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高中英语 Unit 1 Great Scientists(第3课时)Reading II课件 新人教版必修5


Reading , writing and learning tips

born: in Poland in 1473 died : May 24, 1543

Copernicus

Read the passage and find the experiences of Copernicus:
Birth: February 19, 1473
Death: May 24, 1543 Place of Birth: Toruń, Poland Career: 1491-1494 Studied mathematics at Krakó w Academy 1496 Went to Italy to study astronomy and law at the University of Bologna 1497 Began observations of the Sun, Moon, and planets 1514 Wrote Commentariolus, an outline of his astronomical ideas, but did not circulate it widely 1543 Published De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial)

Pre-reading
We know the first scientist is Copernicus. He was one of the first scientists to use mathematical observations to collect information. He believed the sun is the center of the universe and the earth and other planets went around it. The chart on P.7 shows his theory.

Copernicus’ Revolutionary Theory

Eight Planets In

the Solar System

Mercury Venus

水星 金星 地球 火星 木星

Eight Planets In the Solar System:

Earth Mars Jupiter

Saturn
Uranus

土星
天王星

Neptune

海王星

Mnemonics (记忆术)

Mercury Venus Earth Saturn Uranus Neptune

Mars Jupiter

Can you use a good method to memorize them ?

My Very Easy Method: Just Set Up Nine Planets.

Read through the passage, and tell whether the following statements are true or false.
1. At Copernicus’ time, Christian Church was in charge of many western countries. T 2. Copernicus noticed that observed from the earth, some planets appears in front of or behind the earth. F 3. Copernicus didn’t show his new theory to his friends until he completed it. T

4. His friends were not interested in his ideas. F
5. Since he was not afraid of being attacked by the Church, Copernicus published his book as soon as he finished working on it. F 6. Newton, Einstein, and Hawking are all scientists who made contribution to the study of the universe. T

Read carefully and try to draw the two theories of the universe.

Before Copernicus’ Showing Copernicus’ theory theory
The Earth was stationary at the center of the solar system, and the Sun and planets revolved around it.
The Sun is stationary at the center of the solar system, and the Earth and the other planets orbit around it.

Analyze the following picture carefully and try to explain how a loop is formed.

Read the text carefully, then answer these questions

(1)Why could he not tell about his theory? (Para 1)
Because the powerful Chistian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea (2) What was his theory about? (Para 1) All his mathematical calculations led to the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense.

(3) What had the astronomers noticed in the sky? (Para 2) They had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop, move backward and then go forward in a loop. Others appeared brighter at times and less bright at others. (4) When did Copernicus complete his theory? (Para 3) Between 1510 and 1514 he worked on it, gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete.

(5) How did he explain changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness of the stars? When did he publish his idea? (Para 4) He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth. He also suggested that the earth was spinning as it went round it and this explain changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness of the stars. He published it as he lay dying in 1543

(6) Why do people think that there is a direct link between his ideas and the work of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking?
Because his theory is now the base on which all our ideas of the universe are built. His theory replaced the Christian idea of gravity which said things fell to earth because God created the earth as the centre of the universe, He showed this was obviously wrong.

Discussion:
If you were Nicolaus Copernicus, would you have hidden your theory for so many years? Why? As a scientist, Copernicus was more cautious

than coward. If he had published his ideas at his
time, he would have been killed just as Bruno who

was burnt to death because his theory was against
the Christian Church’s. Every time when a new idea appears, there are always rejections. It’s normal.

Scientists should have patience to spread their truth.

◆ As a scientist, one should be brave. But Copernicus was afraid of being attacked by the Christian Church. So he had hidden his theory for so many years. What do you think of this? Agree: 1.He was cautious. if he had published his ideas, he would have been killed just as Bruno who was burned to death because his theory was against the Christian Church. 2.Every time when a new idea appears, there are always rejections. It’s normal. Scientists should have patience to spread their truth. 3.It made no sense for him to publish his theory in a hurry. He was just cautious not coward. He should protect himself first.

Disagree:
1.Copernicus was very coward. He should speak out his discovery and let the world know the truth earlier. 2.Science can never advance unless people have the courage of their beliefs. 3.As a scientist, you must have the courage to publish your findings. No matter how people oppose them, time will show if your ideas are right or wrong.

? Write a short letter asking Copernicus to publish his ideas so everyone can read them.

One possible version:

Dear Nicolaus Copernicus,
I am a student studying astronomy and I would very much like to read your new theory about the solar system. I hope you will publish it for several reasons. I understand the problems with the present theory. The way the planets move is not what you would expect if the earth was the center of the universe. It is also odd that the brightness of some stars seems to change. So I agree with you that we need a new theory.

I know your observations have been very carefully carried out over many years. Now you must have the courage to publish them. Science can never advance unless people have the courage of their beliefs. I know you worry about what will happen if you publish your new theory. No matter how people oppose it, time will show if your ideas are right or wrong. So I hope you will feel you can publish your new theory.

Yours sincerely,
Lin Qi

One possible version:
Dear Nicolaus Copernicus,
I am a student studying astronomywho and Iyou would very Beginning: Tell Copernicus are and much like to read your new theory about the solar system. you wantithim to publish his ideas I hope why you will publish for several reasons. I understand the problems with the present theory. The way the planets move is not what you would expect if the earth was the center of the universe. It is also odd that the brightness of some stars seems to change. So I agree with you that we need a new theory.

Paragraph 1: Reason 1 and evidence

I know your observations have been very carefully carried out over many years. Now you must have the courage to publish them. Science can never advance unless people have the courage of their beliefs. I know you worry about what will happen if you publish your new theory. No matter how Reason 1 and evidence people oppose it, time will show if your ideas are right or wrong.

Paragraph 2:

Summing up: Ask him to think
So I hope you will feel you can publish your new theory. again about publishing his ideas

Yours sincerely,

Lin Qi

1.Finish your letter after class. 2. Revise the words and language points in this unit. 3. Finish “Summing up”.

Language points:
revolution & revolutionary e.g. Mao Zedong is the great leader of the Chinese Revolution. Sun Zhongsan is a great revolutionary leader. lead to 引起;造成;导致。 This will probably lead to trouble in the future.

这很可能将导致日后的麻烦。
This let to his conclusion that she was guilty.

这使他得出了她有罪的结论。

Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. 只有你把太阳放在中心位置上,天空中其他 行星的运动才能说得清楚。 only if 只有;只要。当以only引导的短语或 状语从句放于句首时,为了加强语气,句 子需要倒装。 1) Only if a teacher page permission is a student allowed to enter the room. 2) Only by shouting and waving his hands could he be noticed.

make sense 讲得通;有道理 1)看这里,读这个句子,好像一点也讲不 通 Here, read the sentence. It doesn’t seem to make sense. 2) 你编的故事我听不明白。 Your story doesn’t make sense to me.

spin---spun---spinning e.g. We span the coin to see who would have first turn. I spun around to see who had spoken.

He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth. 他把太阳固定在太阳系的中心位置上 ,而行星则围绕着太阳转,只有月球仍然绕 着地球转。 with the planets going round it是with + 宾 语 + 宾语补足语的结构,在句中作状语。这 一结构在句中常作定语或状语,作宾补的可 以是介词短语、过去分词、形容词、副词或 动词不定式等。现将其基本形式归纳如下:

(1) With + n./pron. + 介词短语 He sat there with a smile on his face. (2) With + n./pron. + 副词 With Mr Smith away, we’ve got more room. (3) With + n./pron. + 不定式 With so much work to do, he could not go home. (4) With + n./pron. + 现在分词 The street was quiet with no buses running. (5) With + n./pron. + 过去分词 In came a man with his hands tied back. (6) With + n./pron. + 形容词 He wrote a shirt, with the neck open, showing his bare chest.

reject: e.g. If you don’t like Tom, you may reject his gift. If you don’t think the suggestion is suitable for you, you may reject it. enthusiastic e.g. She’s very enthusiastic about singing We explain our plan, and he is very enthusiastic.

cautious: careful to avoid risk be cautious about/of sb./sth. e.g. The bank is very cautious about lending money. My father is a very cautious driver.

Reading task
“Seven Bridges of Konigsberg” and the famous “Euler path”. Skimming: What’s Euler’s puzzle?

Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) Born: 15 April 1707 in Basel, Switzerland Died: 18 Sept 1783 in St Petersburg, Russia Euler was a famous mathematician in the eighteenth century, he introduced a new branch of mathematics called topology. It is a form of geometry that help you understand things by turning them into diagrams.

Scanning: How did Euler prepare for his research?

What are the theories?

Puzzle
A A A

D

D

E

F
B C B C B C

Can you go over it without missing any points or going over a line twice?

A

A

A

D

D

E

F
B C B C B C

A.B.C:even points
A A

A.B:even points C.D: odd points

A

C. D.E.F: odd points A.B: even points

E D D F B C B C C

B

Euler said, “If a figure has more than two odd points, you cannot go over it without lifting your pencil from the page or going over a line twice.”

Look at the following pictures and draw a conclusion:

Conclusion
Euler’s theory (一笔画)

可以一笔画只有两种情况:
1. 没有奇数顶点。 2. 只有两个奇数顶点。 如对此问题有兴趣的同学可登录:

Discussion
What qualities make a good scientist?



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