work. Repetitive strain injury, or RSI, another disorders like muscle strain, neck and backache are a growing problem. It's estimated that in 2002, over a million people suffered from these kinds of health problems. As a result, 123 million working days were lost. The cause is simple: long periods spent sitting at the computer typing and using a mouse. Many companies now employ ergonomic experts to ensure staff are sitting correctly at their computers and take frequent breaks from typing to try and prevent injury. Another problem of the modern office is the building itself. People tend to feel tired and irritable after a day stuck inside a modern office and often get colds and flu. This phenomenon is know n as ―sick building syndrome" and it's caused by several factors. First of all, in many offices there is a lack of natural air and light. Secondly, within the enclosed space of an office environment, there is a high concentration of electronic devices. And as well as this, air-conditioning systems in large buildings recirculate the air around the office, carrying germs from workstation to workstation. Research suggests sick buildings syndrome can be found in roughly 30 percent of new or refurbished buildings. But there is some good news for office workers. A lot of companies are making efforts to improve office workplaces. They're installing better lighting and ventilation. They're increasing the number of plants. And

they're encouraging employees to take regular breaks from their computers. So if anyone listening is in an office, take this simple advice: get up, have a stretch, open a window-if you can-and think of ways you can stay healthy in this most unnatural environment. 类似打扫烟囱和挖掘煤矿这类出现在我们历史课本上的传统工作将不会继续存在下去。20 世纪,从事 农业和工业劳动的人数急剧减少。与之相反的是,在办公室里办公的人员人数从 1901 年仅占劳动力总数 的 18%增长到 20 世纪末的 40%,翻了一倍。现代化的社会改变了我们的工作方式,但这些改变并不总是 积极的。它们也可能产生一些我们意料之外的问题。 例如,现代化的办公对于国民的健康意味着什么呢?首先,办公室的工作往往缺少身体活动。我们常 常坐在电脑前工作一整天。这就意味着我们没能像过去从事传统劳动人们那样在工作中锻炼我们的身体。 这样一来我们体重增加就没什么值得吃惊的了。事实上,在 2001 年 16 岁以上的成年人中有五分之一属于 超重人群。 另外,还有一些由办公室工作带来的并不太明显的危险。例如重复性的肌肉拉伤和紧张劳损,还有一 些其他的身体混乱症状例如肌肉拉伤,颈部以及背部的疼痛问题越来越多。据预计,在 2002 年,超过 100 万人将会遭受上述的健康问题,这将导致 1230 万个工作日的损失。造成这种现象的原因很简单:长期坐 在电脑前打字和使用鼠标。 现在许多公司雇佣人类工程学专家来确保员工在电脑前坐姿正确并且在操作电脑中足够频繁地得到 休息,以此避免长时间工作带来的伤痛。 在现代办公室中存在的另一个问题是办公室这个建筑物本身。人们常常在现代办公室里呆上一整天后 感觉到疲劳和急躁,并且常常患感冒和流感。这个现象被称为“室内空气综合症” ,它是由多种因素引发 的。首先,在许多办公室中缺少自然的空气和阳光。其次,在办公室的封闭环境中聚集着大量电子设备。 另外,在大型建筑中的空调系统使办公室中的空气不断循环,将病菌从一个工作区带到另一个工作区。研 究指出,在大概 30%的新建或翻新的办公室中存在室内空气综合症患者。 但这里也有一些关于办公室共工作人员的好消息。许多公司都在努力提升室内工作环境。他们正在提 供更好的的照明和通风系统,增加室内植物的数量,并且鼓励员工在使用电脑的过程中有规律地休息。如 果有人正在办公室里收听该文的话,请听从下述简单建议:站起来,伸展一下四肢,打开窗户(如果你做 得到的话) ,然后想想你该怎么样在一个很不自然的环境下保持健康。 Passage 2 Karen: Jim, you‘ve been a farmer for a long time. Can you explain how farming methods have changed? Jim: Well, in the past, most agriculture was small-scale and labour-intensive, and on the whole worked in harmony with nature. But in the last 50 years, things have changed dramatically, particularly in the industrialized world. Now 41 percent of the world‘s farmland is managed intensively. Karen: And what does this mean in practice? Jim: You see, nowadays, most farms have high productivity which,in one sense, is a good thing. However, it can mean that vast areas are the farmed with the same crop. Hedgerows are removed and chemical pesticides and fertilizers used. This has a negative effect on the ecosystem and destroys other forms of natural vegetation and local wildlife. Karen: So do you think we are interfering too much with nature? Jim: Obviously farmers these days need to produce enough food at a reasonable price. But I think the problem is that modern agriculture encourages the use of a unlimited numbers of species of each crop. Some traditional varieties of apples or grains, for example, are becoming extinct. The new varieties of seed they sell need pesticides and fertilizers and aren‘t as resilient to pests as many tradition varieties. And they don‘t always produce higher yields for farmers. Karen: And how about wild life? Jim: Well, modern agriculture sometimes kills off wildlife which it also needs for its own survival. In order

to bear fruit, 75 percent of flowering plants need to be pollinated. This is traditionally done by bees, butterflies and birds whose populations are actually declining Honey bees are essential for more than 90 commercially grown crops. Farmers in California, for example, now have to release millions of bees to pollinate their almond trees. Karen: So what in your opinion is the answer? Jim: Going back to more traditional ways of farming. Small-scales farms are producing a variety of crops and working with nature. Farmers can leave some land uncultivated to create ―wildlife corridors‖. This will provide a habitat for a variety of traditional plants as well as for the bees and insects needed to pollinate them. Another solution is planting indigenous, or local species. For example, in Africa researchers are encouraging farmers to plant a local wild species of mango that actually produces fruit in four years. Most cultivated varieties take 12 years. People are also starting seed banks to conserve local varieties of plants for the future. Karen: And is there anything ordinary people can do to help? Jim: Well, there are several practical things we can all do that will help, for example… 凯伦:吉姆,你当农民已经很久了。你能解释一下耕作方式是如何改变的吗? 吉姆:嗯,在过去,大多数农业是小规模的和劳动集约化的,且从世界范围看是于自然和谐共处的。但在 过去的五十年间,事情已经发生了巨大变化,特别是在工业世界中。现在世界上的百分之四十一的 耕地是集中管理的。 凯伦:那么这在实际耕作中代表着什么呢? 吉姆:你看,现在大部分农场有较高的生产力,在某种意义上是一件好事。然而,这也意味着在大片土地 上种植着同种作物。不使用篱笆却使用化学杀虫剂和化肥。这对生态系统造成了负面的影响,破坏 了自然植被和当地的野生动物。 凯伦:那你觉得我们是不是对自然的干扰过多了? 吉姆:显然,目前农民需要生产足够的食物并在合理的价格内出售。但我认为问题是,现代农业鼓励对各 种作物品种的无限量使用。一些传统的粮食品种,例如苹果或谷物,正处于灭绝的过程中。他们出 售的新品种的种子需要杀虫剂和化肥,抗虫性不如传统品种强,并且它们通常不是高产作物。 凯伦:那么野生动物的情况又是怎样的? 吉姆:嗯,现代农业有时杀死那些和自身发展有关的野生动物。为了结果,百分之七十五的开花植物需要 授粉。这通常都是通过蜜蜂,蝴蝶和鸟类来完成的,但是实际上它们的数量正在减少中。蜜蜂对超 过九十种经济作物都是至关重要的。例如在加利福尼亚州的农民,现在不得不放养上万只的蜜蜂来 保证他们杏树的收成。 凯伦:那么您认为答案是什么? 吉姆:回到更传统的农耕方式。小规模的农场能生产出多种作物并促成与自然的和谐共处。农民可以少开 垦一些土地,为野生生物提供住所。这将为传统植物以及需要用来授粉的蜜蜂和昆虫提供栖息地。 另一种解决方法是种植具有代表性的或是本地的物种。例如,在非洲,研究人员鼓励农民种植当地 的一种野生芒果,这种芒果实际需要四年来结果。而现在大多数种的芒果需要经过十二年结果。人 们也开始使用种子银行来为未来保存自己本地的植物。 凯伦:那么普通人可以做些什么呢? 吉姆:嗯,有许多我们可以帮得上的,例如?? Unit 6 Inside View Conversation1 Janet:So tell me about Shakespeare's Gboble Theatre,Joe.It looks really old. Joe:In fact,it was only built in 1997,which was the home of Shakespeare's theatre company when he came to

London in 1599. Janet:So what's the Globle made of? Joe:Well.the walls are made of wood,and it's got a thatched roof. Janet:Is that the kind of dried grass instead of tiles? Joe:That's right.In fact it's the first thatched building in London since the Great Fire of London in 1966. Janet:That's amazing. Joe:And inside it's just like the original stage.The audience stands in front of the stage. Janet:Are you serious?Aren't there any seats? Joe:Yes,there are some seats.but most people stand while they watch the play.So they get soaking wet when it rains.Actually the strangest thing is when you're watching Romeo and Juliet in 16th century Verona,and suddenly there's a plane passing over. Janet:that's extraoridnary! Joe:Yes,blows me away. Janet:And Andy tells me we've got a report to do on the summer season. Joe:Yes,that's right.During the winter,it's closed but in may the season starts again. Janet:When I think of Shakespeare.I usually think of Stratford-upon-Avon.Where is Stratford-upon-Avon? Joe:It's about 130 kilometres from London.Yes that's where he was born,and it's still the home of Royal Shakespeare Company.But I kind of see him as a London hero,because it's here that he became the greatest playwriter the world has ever known. Janet:You really think that? Joe:I sure do.Let's get back to the studio and edit this. Janet:Joe 告诉我一些关于莎士比亚 Gbloble 剧院的事,它看起来真的非常的古老。 Joe:事实上,它只是建于 1997。当莎士比亚于 1599 年来到伦敦时它是莎士比亚剧团的家。 Janet:那 Gboble 剧院是由什么建成的? Joe:它的墙是由木头建的,它有个茅草屋顶。 Janet:是那种干草而不是瓷砖么? Joe:是的。事实上,自从 1966 年伦敦大火以来它是在伦敦的第一个茅草建筑物。 Janet:太惊人了。 Joe:它的内部就像是原始的舞台。观众们站立在舞台的前面。 Janet:你是开玩笑的么?那儿没有座位么? Joe:有。那里有一些座位,但大多数的人都站着看戏剧。所以当下雨的时候他们都全身湿透了的。事实 上最最奇怪的是:当你在 19 世纪的维罗纳剧院看罗密欧与朱丽叶时飞机呼啸而过。 Janet:太神奇了! Joe:是啊。太不可思议了。 Janet:Andy 告诉我说我们在夏季有报导要做。 Joe:是的。在冬季剧院是关闭的但是五月时它再次开放。 Janet:当我想到莎士比亚时我通常想到斯特拉特福。斯特拉特福在哪里呢? Joe:它距伦敦大约 130 公里。莎士比亚就出生在那里,同时它也是皇家莎士比亚剧团的诞生地。我总是把 他看成是伦敦的英雄,因为他正是在伦敦成了世界所熟知的伟大的戏剧家。 Janet:你真那么想么? Joe:那是当然。我们回到工作室去编辑吧。 Conversation2 Janet:So when was Shakespeare born? Joe:In 1564.

Janet:And when did he die? Joe:In 1616. Janet:And when did he come to London? Joe:We don't know exactly,but some time between 1585 and 1592. Janet:And what did he do in London? Joe:He joined a group of actors,and wrote some of his most famous plays.such as Hamlet,The Merchant of Venice.and Romeo and Juliet. Janet:So what happend to him later in his life? Joe:Well,in 1603.Queen Elizabeth died,and theatre became less popular.And then the Globe Theatre burned down Janet:And what was the last play he wrote? Joe:It was The Tempest-it's often thought that the character of Prospero.the magician,was based on himself. Janet:And does the Royal Shakespeare Company still perform plays in London. Joe:Both in Straford and London,and they also tour all over the country.I reckon there are about seven or eight Shakespeare plays on in the West End at the moment Janet:Why do you think he's still so popular? Joe:What I think is great about Shakespeare is that the plays make audiences think.And that makes the audience feel good. Janet:And is it the same in the States? Joe:Maybe not so much.But there's huge respect for Shakespeare's plays on Broadway.I suppose it's because he's still very relevant to audiences today. Janet:Joe,you know so much about Shakespeare!I'm really stunned! Well,I guess I've seen most of them at one time or another. Andy:Sorry I'm late. Joe:Better once than never,for never too late. Andy:What? Joe:Taming of the Shrew.Act 5 Scene1.Better late than never. Andy:Have you finished the edit?Let's upload it onto the website. Janet:莎士比亚什么时候出生的? Joe:1564 年。 Janet:他什么时候死的? Joe:在 1616 年。 Janet:那他什么时候来到伦敦? Joe:我们无法确切的知道,但应该是在 1585 到 1592 之间的某个时间。 Janet:他在伦敦干什么? Joe:他加入一个表演队,写了部分他最出名的戏剧,如:哈姆雷特、威尼斯商人、罗密欧与朱丽叶。 Janet:那在莎士比亚生活的后期发生了什么呢? Joe:在 1603 年,伊丽莎白女王去世后戏院最得不那么流行了。接着 Globe 剧院也被烧毁了。 Janet:莎士比亚最后写的戏剧是什么? Joe:是暴风雨。人们经常认为其中魔术普洛斯彼罗这个角色就是以莎士比亚自已塑造的。 Janet:那皇家莎士比亚剧团在伦敦还继续表演戏剧么? Joe:斯特拉福德和伦敦都有,他们也演出遍全国。我估计此刻在 West End 剧院大约有七到八个莎士比亚 戏剧正在上演。 Janet:你认为为什么他那么的出名?

Joe:我认为莎士比亚的伟大之处在于他的戏剧让观众们得到思考,这使得观众们感到很好。 Janet:这在美国也一样么? Joe:也许不全都吧。但是在百老汇有一批对莎士比亚戏剧抱有敬意的人。我猜那是因为他现在还跟观众 紧密相连。 Janet:Joe 你对莎士比亚懂得真多。我真是惊呆了。好吧,我猜我在某时曾看到他们在的大多数。 Andy:对不起。我迟到了。 Joe:晚来总比不来的好,永远没有为时已晚。 Andy:什么? Joe:驯悍记第 5 章第 1 幕。晚总比从不来得好。 Andy:你们完成编辑了么?让我们上传到互联网吧。 Outside View Host: Three American cyclists who only have three real legs between them are cycling through Oxford on a trek from Scotland to Greece. The trio sponsored by Otto Bock USA all have prosthetic limbs and are hoping the challenge will raise awareness of the diversity of designs available. Six TV caught up with Mick Wright, Sedan Sherret and Brad Kennedy earlier on today. Cyclist: Yeah it's a little tough, I don‘t like cycling. But you know, if we can, you know help somebody, motivate somebody to get back to an active lifestyle and put their mind to something good, it‘s all worth it. Reporter: And so what's really the point of this trip? Cyclist: To raise awareness of the abilities of those with disabilities. If you‘ve lost a limb doesn't mean you sit on a couch. You can still be active; you can lead a healthy lifestyle. And you can do challenges that you may have always wanted to do when you were fully healthy and with two legs. Reporter: And the trip is 2500 miles from Glasgow to Athens. How are you guys coping? Cycling: Oh, I think we're doing really well. We‘re still in the, this is the first week of riding. We‘re conditioning, we're getting used to the--,we've had spectacular weather, it‘s been, I mean ,we got sunburnt in Scotland. It‘s, we‘re, we‘re getting accustomed to life on the road and every day our pace is increasing and we're getting stronger. So I think it‘s, it‘s marvelous. Reporter: And will you, when you get to Athens, what‘s your plan there? Cyclist: Hopefully take a little time to rest, relax vacation a little bit, and maybe throw the bike in the ocean, just the good things in life. Reporter: And what's been the worst, most difficult thing you've come acrossed so far? Cyclist: We've had some very challenging weather and some challenging hills. But We‘ve actually enjoyed all of it.It‘s been difficult but I think all of the Riding has been good. Reporter: And how are the legs holding up? Cyclist: Oh great! Now we always say that our prosthetic limbs are the ones that are doing fabulous. It‘s, it‘s the, it‘s the, as we refer to, the meat leg that, that might, might be a little weaker. But everybody's riding really strongly and they're just, just performing marvelously. 主持人:三名只有三条腿的自行车爱好者正在进行一个从苏格兰到希腊的艰苦骑行。这个被 OttoBock 赞 助的三人组都装有假肢,他们希望通过这个挑战可以提高对多种才能的意识。六套记者在今天早些时候采 访了 Mick Wright, Sedan Sherret 和 Brad Kennedy 骑行者:是的,它确实有点艰难,我不喜欢骑车。但是你要知道,如果我们可以帮助一些人,刺激一些人 回到原来的有活力的生活方式中,并且将他们的思想集中在积极的事情上。所有的这些都是值得的。 记者:那么你们此行的真正目的是什么? 骑行者: 提高残疾人对自身能力的认识。失去了一只胳膊并不意味这你只能坐在长椅上。你依然可以是 活跃的,你可以拥有一个健康的生活方式。你可以做一些当你在完全健康时候一直就想接受的挑战。

记者:从格拉斯哥到雅典的旅途一共要 2500 英里,你们要怎么应付这么长的行程? 骑行者:哦,我觉得我们状态很好。我们正在进行第一周的骑行。我们正在进行调整,逐渐习惯这种惊人 的天气,就像在苏格兰,我们都被晒伤了。我们逐渐习惯这种在路上的生活,我们的速度每天都在提高, 每天都在变强。所以我想这很了不起。 记者:那么当你们到雅典后,你们有什么计划吗? 骑行者:希望可以花一点时间休息,放松,度假,也许会把自行车扔到大海里。就做一些生活中比较美好 的事情。 记者:至今为止,你们面对的最坏的最困难的事情是什么? 骑行者:我们遇到了非常有挑战性的天气和山脉。但是,我们很享受这个过程。虽然骑行很困难但是我感 觉很好。 记者:那你们的腿还适应吗? 骑行者:当然。我们现在可以说我们的假肢感觉很棒。虽然比真的腿要弱,但是我们每个人都骑得很有力, 这些假肢真的很不可思议。 Listening in Passage1 A US Airways jet landed in the icy Hudson River in New York this afternoon after apparently hitting a flock of geese.Miraculously,no one was killed and there were few injuries.James Moore,our correspondent at the scene,has more. An Airbus 330 took off from La Guardia Airport.New York,at 3:26pm this afternoon,bound for Charlotte Airport in North Carolina.It had 155 people aboard.Thirty to 45 seconds after take-off,a flock of geese apparently flew into the plane,causing it to lose power in both engines and one engine to catch fire.Without power the plane was unable to return to La Guardia Airport and the pilot decided to land in the Hudson River in order to avoid crashing in a populated area. Two minutes later the plane made a successful landing in the Hudson and passengers were able to climb out through the emergency exits. The plane immediately started taking in water but fortunately water taxis and boats that had seen the crash were waiting by the aircraft. Passengers and crew stood on the wings of the plane in the icy cold water and were helped into the boats.Over the next hour,as New York watched the event on television,everyone on the plane,including a baby,were taken to hospitals for treatment,mostly because of the extreme cold,Their injuries are not reported to be serious.One of the passengers,Alberto Panero,said people had bugun praying as the plane approached the river but that everyone had stayed clam. The pilot of the plane has been named as Chesley Sullenberger.Aged 57,he has 29 years experience of flying and at one time had been a US fighter pilot.Sullenberger was the last to leave the plane and walked up and down it twice to make sure it was empty before climbing out.He has already been described as a hero.The Governer of New York,David pat ersm,said at a news conference this afternoon,―I believe now we've had a miracle on the Hudson.This pilot,somehow without any engines,was somehaw able to land this plane and perhaps without any injuris to the passengers.‖ It is thought that the survival of all on board is because the plane did not break up when it hit water and because of the immediately arrival of the water taxis and boats. 今天下午,一架美国航线喷射机在碰撞上了一群鹅后迫降在冰冷的哈德孙河上,但奇迹般的没有一个丧 生只有少数人受伤。我们在现场的记者詹姆斯穆尔将会做更详尽的报道。 这架空客 330 在纽约时间下午 3 点 26 分从拉瓜地亚机场出发飞往北卡罗莱纳州的夏洛特机场,机上共 有 155 人,起飞 30 到 45 秒后,一群鹅撞上了飞机,导致飞机的两个引擎都熄火了,其中一个着火。没有 了动力飞机无法返回拉瓜地亚机场因此为了使飞机不坠毁在有人居住的地区飞行员决定降落在哈德孙河 上。两分钟以后,飞机成功地降落,乘客们能够从紧急出口爬出飞机。尽管飞机很快进了水,但幸运的是,

许多目睹了撞击的水上巴士和船都在飞机旁边等候。机上乘客和工作人员站在机翼上浸在冰冷的河水里然 后被救上船。一个小时以后,当纽约人民在电视里看到这场事故时,主要是极度寒冷的关系。机上的每一 个人,包括一个小婴儿都被送到医院接受治疗,他们的伤势据说并不严重。其中一个乘客阿尔贝托,帕内 罗说,当飞机接近河的时候人们都开始祈祷但是所有的人都保持了镇静。 这架飞机的飞行员名叫切斯里,撒伦伯格尔,今年 57 岁,有着 29 年的飞行经验而且曾一度担任过美国 战斗机飞行员,撒伦伯格尔是最后一个离开飞机的,而且在爬出去以前他从上上下下下在机舱内走了两遍 以确保机舱空无一人,他现在已经称为英雄。纽约市长大卫,佩特森在今天下午的新闻发布会上说: “我 相信现在我们有了一个哈德孙河上的奇迹,无论怎样,这位飞行员在没有任何发动机的情况下,能够使飞 机安全降落而且几乎没有乘客伤亡。 现在普遍认为由于飞机碰撞到河水时没有裂开而且水上巴士和船只及时赶到,才有了机上乘客全部生还 的奇迹。 Passage 2 Streets Full of Heroes A:Hi,we are asking people who their personal hero is. Someone they really admire and who‘s inspired them in some way. B:Oh,right.Interesting. A:Can you tell us a bit about yourself? B:Sure.My name is Paul Smith. I worked at London zoo. A:London zoo? Really? B:Yes,I‘m a zoo keeper. I look after the elephants. A:Elephants?what a great job! So who is your hero, Paul? B:I‘ve got quite a few heroes. But I guess my biggest hero is Al Gore. A:The American politician. So why him? B:Well,he is the guy who made people take climate change seriously. A:You are referring to the film An Inconvenient Truth, I take it? B:That‘s right. That film proved to people with statistics and graphs, that kind of thing---that climate change was happening and that it‘s man-made. Before that ,most people believed it was just a few crazy scientists who thought it was happening. A:You work with animals. Do you worry about the effect of the climate on animals? B:Sure,I do. All these species are going to become extinct. It‘s terrible. A:It is. Would you say Al Gore‘s been an inspiration to you? B:Yes,I would. He‘s taught me about importance of taking action when you see something that needs to be done. I do volunteer work for Greenpeace---quite a lot actually. That‘s the way I do my bit. A:Greenpeace?Excellent.Thanks,Paul.Hi,what‘s your name? C:Clare hope. A:What do you do? C:Well,I‘m a mum with two young kids and I work part-time as an C:That‘s an easy one. Melinda Gates, she‘s my hero. A:Why is that? C:Well,she is Bill Gates‘ wife, one of the richest people in the world. You know ,she could so easily do nothing, just enjoy her money. And instead she co-founded the um… Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and I think that it‘s called---and it is one of the biggest private charity organization in the world. It ‘s donated more than 280 million dollars to various good causes. accountant for the Red Cross. A:We‘re asking people who their personal hero is and if they ‘ve inspired them in any way.

A:More than 280 million dollars? Now that‘s a lot of money. She is very active in it, isn't she? C:Oh yeah, she is a director. Flies all over the world. A:Do you do any work for charity? C:I make phone calls for Save the Children, asking people to donate. She is a real inspiration, Melinda gates。 A:你好,我们正在调查人们心目中的英雄都是谁。某个他们真的敬仰的以及已经在某些方面上鼓舞他们的 人。 B:哦很好,很有趣。 A:你能告诉我们一点关于你自己的情况吗? B:当然,我叫保罗史密斯。我在伦敦动物园工作。 A:伦敦动物园?真的吗? B:是,我是一名动物园饲养员。我照顾大象。 A:大象?多伟大的一份工作啊。谁是你心中的英雄,保罗? B:我心里拥有相当多的英雄,但是我想最大的英雄应该是艾尔戈尔。 A:那个美国政治家,那么为什么是他呢? B:恩,他是那个使人们严肃对待气候变化的人。 A:你参考了那部电影,难以忽视的真相,我说的对吧? B: 是的。那部电影用统计的数据和图表等这类的资料向人们证明了气温变化正在发生而且那是人类造成 的。在这之前,大多数人们认为这仅是一些疯狂的科学家认为它在发生而已。 A:你从事动物工作。那你会担心气候对动物的影响吗? B:当然,我会的。所有的这些都物种即将会灭绝了。这很糟糕。 A:的确是这样。你会说艾尔已经对你来说成为一名鼓舞人心的人了吗? B:是的,我会。他教会我当你看到一些事情需要被做的时候就要采取行动的重要性。事实上,我为绿色和 平组织做了很多的志愿工作。这是我尽我一点贡献的方式。 A:绿色和平组织?非常好。谢谢你保罗。你好,你叫什么名字? C:克莱尔贺普 A:您是做什么的? C:恩,我是一个有两个小孩子的妈妈。而且我兼职为红十字会做会计。 A:我们正在调查人们心目中的英雄都是谁而且他们是否已经以任何一种方式鼓舞到人们。 C:这很简单。梅琳达盖茨,她是我心中的英雄。 A:为什么呢? C:她是世界首富之一的比尔盖茨的夫人。你知道,她什么都不用做就能简单地享受她的钱财。然而她合创 了 Bill 和 Melinda gates 基金会,我认为是这么这样称呼的。而且这是世界最大的私人慈善组织之一。 它已经捐献了超过 280,000,000 美元为各种各样的慈善的原因。 A:超过 280,000,000 美元?现在这是很大一笔钱啊。她非常的积极投身于慈善事业,不是吗? C:哦,是的。她是一名主管。会飞往全球各个地方。 A:你为慈善做过什么工作吗? C:我在救助儿童会中负责打电话,号召人们捐献。梅琳达盖茨真的是一个鼓舞人心的人。 Unit 8 Inside view Part 1 Janet:So do you come here often,Joe? Joe:Yes,most weekends.It’s the kind of thing a lot of Londoners do when they ’ve got some time off.

Janet:So do you feel like a Londoner,Joe? Joe:Yes,I think so.You don’t have to be born a Londoner to feel like one. Janet:Is it only open on Saturday? Andy:It’s open all week,but there are a lot more stalls open from Friday to Sunday. Janet:What time does it open? Joe:It’s open between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. Janet:6 o’clock.That’s quite early! Joe:Well,after six,everyone goes out to the pubs and restaurants and the clubs.So it gets pretty lively in the evening.It’s a very trendy kind of place. Janet:And it’s got clothes and jewelley and? Andy:They sell pretty well everything here. Janet:It’s very colourful.Is it a special occasion? Joe:No,just an ordinary weekend.But it ’s true that on holiday weekends,it gets very busy. Andy:And all around here there are movie houses and clubs,and all sorts of cool places to hang out.That’s the Electric Ballroom down there ? Janet:What’s that? Andy:It’s one of the great clubs in London,all sorts of bands have played there. Janet:I’ve never been to a club.It must be fun. Andy:OK,are you busy tonight? Janet:Er,why do you ask? Andy:Maybe we could go there?Have you any plans? Janet:I’d love to,but I’m afraid I? Andy:OK,no problem.Maybe some other time. 珍妮:那么乔你经常来这里吗? 乔:是的,大多数周末我都来。来这里是许多伦敦人一有时间就会做得事情。 珍妮:那你觉得自己像个伦敦人吗,乔? 乔:是的,我是这样觉得。你并不一定得在伦敦出生才能觉得自己像伦敦人。 珍妮:市场只在周六开吗? 安迪:市场每天都开,但更多的货摊在周五到周日营业。 珍妮:它什么时间开始营业呢? 乔:它的营业时间是上午十点到下午六点。 珍妮:下午六点就关门了。真早啊! 乔:那是,六点之后,所有人都去酒吧或者饭店和俱乐部。所以傍晚会显得很生气勃勃。 那是个非常吸引人的地方。 珍妮:而且那里还有衣服和珠宝? 安迪:他们这里销售几乎所有的东西。 珍妮:这里看起来五彩缤纷。这是个特殊的时节么? 乔:不是的,仅仅是个普通的周末。但一到假日这里的确变得非常热闹。 安迪:而且在这周围有电影院和俱乐部,以及各种可以闲逛的地方。那边就是电子舞厅? 珍妮:那是什么? 安迪:那是伦敦很棒的俱乐部中之一,各种各样的的乐队都曾在那里表演。 珍妮:我从来没有去过俱乐部。那一定很有趣吧。 安迪:好的,那你今晚忙吗? 珍妮:嗯,为什么这样问啊?

安迪:也许我们可以去那里啊?你有什么计划吗? 珍妮:我想去,但我担心我? 安迪:那好,没关系。也许下次吧。 Part 2 Janet:People always seem to be having fun in London!Camden Mrket was great! Joe:Great for shopping! Andy:Well,there are lots and lots of festivals of film and music.And there are also quite a few street festivals,lik the Notting Hill Carnival. Janet:OK,and what happens? Andy:I’ll show you some footage from last year. Notting Hill is a district of London,and it has a large West Indian community.So at Carnival,the kids and adults go on a parade through th streets,wearing these amazing costumes and dancing to llive Caribbean music. Joe:And there’s lots of street food,and music and parties going on along the Carnival route.Yes,it is great fun. Janet:And does everyone in London go to watch ? Joe: Well,it attracts about two million people a year. Janet:Wow!And when does it happen? Andy:It takes place at the end of August,although the usual time fo Carnival for the rest of the world is February. Janet:What does Carnival mean? Joe:It’s a festival which takes place in many Catholic countries 40 days before Easter,after which everyone is meant to eat and drink only mederately.And the Carnival in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil is probably the best-known,but ther are also carnivals in other cities. Janet:But then why is the Notting Hill Carnival in August? Joe:Beacause for the rest of the year, the whether is awful.Anyway,we ’ d better be going now,Janet. Janet:Oh,yes. Andy:Go where? Joe:I invited Janet to a jazz concert this evening.It starts in half an hour. Janet: Bye Andy.Take care! Andy:Bye Janet,look after yourself. 珍妮:伦敦大概是人们常来玩的地方。肯顿市场真棒! 乔:购物的好地方! 安迪:这里有许许多多的电影节和音乐节。这里还有相当多的街道节日像诺丁山狂欢节。 珍妮:那会发生什么呢?0 安迪:我会向你展示一些去年的镜头。诺丁山是伦敦的一个地区,这里有一个很大的西印第安社区。 所 以在狂欢节期间,孩子和成年人们会身着奇装艳服,在街头伴着加勒比风格的音乐载歌载舞。 乔:在狂欢节进行的过程中有许多街道特有的食物、音乐和聚会。的确十分有趣。 珍妮:那是不是所有在伦敦的人都会去观看呢? 乔:它每年吸引了将近两百万的人。 珍妮:哇!那狂欢节什么时候开始呢? 安迪:虽然其他地方的狂欢节都是在二月举行的,但这里的狂欢节在八月底举行。 珍妮:狂欢节有什么涵义呢?

乔:那是复活节四十天之前在信奉天主教的国度里进行的节日,节日后人们只能有节制地吃喝。在巴西里 约热内卢举行的狂欢节或许是最出名的,但在其它城市也有狂欢节。 珍妮:但为什么诺丁山狂欢节在八月举行呢? 乔:因为每年的其他时间天气都很糟糕。不管怎样,我们最好现在就走吧,珍妮。 珍妮:嗯,好。 安迪:去哪? 乔:我邀请了珍妮今晚去参加一个爵士音乐会。再过半个小时就开始了。 珍妮:再见,安迪。小心! 安迪:再见,珍妮。照顾好自己。 Cross-cultural Awareness Holidays and Customs This week ,on Cross-cultural Awarenes ,Holidays and Customs in Asia we meet some international students who are attending school in California. Many students here are Asian.Asian celebrate a lunar New Year ,so the exact date changes every year .New Year is the biggest holiday in Asia cultures. The holidays lasts for 15 days and ends with a lantern festival on the full moon. This woman used to live in Vietnam.Shenow lives in California."wo go by the lunar calendar and so, urn, our New Year is usually in the springtime.Our ,the calendar here in American ,so we celebrate it in February -Marchish.That's probably one of my favorite Vietnamese holidays"Asians usually celebrate this holiday by lighting off firecrackers to send out the old year and to welcome the new year.They usually don't wash their hair on New Year's .Washing hair washes away good luck for the coming year.This woman used to live in Shanghai,China.She remembers a tradition that brings good luck and wealth to children."One special custom for Chinese New Year,is that parents give their children red envelops of money" Red is an important color because it means happiness.People use red paper to write special messages of happiness like this one "May the Star of Happiness,the Star of Wealth,the Star of Longevity shine on you!"Asians observe many special customs at the New Year's.They spend several days before the holiday cleaning the house completely and decorating the house with flowers and plants.Flower arrangements often including pine branches ,bamboo and blossoms.Blooming flowers are placed around the home .Flowers are important because flowers will turn into friut. Friuts with special meanings are served during New Year's.Oranges and tangerines symbolize happiness,coconuts represent togetherness and lychee nuts represent strong family relationship.Other foods have special meanings too,A whole fish represents togetherness and bamboo shoots mean happiness to everyone.Noodles represent long life . Asians don't cut noodles ,this is considered unlucky.Tofu is one food that Asians never eat during this holidays.Tofu is unlucky because it is white.In Asian cultures,the color white signifies death,Meals during New Year's are very important in Asia,But,there are special rituals and customs during mealtimes all year long .The Chinese are gracious hosts.For the most part,Chinese people are very like,urn ,they're very generous like they always insist on hosting and they would never serve themselves food before other people,like ,if you are sitting at a table ,they'd divvy it out,urn,you'll always pourtea for other people before yourself."In south Korea ,there are a little different."South Korea has a custom of eating together urn in,in a family setting with ,there's a base soup and all these side dishes and the family eats together.Um,I think in American you get your own plate and you kind of share the dishes but, urn, in Korea you kind of dig in together " We asked these Asian students if there are American customs that they don't like In general ,Asian students felt that Americans don't show enough respect for their elders." It does bother me sometimes the way I see, urn, more American kids speak to their, um ,how they address their their parents in public And I ,I really respect the fact that in Vietnam wo hold it so high ,um, the elders and how the younger generation treats them。 ‖And then ,we asked Asian students what customs they like here in the United States ,"I think the custom of Thanksgiving because,um,we don't have that in Korea and

Thankgiving is a good ,you know great holiday, to give thanks for your family and frrends and all you have. 翻译 本期的全球文化大观节目中,我们关注的是亚洲的传统节日及其风俗习惯。我们采访了一些就读于加利福 亚洲的国际留学生,其中有很大一部分是亚洲留学生。亚洲人所庆祝的阴历新年如果按照阳历算的话每年 的具体日期都是变化的,在亚洲文化中它是最为盛大的节日,他延续 15 天在满月高悬的正月十五以元宵 节结束,这位现居加利福尼亚的女士曾经居住在越南。 ―我们是按照阴历来计算日期的因此如果按照阳历 计算的话我们的新年通常都是在春季我们在二三月之间庆祝这个盛大的节日。它也许是我最喜欢的越南节 日之一了。‖亚洲人通常在这个欢庆的日子里放炮竹来辞旧迎新。新年期间他们通常不洗头发因为他们认 为那样会洗去来年的好运。这位曾经居住在中国上海的女士记得一些为儿童带来好运和富贵的传统做法, ―对于中国式新年来说,一个最特殊的习俗就是长辈给晚辈红包。‖红色是一个重要的颜色因为它是幸福快 乐的象征。人们在红纸上书写一些吉利话如―幸福永远,富贵吉祥,长命百岁‖等等。亚洲人在新年期间有 各式习俗,在春节到来之前,他们会事先彻底打扫房间,用美丽的鲜花和盆栽来装饰屋子。配饰物通常有 鲜艳怒放的鲜花和青翠欲滴的树枝以及苍竹。盛开的鲜花在每个人家都随处可见。花的一个重要意义就在 于它会结果,新年期间,人们可以享用大量被赋予特殊意义的水果,柑橘代表的是快乐,椰子代表的是团 圆,荔枝代表亲密友好的家庭关系。另有一些食物也有特殊的意义,一整条鱼代表着团聚,竹筒饭代表每 个人都幸福而面条则代表着长寿。亚洲人不切断面条因为那是不吉利的做法。新年期间,豆腐是禁忌品。 因为在亚洲的文化中,豆腐般的白色是代表死亡的。除新年之外,整年之中在宴席上都有一些非常正式和 特殊的风俗。中国人们非常的热情好客,大部分中国人们非常慷慨,他们总是在宴请客人而且绝不在客人 吃完之前用餐。他们热衷于分享,总是以客人为尊。在南韩,饮食习惯稍有不同,―韩国南部的人们有喜 欢聚餐的传统,一家人围坐在桌子旁边,桌子上面摆着一碗热气腾腾的底汤,两边放着各式美味的菜肴, 一家人畅享美食,其乐融融。就我个认为,在美国各人享用各自盘子里的食物,但是在韩国是大家一起分 享的。‖我们询问亚洲学生美国是否有他们不认同的习俗。总的来说,他们普遍认为,美国人对长辈没有 给出应有的尊重。―美国小孩对父母说话的方式和在公共场合谈到父母的用词有时实在让我困扰。毫不夸 张地说,在越南,我们非常敬重长辈,而且年轻人对长辈也很恭敬。‖―就我个人而言,敬重长辈是至关重 要的!‖然后我们又询问他们美国是否有他们喜爱的节日,―我认为感恩节非常不错,因为韩国并没有这样 的一个节日。它是一个很好的平台来向你的家人朋友以及你所拥有的一切表达你发自内心的感激 !‖ Listening In Part I A:What's this you're making jack, a dummy? C:It's called a guy. B:Yes we're finishing it now, we've stuffed old clothes with newspapers, haven't we jack? C:Yes it is really cool. A:But what's it for? Some kinds of game for jack? B:Kind of, it's Guy Fawkes night tomorrow. Actually, the proper name is Bonfire Night. A:Oh, yeah the firework celebration! So, you're making a guy and it's Guy Fawkes Night tomorrow, Jack. What are you going to do with this guy. B:We're going to put him on the bonfire and burn him. Aren't we Jack? I'm going to have lots of fireworks and eat sausages and baked potatoes round the bonfire. C:Yes we are. Lots of sausages. A:So what's the story? B:Do you want to hear it? A:Sure! B:Well, sometimes right at the start of the 17th century, I thinks it was 1605, something like that. When

James First was the king of England, there was a plot to blow up Parliament. A:A plot to blow up Parliament? Wow! Sounds very modern! B:It does, doesn't it? Anyway, this group of people tried to blow up Parliament with the king and all his family and most of the aristocracy inside. A:That was quite a plan. B:Yes, Guy Fawkes was one of the plotters, but wasn't the leader. A:He wasn't? B:No. I think he was involved because he knew a lot of the explosives. Anyway, these plotter hit the explosives in the cellar beneath Parliament. And Fawkes, Guy Fawkes, was caught just as he was trying to light the explosives. A:So, if the king's men had arrived a few minutes later, Parliament would have blown up? B:No, because the king's men had already found the explosives and were just waiting to catch the plotters, which they did. A:Uh, what happened to the plotters? B:They were killed. And November the 5th , which was the day they were caught has been celebrated ever since. There's a great rhyme about it, isn't it, Jack? Remember, remember, can you say it? C:Remember, remember, the fifth of November. Gunpowder, treason and plot. I see no reason, why gunpowder treason. Should ever be forgot. B:Very good! So every November 5th people started building bonfires and making dummies of Guy Fawkes. And everyone loves it, actually. It's a great excuse for a firework display. A:你在做什么呢,杰克?是一个人体模型么? C:这叫一个人(盖伊) 。 B:是的我们正要完成它了,我们已经用旧报纸为他做好了衣服,不是么,杰克? C:是啊,这简直太酷了! A:但做这个干什么呢?是为杰克准备的游戏么? B:差不多算是吧,明晚就是―盖伊· 福克斯之夜‖了。事实上,它有个专有名词叫―篝火之夜‖。 A:噢对对对,是那个焰火庆典!所以,你们正在制作一个人体模型,然后明晚又是 ―盖伊· 福克斯之夜‖。杰 克,你要拿这个模型做什么呢? B:我们打算把它扔进篝火里烧了它!不是么,Jack?我打算去放很多很多的焰火,然后围坐在篝火边吃香 肠、烤土豆。 C:耶~我们要吃好多好多香肠。 A:那么,这有什么典故么? B:你想听么? A:当然! B:嗯,就在 17 世纪初的某个时刻,我觉得是 1605 年或者差不多那个时候,当英国国王是詹姆士一世时, 有人密谋引爆议会大厦。 A:有个要引爆议会大厦的阴谋?哇!看起来蛮有好莱坞大片的感觉嘛 …… B:不是么?总之,有那么一小组人试图在国王全家以及贵族在议会大厦里面时引爆炸弹。 A:听起来倒像是一个不错的计划。 B:是哈,盖伊· 福克斯就是阴谋的策划者之一,但并不是整个阴谋的领导。 A:他不是啊? B:不是啦。我觉得他只是因为对炸药比较了解才参与到计划中的。反正,这些阴谋者试图引爆在议会大厦 地下室的炸弹。但福克斯,就是盖伊· 福克斯,却就在他要引爆炸弹的时候被逮了个正着。 A:这么说,如果国王的护卫迟了几分钟到,那议会大厦就不复存在了?

B:不不不,其实国王护卫早就发现了爆炸物,所以就在那里守株待兔,等着阴谋策划者来自投罗网。 A:呃……那那些人最后怎样了? B:他们当然被处决了啊,在 11 月 5 日,从此以后他们被抓这天也被作为是纪念庆祝的一天。关于这有一首 很棒的诗,不是么杰克?惦念,惦念……诶你记得不? C:惦念,惦念,十一月的第五天。炸药、叛逆与阴谋。我不知为何会,有炸弹的叛逆。永远不该被遗忘。 B:太棒了!所以每年的 11 月 5 日,人们就会放焰火,制作盖伊· 福克斯的人体模型。事实上每个人都很喜 欢这个节日,因为这为焰火展会提供了一个很好的理由。 Presenter: Well,we've only got 15 hours to go to Christmas and people are frantically rushing around buying last-minute Christmas prensent.But how do people really think about these big festivals? Do we actually enjoy them ?Bella,you 're psychologist.How do you feel about Christmas? Bella: I have mixed feelings about it.It's basically a religous festival.but I'm not a religous person .So it dosen't have that kind of meaning to me .And these days,I think for many people it's primarily a reason for families to get together,eat a lot of good food and give each other presents. Presenter: That's a good enough reason,isn't it? Bella: Oh,absolutely.It's very important for families to have aspecial meal together and for people to show their love each other.And children love it,the excitement of thinking that Father Christmas will come down the chimney and leave them presents.But at the same time,I worry about its commercialization. Presenter: Ted,you're American,a jounalist.What's your attitude to Thanksgiving? Ted: I love it,and almost all Americans do I think.It's Amerians' favourite holiday-takes place on the fourth thursday in November. Presenter: So it's a moveable feast?I didn't know that. Ted: It is.Everyone comes home and as its name suggests.It's a time to give thanks for everything we have . Presenter: What do you eat? Ted:Traditionally,we eat turkey,sweet potatoes and pumpkin.It's a huge meal-in a way,the festival is the meal. Presenter: Is it as commercialized as Christmas? Ted: Probably.But you know for many people,it's a very happy occasion.And one important thing we do at thanksgiving is we collect food for people who have very little. of the year for you? Presenter: Admirable!Douglas,as a Scot,what's the most important festival Douglas: Hogmanay,of course. Presenter:It's actually more important than Christmas? Douglas: Now,that's an English person speaking.I'm Sots and Hogmanay isthe most important festival of the year for us.It's on December 31st. Obviously,it's New Year's Eve.But it can continue until the 2nd or 3rd of Junaury.It's a big party really,an excuse to eat and drink I think.But it's a very old tradition.Christmas and Hogmanay are both examples of winter solslitic festival-the shortest day of the year.I'd imagine that every culture has always celebrated it in some forms or other. Presenter: I think many festivals were originally connected with seasons. Douglas: Absolutely!For example...

主持人: 好吧,我们仅有 15 小时的时间来迎接圣诞节.大家都匆忙准备着最后的圣诞礼物.但是人们对这些盛 大节日有什么看法呢?大家真的喜欢它们吗?贝拉,你是心理学家,你认为呢? 贝拉: 关于圣诞我有不同的想法。它基本上是宗教节日,但我不是信奉宗教的人。从这一点来说,它对 我没什么意义。这些天来,我又认为,对于很多人来说,圣诞是一个好的理由让一家人聚集在一起,吃好

吃的食物,互送礼物。 主持人:这确实是一个好理由,不是吗? 贝拉: 主持人 星期四。 主持人:所以它是可以灵活安排的,我之前都不知道。 泰德: 泰德: 是的,就像它名字暗含的意义一样,每个人回到家里,对他们所拥有的一切表示感谢。 传统上,我们是火鸡,甜土豆,还有南瓜。这是一顿很丰盛的晚餐,从某种意义上,感恩节就是 主持人:在那天你们吃什么? 一顿晚餐。 主持人:它也像圣诞节一样被商业化了吗? 泰德: 或许吧,但你要知道,对很多人来说,它也是很开心的时刻。而且,在感恩节我们做的一件重要 的事就是我们收集食物,送给那些吃不饱的人们。这也是我们的传统之一。 主持人:很令人敬佩。道格拉斯,作为一个苏格兰人,你认为一年中最重要的节日是什么? 道格拉斯:当然是除夕。 主持人: 它实际上比圣诞还重要吗? 道格拉斯:这只是英国人的说法。我是苏格兰人,对于我们来说它是最重要的。它是在 12 月 31 日,新年 的前一天。但它可以持续到 1 月 2 号或 3 号。我认为它真的是一个很大的晚会,一个可以痛快吃喝的理由。 但它也是一个非常古老的传统。除夕和圣诞都是冬至的象征。它们都是一年中最短的一天 .我想象出每个文 化总会以不同的方式庆祝冬至。 支持人:我认为许多节日的起源都与季节有关。 道格拉斯:对的,例如... 当然是,对于一家人来说,一起吃一顿特别的饭并且互相表达对彼此的关爱是很重要的。小孩也 泰德你是美国人,一个记者,你关于感恩节的态度是怎样的? 喜欢圣诞节,想到圣诞老人将要来给他们送礼物,他们很激动。但与此同时,我忧虑它的商业化。 泰德: 我喜欢它,我认为几乎每个美国人都喜欢。这是美国人最喜欢的假期,感恩节是在 11 月的第四个



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