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Chapter 2 E-commerce business models电子商务模式


CHAPTER 2
E-Commerce Business Models and Concepts
Created by, David Zolzer, Northwestern State University—Louisiana

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Opening Case Study: who’s who?

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Sample Case Analysis
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Question 1: analyze both Amazon and B&N using the value chain and competitive forces models. How to discuss and answer: 1) find out the concept of ‘value chain’; 2) find out the ‘competitive forces’ 3) give answers;
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What to consider? 这两家企业的“五种竞争力”分别是什么? 1)供应商的讨价还价能力 2)购买者的讨价还价能力 3)潜在竞争者进入的能力 4)替代品的替代能力 5)行业内竞争者现在的竞争能力
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Question 2: compare and evaluate the business models used by Amazon and B&N. What are their core competencies? What role does the Internet play in each of these business models? How to discuss and answer?
1) what business model? Amazon: B2C; E-tailor and virtual merchant, and market-creator B&N: E-tailor; bricks and clicks; 2) core competencies: elaborate… 3) the role of Internet: importance is different;
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Question 3: how viable(切实可行) is each business model? Explain your answer. Answer: 1) put yourself into it; make a decision, choosing your favorable business model; 2) what kind of style of the bookstore it will be if you were the owner? how would you improve the shopping experience?

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Question 4: which company will dominate the book retailing industry? Explain it.
Answer: 1) investigate online to find out the current situation of these two companies; 2) analyze why the situation happen? 3) make a reserved prediction or forecast. As for the unfavorable one, discuss about its possibilities to make a living.

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Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Learning Objectives
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Identify the key components of ecommerce business models. Describe the major B2C business models. Describe the major B2B business models. Recognize business models in other emerging areas of e-commerce. Understand key business concepts and strategies applicable to e-commerce.

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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E-Commerce Business Models
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Business model
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a set of planned activities designed to result in a profit in a marketplace a document that describes a firm’s business model a business model that aims to use and leverage the unique qualities of the Internet and the World Wide Web. —— still profit!

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Business plan
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E-commerce business model
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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model

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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (1) Value Proposition
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Defines how a company’s product or service fulfills the needs of customers. Questions?
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Why will customers choose to do business with your firm instead of another company? (KOZMO) What will your firm provide that other firms do not and cannot?
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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (2) Revenue Model
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Describes how the firm will earn revenue, produce profits, and produce a superior return on invested capital. E-commerce revenue models include:
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advertising subscription transaction fee sales Affiliate What else?

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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (2) Revenue Model
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Advertising revenue model
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a company provides a forum for advertisements and receives fees from advertisers (Yahoo) a company offers it users content or services and charges a subscription fee for access to some or all of it offerings (Consumer Reports or Wall Street Journal)
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Subscription revenue model
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Subscription revenue model

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Subscription revenue model

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Subscription revenue model

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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (2) Revenue Model
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Transaction fee revenue model
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a company receives a fee for enabling or executing a transaction (eBay or E-Trade)

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Transaction fee revenue model
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A question:
What are the different revenue streams from ebay’s operation? Is ebay acting as an agent or a broker among transactions?

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Transaction fee model

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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (2) Revenue Model
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Sales revenue model
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a company derives revenue by selling goods, information, or services (Gap or DoubleClick) a company steers business to an affiliate and receives a referral fee or percentage of the revenue from any resulting sales (MyPoints)

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Affiliate revenue model
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Sales revenue

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Affiliate revenue model

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Five Primary Revenue Models

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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (3) Market Opportunity
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Market opportunity
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refers to the company’s intended marketspace and the overall potential financial opportunities available to the firm in that market space defined by the revenue potential in each of the market niches where you hope to compete

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Marketspace
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the area of actual or potential commercial value in which a company intends to operate

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Marketspace and Market Opportunity is the Software Training Market

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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (4) Competitive Environment
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Refers to the other companies operating in the same marketplace selling similar products Influenced by:
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how many competitors are active how large are their operations the market share of each competitor how profitable these firms are how they price their products
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Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

Competitive Environment (cont’d)
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Direct competitors – companies that sell products or services that are very similar and into the same market segment ? Example: Priceline.com and Travelocity.com Indirect competitors – companies that may be in different industries but that still compete indirectly because their products can substitute for one another ? Example: CNN.com and ESPN.com
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Direct competitors :priceline

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Direct competitors : travelocity

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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (5) Competitive Advantage
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Achieved by a firm when it can produce a superior product and/or bring the product to market at a lower price than most, or all, of its competitors Achieved because a firm has been able to obtain differential access to the factors of production that are denied their competitors -- at least in the short term

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (5) Competitive Advantage
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Asymmetry(不对称)
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exists whenever one participant in a market has more resources than other participants a competitive market advantage for a firm that results from being the first into a marketplace with a serviceable product or service
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First mover advantage
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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (5) Competitive Advantage
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Unfair competitive advantage ? occurs when one firm develops an advantage based on a factor that other firms cannot purchase Leverage(杠杆作用) ? when a company uses its competitive advantage to achieve more advantage in surrounding markets ? Eg: amazon entered online auction sector
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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (6) Market Strategy
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The plan you put together that details exactly how you intend to enter a new market and attract new customers Marketing mix Best business concepts will fail if not properly marketed to potential customers Case recall: redenvelop.com
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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (7) Organizational Development
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Describes how the company will organize the work that needs to be accomplished Work is typically divided into functional departments Move from generalists to specialists as the company grows

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Eight Key Ingredients of a Business Model: (8) Management Team
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Employees of the company responsible for making the business model work Strong management team gives instant credibility to outside investors A strong management team may not be able to salvage a weak business model Should be able to change the model and redefine the business as it becomes necessary
Slide 2-37

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Major Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Business Models

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Major Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Business Models

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Major Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Business Models
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Portal
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offers powerful search tools plus an integrated package of content and services typically utilizes a combines subscription/advertising revenues/transaction fee model may be general or specialize (vortal)

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General portal:Aol

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Vertical portal:iboats

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Major Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Business Models
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E-tailer
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online version of traditional retailer includes
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virtual merchants (online retail store only) clicks and mortar e-tailers (online distribution channel for a company that also has physical stores) catalog merchants (online version of direct mail catalog) online malls (online version of mall) Manufacturers selling directly over the Web
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Clicks and mortar

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catalog merchants

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online malls

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Manufacture direct sale

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Major Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Business Models
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Content Provider
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information and entertainment companies that provide digital content over the Web typically utilizes an advertising, subscription, or affiliate referral fee revenue model

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example: wsj

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Slide 2-49

example :cnn

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Major Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Business Models
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Transaction Broker
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processes online sales transactions typically utilizes a transactions feel revenue model

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Financial service

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careers

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Travel service

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Major Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Business Models
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Market Creator
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uses Internet technology to create markets that bring buyers and sellers together typically utilizes a transaction fee revenue model offers services online provides an online community of like-minded individuals for networking and information sharing revenue is generated by referral fee, advertising, and subscription

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Service Provider
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Community Provider
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Slide 2-55

Market Creat:Priceline

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Case analysis: priceline
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Strength (1)独创的商业经营模式,实现了连接生产者和消费者 的桥梁作用: 提出“name your price”独特的商业模式;依托信息共享 和互联网的强大交流功能创造了对商品和服务计价的全新 方式。成为连接生产者和消费者的桥梁网络中间商,帮助 消费者进行购买决策和满足需求,使客户可以对旅游项目 、酒店、租车甚至是家庭金融服务报出价格。 同时Priceline通过向卖主(航空公司、酒店、金融服务公 司)询问是否有商家接受客户提出的报价,帮助生产者掌 握产品销售状况,降低生产者为达成与消费者交易的成本 费用。
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Case analysis: priceline
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(2)创新的零售渠道和零售价格系统: 通过建立的网络平台,使得客户在商品的品牌、 特性与(或)卖主的低价格之间求得平衡; 客户可以通过Priceline.com提供他们的期望价格和 产品;卖方通过Priceline.com获得市场需求信息( 产品需求和价格),在根据此客户需求特征提供 可获了的产品,实现获利;正因为,满足了这种 供需需求,得以使Priceline.com这一平台获得了生 存空间。
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Case analysis: priceline
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(3) 庞大的注册用户群体: 案例中提到的:自1998年4月开始运行以来 ,Priceline已经有超过1600万的注册用户。 庞大的注册用户群体使Priceline.com有了获 利的基础。2002年,Priceline销售了290万 张机票,410万酒店入住定单,280万的车 辆出租日。

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Case analysis: priceline
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(4)良好的品牌知名度 Priceline.com是当时因特网上继Amazon.com 之后的第二大著名电子商务品牌。在亚洲 地区,包括中国大陆、香港、台湾、地区 ,印度、泰国等地提供服务,还在其他许 多国家设有办事处。美国2/3的成年人听说 过Priceline.com和自定价格商业模式。

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Case analysis: priceline
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(5)与一系列知名企业建立合作: 2002年与eBay签定关于Priceline为eBay独家 提供机票和酒店服务订购业务; 2003年3月,与Travelweb.com签定协议,实 现合作; 2003年3月,Priceline与Budgethotels公司( 一个酒店订购联盟)签定协议,建立一个 共有品牌的网站,并开始涉足航运订购业 务。
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Case analysis: priceline
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Weakness
(1)不良的财务状况 (2)领导人短浅的经营目光 (3)不必要成本的增加 (4)多种经营带来的风险:Priceline在1998年10月将业务 范围扩展到酒店预定,到1999年1月又把家庭理财服务纳 入其中,1999年末又加入了车辆出租甚至新车销售。为了 扩展销售商品范围以及Priceline这个品牌,Priceline做了大 范围的(自然也是代价昂贵的)广告。这对公司的财务带 来负担。在Priceline进入新的经营领域——食品和汽油时 ,对于客户购买和产品定价并没有执行到位。
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Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

Case analysis: priceline
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1.3 opportunity
商家总是有额外的存货或者产能,这样如果他们 不以更低的价格卖给零售商或者不愿意为低价商 品做宣传,他们将以较低的价格出售这些商品。 Priceline确信它的商务模式对于那些有有效期的商 品以及更新迅速的商品是最理想的(例如航空公 司不会出售已经起飞的航班的机票,酒店房间也 是如此),而Priceline也并不想把它自身的发展也 会被限制在这些十分有限的行业中。

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Case analysis: priceline
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1.4 threat (1)Priceline的盈利模式容易被复制。 (2)不良的报道 :亏损、股票时涨时落 (3)社会安全的影响 (4)竞争对手 (5)全球网络经济泡沫

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 2-64

Case analysis: priceline
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“自我定价系统”的商业模式: Priceline是深入挖掘“淡季”资源的典型。 在“淡季”,较多的旅游资源供较少的消 费者选择,因而存在大量临近“保质期” 的旅游商品。Priceline使得消费者只需要在 线提供自己期望的产品和价格,剩下的都 会由Priceline完成,这不仅降低了消费者的 购买价格,还节约了交易成本,因而赢得 “淡季”客户的青睐。
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Case analysis: priceline
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当Priceline集合越多的旅游供应商信息到自己的数据库中 的时候,它就越有可能帮助消费者寻找到满足自己定价的 产品,因此,有效整合分散的旅游供应资源也成为 Priceline成功运作的关键。 当然对供应商角度来说,Priceline的商业模式为他们提供 了直接的需求信息,使缺乏消费时间弹性的产品(如:过 期的机票是不能再使用的、旅馆的房间空了一天就是浪费 )提高了使用效率,因此他们存在与Priceline合作的动力 。 通过专利保护,来抬高商业模式被复制的门槛和进入壁垒 Priceline于1998年创立,其创始人Jay Walker当时将这种商 业模式注册为专利。这将使得20年内模仿者无法自由复制 Priceline的商业模式,提高了行业进入壁垒。
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Case analysis: priceline
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近年来它主要通过两种方式:其一是在航 空酒店之外,尝试着把“Name Your Price System”应用到其他产品上,相继推出了“ 新车自我定价”、“不动产贷款自我定价 ”等服务。 其二则是在地域上的扩张,通过收购进入 欧洲市场,把“自我定价”的商业模式复 制到欧洲酒店、航空领域。
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Case analysis: priceline
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2009年11月,Priceline以91.7亿美元的市值 一举超越另一强大竞争对手Expedia。而根 据Priceline最新年报显示,在全球旅游业遭 受金融危机负面因素打击下,Priceline2009 年的销售收入和净利润仍然分别达到其 2006年的2.1倍和6.7倍。

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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思考:
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1、其业务模式的核心是什么?
2、你认为Priceline最终会成功还是会失败 ?

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3、Priceline如何影响旅游服务业?

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Service provider

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Community Provider

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Insight on Technology: Goggle.com -- Searching for Profits
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Web’s hottest search engine Started in 1998 by two enterprising Stanford grad students Uses outside criteria to validate that a search result is likely to be relevant
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the more outside links there are to a particular page, the higher it jumps in Google’s ranking structure

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Major Business-to-Business (B2B) Business Models

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Major Business-to-Business (B2B) Business Models
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B2B Hub
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also known as marketplace/exchange electronic marketplace where suppliers and commercial purchasers can conduct transactions may be a general (horizontal marketplace) or specialized (vertical marketplace) supplies products directly to individual businesses
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E-distributor
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Major Business-to-Business (B2B) Business Models
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B2B Service Provider
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sells business services to other firms

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Matchmaker
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links businesses together charges transaction or usage fees
gather information and sells it to businesses
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Infomediary
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Insight on Business: E-Steel.com Breaks the Mold
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B2B marketplace 3,500 member companies trading globally Uses private negotiation model rather than auction model

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Business Models in Other Emerging Areas of E-Commerce

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Business Models in Other Emerging Areas of E-Commerce
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C2C Business Models
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connect consumers with other consumers most successful has been the market creator business model

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P2P Business Models
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enable consumers to share file and services via the Web without common servers a challenge to find a revenue model that works
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Business Models in Other Emerging Areas of E-Commerce

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Business Models in Other Emerging Areas of E-Commerce
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M-commerce Business Models
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traditional e-commerce business models leveraged for emerging wireless technologies to permit mobile access to the Web

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E-commerce Enablers’ Business Models
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focus on providing infrastructure necessary for e-commerce companies to exist, grow, and prosper
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E-commerce Enablers

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Seven Unique Feature of ECommerce Technology

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Seven Unique Feature of ECommerce Technology
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Ubiquity
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Alters industry structure by creating new marketing channels and expanding size of overall market Creates new efficiencies in industry operations and lowers cost of firms’ sales operations Enables new differentiation strategies

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 2-83

Seven Unique Features of ECommerce Technology
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Global Reach
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Changes industry structure by lowering barriers to entry, but greatly expands market at the same time Lowers cost of industry and firm operations through production and sales efficiencies Enables competition on global scale

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Seven Unique Features of ECommerce Technology
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Universal Standards
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Changes industry structure by lowering barriers to entry and intensifying competition within an industry Lowers costs of industry and firm operations by lowering computing and communications costs Enables broad-scope strategies

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Slide 2-85

Seven Unique Features of ECommerce Technology
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Richness
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Alters industry structure by reducing strength of powerful distribution channels Change industry and firm operations costs by lessening reliance on sales force Enhances post-sale support strategies

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Slide 2-86

Seven Unique Features of ECommerce Technology
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Interactivity
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Alters industry structure by reducing threat of substitutes through enhanced customization Reduces industry and firm costs by lessening reliance on sales force Enable differentiation strategies

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Slide 2-87

Seven Unique Features of ECommerce Technology
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Personalization/Customization
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Alters industry structure by reducing threats of substitutes, raising barriers to entry Reduces value chain costs in industry and firm by lessening reliance on sales forces

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Seven Unique Features of ECommerce Technology
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Information Density
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Changes industry structure by weakening powerful sales channels, shifting bargaining power to consumer Reduces industry and firm operations costs by lowering costs of obtaining, processing, and distributing information about suppliers and consumers

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Slide 2-89

E-Commerce and Industry Structure

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Slide 2-90

How the Internet and the Web Change Business: Basic Business Concepts
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Industry Structure
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the nature of players in an industry and their relative bargaining power by changing
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the basis of competition among rivals the barriers to entry the threat of new substitute products the strength of suppliers the bargaining power of buyers

Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 2-91

How the Internet and the Web Change Business: Basic Business Concepts
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Industry Value Chains
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set of activities performed in an industry by suppliers, manufacturers, transporters, distributors, and retailers that transform raw inputs into final products and services reducing the cost of information and other transactional costs set of activities performed within an individual firm to create final products from raw inputs increasing operational efficiency
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Firm Value Chains
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E-Commerce and Industry Value Chains

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E-Commerce and Firm Value Chains

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How the Internet and the Web Change Business: Basic Business Concepts
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Business Strategy
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set of plans for achieving superior longterm returns on the capital invested in a firm offers unique ways
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differentiate products obtain cost advantages compete globally compete in a narrow market or product segment
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Copyright ? 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.



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