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高考英语科语法知识网络 专题06动词时态和语态


高考英语科语法知识网络 专题 06
1. 常用常考的动词时态和用法: (以 do 为例) 名称 构成 用法 1.一般现在时表示经常发生、习惯性动作、客观真理、科学 事实、格言,目前的特征、状态、能力等。 2.主句是一般将来时,时间、 条件状语从句中用一般现在时表 示将来。 一般现在时 do/does,( 连系动词 is/am/are ) I’ll go there af

ter I finish my work. If it rains tomorrow,I won’t go there. 3.在以 here,there 开头的句子里, go,come 等少数动词的一般 在时表示正在发生的动作。

动词时态和语态

There goes the bell.铃响了。 There comes the bus.汽车来了。 Here she comes.她来了。 表达特定的过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状况, 或过去某 一般过去时 did,( 连系动词 was/were) 一时间内经常发生或反复发生的动作或行为。 1.表示正在进行的动作。 2.表示按计划安排即将发生的动作。 She is leaving for Beijing.她要去北京。 He is working as a teacher tomorrow. 现在进行时 is/am/are doing 从明天起他要做老师。 My father is coming to see me this Saturday. 这个星期六我爸爸要来看我。 3.代替一般现在时,描绘更加生动。

The Changjiang River is flowing into the east. 长江江水滚滚向东流。 The sun is rising in the east.太阳从东方冉冉升起。 1.表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作 (这一 过去时间须用时间状语表示) He was preparing his lecture all day yesterday. 2.表示动作在另一过去动作发生时进行 过去进行时 was/were doing They were still working when I left. 3.用在两个过去进行时动作同时发生 I was writing while he was watching TV. 4.表示过去将来动作 He said she was arriving the next day. 现在完成时 has/have done 1.表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果, 说话时已

完成的动作。 I have finished the report./ She has cleand the room. 2.表示从过去开始,待续到现在的动作或状态,往往 和“for...”, “since...”表述的一段时间状语连用。 He has learned English for six years. They have worked here since they left college. 3.表示“曾经到过某地(人已回来)”用“have/has been to”,表 示“到某地去了(还未回来)”用“have/has gone to”。 —Where is Li Hua? -He has gone to the reading-room. —She knows a lot about Shanghai. -She has been there. 4.短暂动词(即瞬间动词) ,

join,lose,buy,borrow,leave,go,come,arrive,die,marry, finish,complete,begin,start,break out 等,在完成时态 中,其肯定式不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。不能说: He has joined the army for three years. 要翻译“他已参军已经三年了。”可采用 ①“ago 法” He joined the army three years ago. ②“延续法” He has been in the army for three years. ③“since 法” It is/has been three years since he joined the army. 1.表示在过去某一时间以前已经完成的动作。 过去完成时 had done He had shut the door before the dog came up.

Everything had been all right up till this morning. 2.表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到 另一个过去时刻才完成,甚至还要继续下去。 At the age of ten,he had learned 500 English words. He had been ill for a week when we learned about it. 3.常用 hope,expect,think,intend,want,suppose 等动词的 过去完成时来表示未实现的希望、打算或意图。 We had expected that you would be able to win the match. 用来表示在将来某个时刻(前)将完成的动作。常和 by 短 将来完成时 will/shall have done 语,when,before 引起的时间状语连用。 We will have finished senior Book 2 by the end of this term. 用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在 (还要继续下 现在完成进行时 has/have been doing 去) 的动作。 has been doing the maths problems since 8:00. He

表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到另一个过 过去完成进行时 had been doing 去时刻才完成,还将继续下去。 will/shall do 一般将来时表示将来要发生的动作和存在的状况 一般将来时 is/am/are going to do (详见下面 2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较) is/am/are(about)to do 1.相对于过去某一时刻而言即将发生的动作或存在的状态 He told me he would go to Beijing.他告诉我他将去北京。 would/should do 过去将来时 was/were going to do was/were(about)to do I was told that he was going to return home. 有人告诉我他准备回家。 2. would do(表示过去的习惯)总是,总会,常常 He would sit silent for hours. 他常常接连好几个小时默默地坐着。 2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较

将来时









go, come, start, move, leave, arrive 等词可用进行时表示按计 1 be + doing 进行时表将来 划即将发生的动作 表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动作, 后面一般不跟时 2 be about to + 动词原形 间状语

He is moving to the south. Are they leaving for Europe? I was about to leave when the bell rang. The meeting is about to close. We’re to meet at the school gate at

3

be to + 动词原形

表示按计划进行或征求对方意见 noon. 时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事情, 可用一般现在时表 The meeting starts at five o’clock.

4

一般现在时表将来 示将来 The plane leaves at ten this evening.

3.容易混淆的时态比较 项 目 区 别 例 句

We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. What do you suppose _______ to her? A. was happening 现在完成时强调过去动 说明:说话者强调 Jane 目前的状况. 作对现在产生的影响或 Mr. Lee, who ________ as a carpenter for over 10 years, is now a very 造成的结果 famous statesman in this country. 一般过去时与现在完成时的比较 B. happens C. has happened D. happened

A. has worked B. had worked

C. worked

D. works

(只说明他过去当过木匠不涉及到现在) Hello, I ____ you were in London. How long _________ here? A. don’t know; were you 一般过去时只表达过去 C. haven’t known; are 的动作或状态 说明:didn’t know 强调见面前不知道 I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了,不涉及现在是否记住) D. didn’t know; have you been B. hadn’t known; are you

着重表示动作的结果 I have read that book.我读过那本书了。 (知道那本书的内容) 时,用现在完成时 —Hi, Tracy, you look tired. 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的 着重表示动作一直在进 比较 行, 即动作的延续性时, A. painted 则用现在完成进行时 C. have been painting B. had painted D. have painted —I am tired. I _______ the living room all day.

说明:强调动作从过去到现在的延续 I don’t really work here. I ____ until the new secretary _______. 现在进行时表示现在某 现在进行时与过去进行时的比较 个时候或某段时间正在 进行的动作 A. just help out; comes C. am just helping out; comes B. have just helped out; will come D. will just help out; has come

说明:指目前一段时间正在发生的动作, until 引导的是时间状语从句, 动词需用一般现在时。

— Hey, look where you are going! 过去进行时表示某个时 候或某段时间正在进行 的动作 — Oh, I’m terribly sorry. _______. A. I’m not noticing. C. I haven’t noticed. B. I wasn’t noticing. D. I don’t notice.

说明:对话的后者显然是在解释刚才不小心冒犯对方时正在做的事情. Tom________ into the house when no one ___________. A. slipped; was noticing 一般过去时只表达过去 一般过去时与过去进行时的比较 的动作或状态 说明: 和 notice 为同时发生的动作, slip 因此 B、 为错误选项, C slipped 指过去有结果的动作(他溜进去了) ,when no one was noticing 指他溜 进去的一刹那发生的情况(没有人注意) 。 C. slipped; had noticed B. had slipped; noticed D. was slipping; noticed

.He ______ a book about China last year, but I don’t know if he ______ it. 过去进行时表示某个时 候或某段时间正在进行 的动作 A.wrote; has finished C. was writing; had finished B. was writing; has finished D. wrote; will finish

说明:正确选项为 B. 从 I don’t know if he has finished it.推断,他去年 一直在写。

II. 动词的被动语态 常用被动语态 1 2 3 4 5 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 现在进行时 构 成 6 7 8 9 10 常用被动语态 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时 含有情态动词的 构 成

am/is/are done was/were done shall/will be done should/would be done am/is/are being done

was/were being done have/has been done had been done will/would have been done can/must/may be done

被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not,短语动词的被动态不可漏掉其中介副词。固定结构 be going to, 注 used to,have to, had better 变为被动态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动态。 Trees should not be planted in summer. 意 Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl. 汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示: 事 It is believed that… It is well known that… 项 It is reported that… It must be admitted that… It is hoped that… It is generally considered that… It must be pointed out that… It is said that… It is supposed that… The boy was made fun of by his classmates.

被动语态的句型 1.常见句式是:主语(受动者)+be+过去分词+(by+施动者) :He was scolded by the English teacher. 2.主语+get+过去分词+其它成分:The boy got drowned last summer./ She got fired because of her faults. 使用这种结构不能带有“by+施动者” 3.带有双宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语)的主动句变为动句,其主语可以是直接宾语,也可以是间接宾语。 She lent me a bike.?被动:①I was lent a bike(by her). ②A bike was lent to me(by her). 4.情态动词+be+过去分词:This problem must be worked out in half an hour. 5.双重被动式:主语+被动式谓语+不定式的被动式+其它成分 These magazines are not allowed to be taken out of the reading-room. The murderer was ordered to be shot.

下面主动形式常表示被动意义 1.不及物动词与状语连用,用以表示主语的品质和状态。常见动词是:cut,sell,read,write,fill,cook,lock,wash 等。 This knife cuts well.这把刀好切。 The pen writes smoothly.这支笔写起来流畅。 The cloth washes well.这种布好洗。 2.一些连系动词的主动式+形容词。常见动 look,smell,taste,sound,feel,prove,turn out 等。 The apples taste good. The news proved/turned out true. The flower smells wonderful. Cotton feels soft. These books sell well.这些书好卖。 Meat won’t keep long in such hot weather.肉在这样热的天气里放不长久。

不可变为被动语态的几种情况 1.I teach myself French.不可变为 Myself is taught French.因为反身代词不可作主语。 2.We help each other/one another.不可变为 Each other/One another is helped by us.因为相互代词不可作主语。 3.He lost heart.不可变为 Heart was lost by him. 因为象 lose heart,make a face,keep silence,lose in thought 这类动宾结构的固定短语只能用于主动式,不能用被动式。 4.She took part in the sports meet.不能变为 The sports meet was taken part in by her. 因为象 take part in,belong to ,own,have,hate,fail,contain 等表状态动词没有被动语态。 含有短语动词在被动语态中介词不能丢 Much attention must be paid to your handwriting. 特别注意以下句子的结构:Every minute must be made full use of to study Englsih. 下面词或短语没有被动态: leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等


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